Патент USA US2132015код для вставки
Oct. 4, 1938.‘ w_ H, COLLINS 2,132,015 MEANS FOR DETERMINING DRILLING FLUID CHARACTERISTICS Filed Feb. 19, 1937 E1 g» 2” § 25» Patented Oct. 4, 193$ UNITED ‘STATES PATENT orricr. 2,132,015 Application February 19, 1937, Serial No. 126,592 - .lclaim. The invention relates to a means for deter mining the various characteristics of well drill ing ?uid, such as the weight per gallon, the vis— cosity thereof, the tendency to gel. and the sand Other and further objects of the invention will be readily apparent when the following descrip tion is considered in connection with the accom panying drawing wherein: Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view showing the 5 ' In the drilling of oil wells by the rotary method . arrangement and relative position of the parts it is the practice to circulate a drilling ?uid when the weight per gallon of a sample of the ‘ downwardly through the drill stem as it rotates. drilling ?uid is being determined. Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view showing one outwardly through the drill bit, and upwardly 10 through the well bore outside of the drill stem manner of obtaining the gelling qualities of a 10 8 content. to_the surface. This circulation of drilling ?uid serves many purposes, such as the carrying away a of the cuttings from the drill bit, the cooling of the drill bit, the maintaining of a pressure 15 against the wall of the formation so as to prevent caving and to prevent the inrush of foreign sub stances from the formation, as well as to over come gas pressures which are encountered by sample of the drilling ?uid. _Flg. 3 shows a modi?ed form of container whereby. the level of the, ?uid therein can be accurately determined. Fig. 4 is a section taken on the line 4-4 of 15 Fig. 3.‘ In Fig. l a receptacle 2 has been generally illustrated which contains a body of water 3.‘ This body bf water is of su?icient depth to ?oat the container 4 when it contains a predetermined body of drilling ?uid 5. As seen in the drawing, the drilling ?uid has a greater speci?c gravity than that of water because the volume of water displaced is greater than the volume of the drilling ?uid, and-the amount of immersion of i) the drill bit. 20 It is obvious, therefore, that the characteris tics of the drilling ?uid must be accurately known and controlled at all times in order that all of its varied functions vmay be properly performed. .The weight must be accurately controlled in or 25 der that the desired pressure will be exerted on the formation to prevent blowing outof the well. The viscosity ofthe ?uid must be .accurately con tained by observing the graduations ‘l on the trolled so as to obtain proper circulation with out excessive friction losses and to insure that ity or weight per gallon of the sample of drilling 30 the mud will not become ?lled with gas or gas the container or tube 4 can be readily ascer side thereof as an indication of the speci?c grav 30 ?uid. in suspension. The gelling qualities of the mud A predetermined volume of drilling ?uid 5 has been placed in the container 4 and this volume must also be known because in some instances is indicated by the graduations 9 on a window ' cut, that is carrying an excessive amount of gas the drilling operation is shut down and if‘ there 16 in the side of the tube. In this manner the 35 is too great a tendency of the mud to gel, then. of course, it would stick the drill pipe and pre vent further operation in the well and, lastly, it is desirable to know the sand content of the mud so that the size of the slush pit can be varied‘ 40 or the'volume oi’ mud used for the drilling op eration controlled, so as to permit the sand to settle out of the mud or to removeit by proper chemical or mechanical means. > It is one of the objects of the invention to pro 45 vide an apparatus which can be readily utilized to ascertain all four of the foregoing characteris Another object of the invention is to provide a hydrometer and viscosimeter for use with __ - . Still another object of the invention is to pro _ seen in Fig. 1, there are other graduation lines on the window, such as H and I2. As an illus— tration, the line l2 may indicate 500 cubic centi meters. Theline Ii may indicate 1000, and the line 9 indicate 1500. Any other units of measure ment may, of course, be used. , The graduations 1 may be calibrated in any desired manner but the practice in the ‘drilling industry is to indicate the speci?c gravity of the drilling ?uid by the pounds per gallon and it is the usual practice to use drilling muds which vary from 9 to 12 pounds per gallon. ' tics in a minimum of time on the derrick ?oor. on drilling ?uid. volume can be accurately determined and, as ‘ In some instances muds having greater or lesser weights ~ are also used. Of course, the weight of water is well known to be 8.3 pounds per gallon. 5" The container 4 is provided at its base with vide a container having graduations thereon to an ori?ce l5 which may be in the form of a stop indicate the amount of immersion ‘of. the'scon cock i5. This stop cock may beopen or closed tainer in ‘a liquid and a window therein to ascer 55 tain the level of the contents in the container. as-desired in order to permit a ?ow of ?uid from the container. This container may be made of 2,182,015! any suitable material, either opaque or trans parent. ’ - r ' Theviscosity of the mud’ 5 in the container can be ‘readily determined by’ observing the period of time whichis required for a given quantity such as 500' or 1000 c. c. of ?uid to ‘?ow through the ori?ce i5. Any-size ori?ce may be - provided and by suitable computation the vis cosity can be determined. - . This container of Fig. 1 is of particular ad i0 sample of the drilling ?uid a predetermined volume may be placed in the container 6 and any desired amount of water added thereto. Agitation'of the water and the drilling ?uid re sults in its. dilution so that the heavier particles of sand will