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Патент USA US2132037

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Oct. 4, 1938.
J. w. MaCCLATCHlE
2,132,037
BLOW-OUT PREVENTER
Filed March 30, 1936
2 Sheets—Sheet 1
INVENTOR
.15'
1
-
16
.
‘507111 mzfacclaé‘clna
BYLRILJIW
ATTORNEY.
Oct. 4, 1938.
J, w, MaCcLATcI-"E
2,132,037 h
BLOW—OUT PREVENTER
Filed March 50, 1936
2 Sheets—$heet 2
INVENTOR.
J67”? Ml‘fic (Wale,
BY
ATTORNEY.
Patented Oct. 4, 1938
2,132,037
2,132,037v
BLOW- OUT PREVENTER
h ,
_.“I‘ohn W.Mac0latchie, Los Angeles, Calil’., as
" ‘
signor to MacClatchie Manufacturing Com
pany of California, Compton, Calif., a corpo
ration ol’ California
flippucation March so, 1936, Serial No. 71,632
13 Claims.
This invention‘ is a blowout preventer of that
i i type wherein cooperatingclosure elements may be
'
a
. ‘relativelyradially'contracted around a well string .
-,'\such as drillpipe ‘or "tubing, ‘to pack off be
5. tween the well string. and surrounding well cas
. 'ing, or the pcooperating closure elements may be
relatively radially expanded to clear the bore
of the well casing.
.
It ‘is ‘an object of the invention to provide
10 packing for the cooperating closure elements
adapted for pressure responsive expansible dis
tortion after the closure elements have been
relatively radially contracted around a well string,
whereby the packing seals tightly around the
15 well string whether the latter is circular in cross
.section, e. g. drill pipe, or is non-circular in cross
section, e. g. a square kelly.
It is a further object of the invention to rel
atively radially contract the cooperating closure
20 elements by ?uid pressure, with the packing which
is distorted for sealing engagement with the well
string also forming the pistons whereby the'?uid
pressure is exerted against the cooperating clo
sure elements.
as
It is a still further object of the invention to
construct the closure elements as cup packings,
with the walls of the cups adapted for pressure
responsive expansion to seal against the walls
of cylinders in which the cooperating closure ele
30 ments are adapted for reciprocation, in order that
?uid pressure directed into the cup packings may
shift the latter in their cylinders for relative
radial contraction of the closure elements around
a well string, and with movement of the closure
35 elements in their cylinders arrested when rela
tively radially contracted, whereupon the ?uid
pressure directed into the cup packings expanJ
sibly distorts the bottoms of the cups to seal
tightly around the well string.‘
40
It is a still further object of the invention to
provide abutment plates cooperating with the
cup packings to form the closure elements, with
the abutment platesof the cooperating closure
elements de?ning a closure for the annular space
45 between the well string and the surrounding well
casing when the closure elements are in opera
tive position, and with said abutment plates po
sitioned beyond the cooperating cup packings in
the direction of the axis of the well casing, where
50 by distortion of the bottoms of the operatively
positioned cup packings longitudinally of the well
casing, as a result of pressure in the well casing,
is prevented by‘the cup packings abutting the
closure which has been formed by the cooperat
“ ing abutment plates.
(Cl. 137-139)
It is a still further object of the invention to
preferably arrange the abutment plates on the
cup packings both above and below the cup
packings, so that when the closure elements
are operatively contracted around a well string, 5
the abutment plates de?ne a closure both above
and below the cooperating cup packings. for
preventing distortion of the packing in either di
rection longitudinally of the well casing.
It is a- still further object of the invention to 10
secure the abutment plates to the cup packings
so that the closure elements, each comprising a
cup packing and one or more cooperating abut
ment plates, are shifted as units in their cylin
ders until their movement is arrested when they 15
have reached their operative position, with the
bottoms of the cup packings free for movement
relative to the abutment plates so that the bot
toms of- the cups may then be expanded and
distorted to tightly seal around a well string.
20
It is a still further object of the invention to
provide operating means for relatively radially
expanding the cooperating closure elements by
retracting them in their cylinders from their op
erative to their inoperative position, and to pref- 25
erably actuate said operating means by fluid
pressure.
It is a still further object of the invention to
provide connecting rods as a part of the operat—
ing means for retracting the closure elements in 30
their cylinders, and to ?exibly connect the rods
to the packing cups of the closure elements so
that when the operating means is actuated, the
rods retract the packing cups, but when the pack
ing cups are projected to operative position the 35
flexible connections permit distortion of the cups
relative to the connecting rods, to relieve the
latter of all strain.
Further objects of the invention will be read
ily understood from the following description of 40
the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a front elevation of the invention.
