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Патент USA US2132015

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Oct. 4, 1938.‘
w_ H, COLLINS
2,132,015
MEANS FOR DETERMINING DRILLING FLUID CHARACTERISTICS
Filed Feb. 19, 1937
E1 g»
2”
§ 25»
Patented Oct. 4, 193$
UNITED ‘STATES PATENT orricr.
2,132,015
Application February 19, 1937, Serial No. 126,592 -
.lclaim.
The invention relates to a means for deter
mining the various characteristics of well drill
ing ?uid, such as the weight per gallon, the vis—
cosity thereof, the tendency to gel. and the sand
Other and further objects of the invention will
be readily apparent when the following descrip
tion is considered in connection with the accom
panying drawing wherein:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view showing the 5
'
In the drilling of oil wells by the rotary method . arrangement and relative position of the parts
it is the practice to circulate a drilling ?uid when the weight per gallon of a sample of the
‘
downwardly through the drill stem as it rotates. drilling ?uid is being determined.
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view showing one
outwardly through the drill bit, and upwardly
10 through the well bore outside of the drill stem manner of obtaining the gelling qualities of a 10
8
content.
to_the surface. This circulation of drilling ?uid
serves many purposes, such as the carrying away a
of the cuttings from the drill bit, the cooling
of the drill bit, the maintaining of a pressure
15 against the wall of the formation so as to prevent
caving and to prevent the inrush of foreign sub
stances from the formation, as well as to over
come gas pressures which are encountered by
sample of the drilling ?uid.
_Flg. 3 shows a modi?ed form of container
whereby. the level of the, ?uid therein can be
accurately determined.
Fig. 4 is a section taken on the line 4-4 of 15
Fig. 3.‘
In Fig. l a receptacle 2 has been generally
illustrated which contains a body of water 3.‘
This body bf water is of su?icient depth to ?oat
the container 4 when it contains a predetermined
body of drilling ?uid 5. As seen in the drawing,
the drilling ?uid has a greater speci?c gravity
than that of water because the volume of water
displaced is greater than the volume of the
drilling ?uid, and-the amount of immersion of i)
the drill bit.
20
It is obvious, therefore, that the characteris
tics of the drilling ?uid must be accurately known
and controlled at all times in order that all of
its varied functions vmay be properly performed.
.The weight must be accurately controlled in or
25 der that the desired pressure will be exerted on
the formation to prevent blowing outof the well.
The viscosity ofthe ?uid must be .accurately con
tained by observing the graduations ‘l on the
trolled so as to obtain proper circulation with
out excessive friction losses and to insure that
ity or weight per gallon of the sample of drilling
30 the mud will not become ?lled with gas or gas
the container or tube 4 can be readily ascer
side thereof as an indication of the speci?c grav
30
?uid.
in suspension. The gelling qualities of the mud
A predetermined volume of drilling ?uid 5 has
been placed in the container 4 and this volume
must also be known because in some instances
is indicated by the graduations 9 on a window '
cut, that is carrying an excessive amount of gas
the drilling operation is shut down and if‘ there 16 in the side of the tube. In this manner the
35 is too great a tendency of the mud to gel, then.
of course, it would stick the drill pipe and pre
vent further operation in the well and, lastly,
it is desirable to know the sand content of the
mud so that the size of the slush pit can be varied‘
40 or the'volume oi’ mud used for the drilling op
eration controlled, so as to permit the sand to
settle out of the mud or to removeit by proper
chemical or mechanical means.
> It is one of the objects of the invention to pro
45 vide an apparatus which can be readily utilized to
ascertain all four of the foregoing characteris
Another object of the invention is to provide
a hydrometer and viscosimeter for use with
__
-
. Still another object of the invention is to pro
_
seen in Fig. 1, there are other graduation lines
on the window, such as H and I2.
As an illus—
tration, the line l2 may indicate 500 cubic centi
meters. Theline Ii may indicate 1000, and the
line 9 indicate 1500. Any other units of measure
ment may, of course, be used.
,
The graduations 1 may be calibrated in any
desired manner but the practice in the ‘drilling
industry is to indicate the speci?c gravity of the
drilling ?uid by the pounds per gallon and it is
the usual practice to use drilling muds which
vary from 9 to 12 pounds per gallon.
' tics in a minimum of time on the derrick ?oor.
on drilling ?uid.
volume can be accurately determined and, as ‘
In some
instances muds having greater or lesser weights ~
are also used. Of course, the weight of water is
well known to be 8.3 pounds per gallon.
5"
The container 4 is provided at its base with
vide a container having graduations thereon to
an ori?ce l5 which may be in the form of a stop
indicate the amount of immersion ‘of. the'scon
cock i5. This stop cock may beopen or closed
tainer in ‘a liquid and a window therein to ascer
55 tain the level of the contents in the container.
as-desired in order to permit a ?ow of ?uid from
the container. This container may be made of
2,182,015!
any suitable material, either opaque or trans
parent.
’
-
r
'
Theviscosity of the mud’ 5 in the container
can be ‘readily determined by’ observing the
period of time whichis required for a given
quantity such as 500' or 1000 c. c. of ?uid to ‘?ow
through the ori?ce i5. Any-size ori?ce may be
- provided and by suitable computation the vis
cosity can be determined.
-
.
This container of Fig. 1 is of particular ad
i0
sample of the drilling ?uid a predetermined
volume may be placed in the container 6 and
any desired amount of water added thereto.