have a tendency to settle to the bottom. The liquid can be removed from the top and the operation repeated until only clear water ‘remains in the tube with ‘the sand settled at the base thereof, for the purpose of ascertain 10 vantage because if the weight per ‘gallon and the , ing the percentage of sand as compared with the viscosity are to be determined it is only neces sary to dispose a predetermined volume of drill ing ?uid in the container, immerse it in the 15 water in the receptacle 2, so as tov read the weight per gallon directly from the graduation l. The container is then removed and the stop cock it opened so that the time may be observed which is required for this body of drilling ?uid to escape from the container. ' Thus in a very short period of time and with very little difficulty the weight and viscosity of the ?uid can be determined very accurately so that readings canv be taken very . frequently as the drilling ?uid discharges or 25 enters the well. In Fig. 2 one manner of ascertaining the gelling original volume of drilling ?uid which was placed in the container. As an example, if 1,000 cc. of drilling ?uid to the level of line H was orig inally placed in the tube and the graduations is 25 show the level of the sand which remains, it is an obvious calculation to determine the percent age of’ sand which was present in the sample of drilling ?uid. \ A list of the colloidal properties of the drilling 20 mud may be made'with the container d‘ by de positing /a given quantity of water therein and thoroughly mixing with it a small percentage of mud. When allowed to stand the amount of the mud which settles out of the water is an 25 indication of the colloidal properties. The grad tendency of the drilling ?uid is shown. In this ‘ uations may be used to.indicate the percentages. Another form of ascertaining the gel qualities of drilling ?uid which is, of course, similar to the '_ of the mud would be to dispose samples of the mud both in the receptacle 2 and the container 45; then 30 30 drilling ?uid at 5. In this form the container d when the receptacle is placed in the mud in the has a body of water 2| disposed therein of a pre determined volume, as indicated by the level line container 2 the resistance to settling could be de - arrangement the receptacle 2 contains a.v body 20 22 on the window 23. ' - A number of graduations 24 are shown on the 35 periphery of the tube or container d which may be used to indicate the extent of the immersion of the tube in the drilling ?uid 20. Inasmuch as ‘the weight per gallon of the drilling fluid 20 is ‘known,'then of course a predetermined volume 40 of water, as at it, should displace Va predeter mined volume of the drilling ?uid. If, however, I the drilling ?uid has a tendency to gel there will be an increase in the frictional resistance around the outside of the tube due to this tendency, and 45 the tube will not sink into the drilling ?uid the proper amount. This tendency to gel is deter mined over di?'erent periods of time. -A sample \ of the drilling ?uid may be taken from the return termined by observing the graduations 2d and any arbitrary unit of measurement utilized to determine the gel quality, such as percentage of 35 an inch‘ or relative percentage of settling of the sample with respect to the mud in the container. ' A modi?ed form of the container 8 is illustrated in Fig. 3 where the container is composed of a lower portion 30 and an upper portion 3|. These 40 two parts are interconnected by the joint 32 and the upper portion 3i having an opening 33 there in and the lower‘ portion 30 having an opening 35. Normally these openings are out of align ment, as seen inFig. 4, but by relative rotation of the parts they may be moved into alignment. Thus any liquid in the container would ?ow out the opening 35 down to the level of the bottom ‘of the openings as at 35 in Fig. ‘3. In this man line and placed in the receptacle 2 and the con tainer 4 immediately placed therein. The ner if the container were solid metal or other 50 amount of “initial gel” is thus determined. The opaque material the level could be accurately container is then removed and after a period of determi‘ned without the provision of the windows, ?ve minutes the tube may be again inserted and such as H] or 23 shown in Figs. 1 and 2, respec-* again observed, and this will be known as the tively. It is to be understood that the container - of Figs. 1 and 2 may be the same container with 55 55 ?ve-minute gel. These indications may be car ried on for ten or ?fteen minutes or other periods the graduations and windows on opposite sides of time as desired so that the tendency to gel thereof if desired. _ Broadly the invention contemplates a simple and to cause difficulty in the well bore can be ‘and economical means for determiningrthe four readily observed. characteristics of a drilling ?uid which are es In order to obtain an accurate test of the vis cosity various volumes of the drilling ?uid may , sential to its proper use. What is claimed as new is: be placed in the container 41. For instance, the In a combination viscosimeter, hydrometer, ?rst test may consist of depositing 1500 co. in the container and observing the time necessary and gel testing device, comprising an open 50 65 to withdraw 1000 cc. thereof. The next test may consist of depositing 1500 cc. in the con tainer and withdrawing 500, while the third test may consist of putting in 500 and withdrawing 500. Thus, an average of the times for the vol 70 ume‘considered may be taken and in this manner a balance obtained for-the various friction losses. In order to determine the sand content of a topped container of uniform diameter through, out its length, a valve controlled viscosity tube mounted centrally in the base thereof through which the ?uid will pass by gravity, ‘indicia on said container to indicate its contents or its degree of immersion for determining speci?c gravity and gelling characteristics. WILLIAM H. COLLINS. '