Fig. 2 is an' axial section on the line 2—2 of
Fig. 1.
Figs. 3 and 4 are transverse sections on the 45
line 3-3 of Fig. 1, respectively showing the
closure elements in operative and inoperative
position.
~‘ ‘‘ s \
Fig. 5 is a transverse section on the line 5-5
of Fig. 3.
50
Fig. 6 is a transverse section on the line 6-6
of Fig. 3.
The blowout preventer is incorporated in a
string of well casing l which is adapted to receive
a well string 2, such as drill pipe or tubing, shown 55
9,182,092
in the present instance as drill pipe having usual
tool joints 2a and including a usual kelly 22);
and the blowout preventer comprises cooperating
closure elements I which are adapted for relative
radial contraction around the well string as
shown at Figs. 2 and 3. or relative radial expan
sion to clear the bore of the well casing as shown
at Fig.’ 4.
l
The closure elements are reciprocated in cylin
10 ders 4 to provide their relative radial expansion
or contraction, the cylinders projecting radially
from a housing I which is connected to proximate
lengths of the string of well casing -l and which
has a bore 6 forming a uniform prolongation of
15 the bore of the well casing. The cylinders 4 open
into the bore 6 and are equi-distantly circum
ferentially spaced around the housing 5. In the
present instance the cooperating closure elements
are three in number, and therefore the housing 5
goeis formed with three of the radially projecting
cylinders 4.
The closure element in each cylinder 4 com
prises a packing cup l0 and one or more co
operating abutment plates ll. The abutment
25 plates prevent distortion of the packing cups
longitudinally of the bore 6 when the closure
elements are relatively radially contracted around
the well string 2, and since this distortion may
be in either of opposite directions, an abutment
80 plate ii is preferably provided both above and
below the cup III as shown at Fig. 2. When the
closure elements are relatively radially contracted
around a well string 2, the abutment plates ll
above the packing cups cooperate to de?ne a
86 closure means in the annular space between the
well string 2 and the wall of the bore 8 for pre
venting upward distortion of the packing cups,
longitudinally of the bore, and [the abutment
plates ll below the packing cupssimilarly co
40 operate to de?ne a closure means in said annular
space for preventing downward distortion of the
packing cups longitudinally of the bore of the
well casing.
Each packing cup I0 is adapted for pressure
responsive shifting along its cylinder 4 until
relative radial contraction of the closure elements
around the well string 2 de?nes a closure means
in the annular space between the well string and
- the wall of the bore 6, and shifting of the closure
elements being then arrested, the ?uid pressure
50 expands and distorts the bottoms Illa of the
packing cups so as to seal tightly around the well
string no matter what cross-section the string
may have. For this purpose each packing cup
is of yieldable material and is preferably resilient,
55 e. g. rubber or the like, and is preferably a deep
cup, the wall “lb of which ?ts snugly in the bore
of‘\cylinder 4 with the wall preferably tapering
to a thin lip I00, and with the bottom Ilia of
the cup of appreciable thickness and having an
outer surface tapered as shown at llld, with an
arcuate recess llle at the apex of the taper and
having its axis parallel to the axis of the bore 6.
Fluid pressure in the cylinders 4 in back of
the packing cups seals the walls of the cups
65
against the cylinder walls and then shifts the
cups in their cylinders until the tapering sur
faces llid of next adjacent cups abut, the angles
of the surfaces I M being such that these surfaces
70 of the plurality of cups will abut when the packing cups have formed a complete closure around
i the well string 2; and the arcuate recesses I00
of the plurality of cups are arranged so as to co
operate to de?ne a bore at the axis of the housing
75 5 when the packing cups have been projected
to operative position, with this bore of a size to
receive the well string 2. When the cup packings
have been thus operatively projected and their
movement has been arrested by abutment of their
surfaces llid, ?uid pressure in thecups distorts
and expands the bottoms of the cups as shown by
broken lines at Fig. 3, in order to tightly seal
the bottoms of the cups around the well string.
In the present instance the-kelly 2b which forms
that portion of the well string at which the seal 10
is made, is of usual rectangular cross-section,
and the bottoms Illa of the cups are adapted for
such expansible distortion responsive to ?uid
pressure as to eifectively seal around such 9. rec
tangular cross-section, and therefore will seal of!
the well string no matter what its cross-section
may be.