Agitation'of the water and the drilling ?uid re
sults in its. dilution so that the heavier particles
of sand will have a tendency to settle to the
bottom. The liquid can be removed from the
top and the operation repeated until only clear
water ‘remains in the tube with ‘the sand settled
at the base thereof, for the purpose of ascertain
10
vantage because if the weight per ‘gallon and the , ing the percentage of sand as compared with the
viscosity are to be determined it is only neces
sary to dispose a predetermined volume of drill
ing ?uid in the container, immerse it in the
15 water in the receptacle 2, so as tov read the weight
per gallon directly from the graduation l. The
container is then removed and the stop cock it
opened so that the time may be observed which is
required for this body of drilling ?uid to escape
from the container. ' Thus in a very short period
of time and with very little difficulty the weight
and viscosity of the ?uid can be determined very
accurately so that readings canv be taken very .
frequently as the drilling ?uid discharges or
25 enters the well.
In Fig. 2 one manner of ascertaining the gelling
original volume of drilling ?uid which was placed
in the container. As an example, if 1,000 cc.
of drilling ?uid to the level of line H was orig
inally placed in the tube and the graduations
is
25 show the level of the sand which remains, it is
an obvious calculation to determine the percent
age of’ sand which was present in the sample of
drilling ?uid.
\
A list of the colloidal properties of the drilling 20
mud may be made'with the container d‘ by de
positing /a given quantity of water therein and
thoroughly mixing with it a small percentage
of mud. When allowed to stand the amount of
the mud which settles out of the water is an 25
indication of the colloidal properties. The grad
tendency of the drilling ?uid is shown. In this ‘ uations may be used to.indicate the percentages.
Another form of ascertaining the gel qualities
of drilling ?uid which is, of course, similar to the '_ of the mud would be to dispose samples of the mud
both in the receptacle 2 and the container 45; then 30
30 drilling ?uid at 5. In this form the container d
when the receptacle is placed in the mud in the
has a body of water 2| disposed therein of a pre
determined volume, as indicated by the level line container 2 the resistance to settling could be de
- arrangement the receptacle 2 contains a.v body 20
22 on the window 23.
'
-
A number of graduations 24 are shown on the
35 periphery of the tube or container d which may
be used to indicate the extent of the immersion
of the tube in the drilling ?uid 20. Inasmuch as
‘the weight per gallon of the drilling fluid 20 is
‘known,'then of course a predetermined volume
40 of water, as at it, should displace Va predeter
mined volume of the drilling ?uid. If, however,
I the drilling ?uid has a tendency to gel there will
be an increase in the frictional resistance around
the outside of the tube due to this tendency, and
45 the tube will not sink into the drilling ?uid the
proper amount. This tendency to gel is deter
mined over di?'erent periods of time. -A sample
\ of the drilling ?uid may be taken from the return
termined by observing the graduations 2d and
any arbitrary unit of measurement utilized to
determine the gel quality, such as percentage of 35
an inch‘ or relative percentage of settling of the
sample with respect to the mud in the container. '
A modi?ed form of the container 8 is illustrated
in Fig. 3 where the container is composed of a
lower portion 30 and an upper portion 3|. These 40
two parts are interconnected by the joint 32 and
the upper portion 3i having an opening 33 there
in and the lower‘ portion 30 having an opening
35. Normally these openings are out of align
ment, as seen inFig. 4, but by relative rotation
of the parts they may be moved into alignment.
Thus any liquid in the container would ?ow out
the opening 35 down to the level of the bottom
‘of the openings as at 35 in Fig. ‘3. In this man
line and placed in the receptacle 2 and the con
tainer 4 immediately placed therein. The ner if the container were solid metal or other 50
amount of “initial gel” is thus determined. The opaque material the level could be accurately
container is then removed and after a period of determi‘ned without the provision of the windows,
?ve minutes the tube may be again inserted and such as H] or 23 shown in Figs. 1 and 2, respec-*
again observed, and this will be known as the tively. It is to be understood that the container
- of Figs. 1 and 2 may be the same container with 55
55 ?ve-minute gel. These indications may be car
ried on for ten or ?fteen minutes or other periods the graduations and windows on opposite sides
of time as desired so that the tendency to gel thereof if desired.
_
Broadly the invention contemplates a simple
and to cause difficulty in the well bore can be
‘and economical means for determiningrthe four
readily observed.
characteristics of a drilling ?uid which are es
In order to obtain an accurate test of the vis
cosity various volumes of the drilling ?uid may , sential to its proper use.
What is claimed as new is:
be placed in the container 41. For instance, the
In a combination viscosimeter, hydrometer,
?rst test may consist of depositing 1500 co. in
the container and observing the time necessary and gel testing device, comprising an open
50
65 to withdraw 1000 cc. thereof.
The next test
may consist of depositing 1500 cc. in the con
tainer and withdrawing 500, while the third test
may consist of putting in 500 and withdrawing
500. Thus, an average of the times for the vol
70 ume‘considered may be taken and in this manner
a balance obtained for-the various friction losses.
In order to determine the sand content of a
topped container of uniform diameter through,
out its length, a valve controlled viscosity tube
mounted centrally in the base thereof through
which the ?uid will pass by gravity, ‘indicia on
said container to indicate its contents or its
degree of immersion for determining speci?c
gravity and gelling characteristics.
WILLIAM H. COLLINS.
'
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