The abutment plates II are shown as partially
encircling the upper and lower portions of the
peripheries of the packing cups, and are adapted
for retraction and projection with the cups. For
this purpose the upper and lower portions of the
peripheries of the packing cups are arcuately
recessed for some appreciable distance from the
bottoms of the cups along their axial length, and
the plates II are arcuate plates received in said
recesses with the outer peripheries of the plates
prolonging the peripheral working surfaces of
the pistons which are formed by the cup pack
ings. The outer ends of the plates ll taper as
shown at lid and are recessed as shown at lie,
to correspond to the taper “id and the recesses
Hie of the packing cups. The plates ll may be
secured to the cup packings for reciprocation
therewith, by providing the inner ends of the
plates with internal ?anges I2 which are received
in arcuate slots l3 in the packing cups.
When the packing cups are shifted in their cyl
inders to operative position, the plates II are
thus also operatively projected, and when the 40
surfaces llid of the packing cups abut, the sur
faces lld of the plates ll similarly abut for ar
resting further relative radial contraction of the
closure elements while permitting expansible dis-'
tortion of the bottoms of the cup packings to
complete the seal as previously described. In
practice the arcuate recesses llle.—l le are prefer
ably of such depth that when the closure ele
ments are relatively radially contracted around
the well string 2, the bore which is de?ned by said
recesses, prior to expansible distortion of the
bottoms Illa of the packing cups, is of a size to
leave a restricted annular space between said bore
and the well string 2 permitting passage of the
kelly 2b and the tool joints 2a as shown at Fig. 2.
The expansible distortion to which the bottoms
Illa of the cup packings are then subjected closes
this annular space so that the‘ packing seals tight-'
ly around the well string, with the annular space
which still remains between the plates ii and the
well string 2, of such restricted area that the
plates ll will effectively prevent excessive distor
tion of the packing longitudinally of the bore 6.
Means are provided for retracting the closure
elements within their cylinders so as to relatively
radially expand them from their operative posi
tion, and said means is preferably ?uid operated.
As an instance of this arrangement a cover
plate l4 for the outer end of each of the cylinders
4 may have a depending extension I41: forming 70
a cover plate for a cylinder [5 which is ?xed to
the cover plate so as to extend parallel to the
over-lying cylinder 4, and a piston I6 is adapted
for reciprocation in each of the cylinders l5. At
each of the cooperating cylinders 4—l5 a lever 15
8,182,087
I8a is medially pivoted to a supporting arm II
which may project from the cover plate I4—I4a,
and one end of this lever is connected to a rod
3
3I—-32 for supplying and exhausting ?uid pres
sure, and a valvular control 39, which may be re
mote from the blowout preventer, is preferably
I8 which is connected to the closure element 3, connected to the pipes, and is arranged so that
and the opposite end of the lever is connected to ' movement thereof in one direction supplies ?uid
a piston rod I9 which is secured to the piston I6. pressure to the conduit 3I and exhausts the con
When ?uid pressure is supplied to the cylinder 4 duit 32, while movement of the valvular control
and exhausted from the cylinder I 5, the closure
element 3 is thus shifted in its cylinder to its
10 operative position, thereby‘ retracting the piston"
I6 in its cylinder I5 as shown at Fig. 2, and when
?uid pressure is exhausted from the cylinder 4
and is supplied to the cylinder I5, the piston I6 is
projected, thereby retracting the closure ele
15
ment 3.
.
A ?exible connection is preferably provided be
tween the rod I8 and the closure element 3,
whereby the rod retracts the closure element
when the piston I6 is projected; but when the clo
20 sure element is shifted to operative position re
sponsive to ?uid pressure in the cylinder 4, the
packing cup of the closure element may distort
relative to the rod I8 so as to permit sealing en
gagement by the packing cup with the wall of the
26 cylinder 4 and around the well string 2, without
strain on the rod I8. As an instance oi this ar
rangement a spider 20 may be ?xed to the rod
I8, with its periphery comprising a plurality of
circumferentially spaced arcuate members 2|,
and the members 2| are slotted for reception of
tongues 22 of arcuate members 23 which are
adapted for reception in arcuate grooves 24 in the
inner peripheral surface of the side wall “lb of
the packing cup. The connections 22 and 24 se
35 cure the packing cup I0 and the rod I8 against
in the oppositefdirection exhausts the conduit 3I
and supplies ?uid pressure to the conduit 32. _
For this purpose the valvular control is shown 10
as a plug valve, the casing of which has an inlet
port 40 connected to a source of ?uid pressure,
a port M which may open to the atmosphere, and
a pair of ports 42-43 connected to the pipe
31-38 respectively. '
‘The plug or the valve has passageways 44-45 15
arranged so that when the plug is turned to the
position shown at Fig. 3 the pipe 38 exhausts to
the atmosphere and the pipe 31 is open to the
?uid pressure supply, and when turned to the
position shown at Fig. 4 the pipe 38 is open to
the ?uid pressure supply and the pipe 31 exhausts
to the atmosphere.
Fluid pressure may be supplied to the port 40
via pipe 50, and by means of branch pipe 5I-52
the ?uid pressure may be supplied from the slush
pumps of the drilling out?t, or may be supplied
from a water service main, the branch pipes
5I-52 having valvular controls 55-56 whereby
these sources of ?uid pressure may be selectively
employed. In order that the pressure supplied to
the pipe 50 may be boosted, for example when
utilizing ?uid pressure from a water service main,
relative longitudinal displacement for retracting
a hand pump may be connected to the pipe 50
via a branch pipe 58 which is provided with a
usual check valve 59.
the packing cup when the rod is retracted, but
permit radial displacement of the side wall Illb
When projecting the closure elements to their
operative position, it may be desirable to inde
of the packing cup with relation to the rod I8, so
40 that when the packing cup is operatively project
ed responsive to ?uid pressure, the pressure may
radially distort the cup with relation to the rod
I8 in order to insure an e?ective seal, without
pendently limit movement of the closure elements
without relying exclusively upon abutment of the
surfaces IIlcL—I Id of the cooperating closure
transmitting strain to the rod I8.
Means are provided for substantially simul
taneously supplying ?uid pressure to the plurality
,of cylinders 4 and exhausting the plurality of
' cylinders I5, or exhausting the plurality of cyl
inders 4 and supplying ?uid pressure to the plu
As an instance of this
60 rality of cylinders I5.
arrangement a manifold 30 may extend around
the housing 6 below the cylinders 4 and radially
inwardly from the cylinders I 5, and the manifold
may be provided with a pair of conduits 3I—32.
Below each of the cylinders 4 a pair of conduits
33-34 extend parallel to said cylinder, strad
dling the cylinder I 5, with the inner ends of said
conduits communicating respectively with the
conduits 3I—32, and with the outer ends of said
00 conduits closed by the cover plate I4—I4a. Each
of the conduits 33 opens into its cooperating cyl
inder 4 as shown at 35 and each of the conduits
34 opens into its cooperating‘cylinder I5 as shown
at 36, and when ?uid pressure is exhausted from
elements, since by independently arresting move
ment of the closure elements when they have
reached a predetermined position, it is possible to
de?ne a bore at the recesses IOe-I Ie which will
be exactly concentric with the bore 6, and by pro
viding such apredetermined limit for the move
ment of each closure element, its rod I8 and the
operating mechanism for the same may be re
lieved of all strain when the closure element is
operatively projected. As an instance of means
for independently limiting movement of the clo
sure elements, stops may be mounted on the cyl
inders 4 so as to engage the abutment plates II
of the closure elements when the latter has been
shifted to operative position, and in the illus
trated embodiment wherein an upper and a lower
abutment plate II is provided for each closure
element, a stop preferably cooperates with each
abutment plate. The stops are shown as pins
60 projecting into the bores of cylinders 4 and
sliding in longitudinal grooves BI in the abut
ment plates II, and wheng‘the closure elementsv
have been projected to operative position the
the cylinders 4, the ?uid preferably drains
pins 60 engage the ends of _§the grooves 6| for ar
through the conduits 33 into the conduit 3I as
shown at Fig. 1.
When ?uid pressure is supplied to the conduit
resting movement of the closure elements.
In operation, with one or;5 the other of the valves
55-56 open, the valve 39.-=is turned to the posi
3I and the conduit 32 is open to the atmosphere, ' tion shown at Fig. 4 for projecting the pistons
the closure elements 3 are thus shifted to oper
ative position; and when ?uid pressure is sup
plied to the conduit 32 and the conduit 3| is open
to the atmosphere, the pistons I6 retract the clo
sure elements 3 to their inoperative position.
Pipes 3148 may be connected to theconduits
I8 in their cylinders I5 to retract the closure ele 70
ments 3, the cylinders 4 being open to the atmos
phere via port 4I during this operation. The
bore of the well casing I and the prolongation
thereof which is formed by the bore 6 is thus
unobstructed and the well string 2 may be run 75
4
2,188,087
in or withdrawn, and when the well string is
in place the annular space surrounding the same
remains unobstructed as long as the closure ele—
ments 3 occupy their inoperative position. .
5
when it is desired to seal of! around the well
string, for example when a blowout occurs or
when the well is to be kept under control while
running in or removing the well string, the
valve 3! is turned to the position shown at Fig. 3,
10 and one or the other of the valves "-58 being
open, ?uid pressure is exhausted from the cylin
ders I‘ and is supplied to the cylinders l for
projecting the closure elements to their opera
tive position, with movement of the closure ele
18 ments arrested by abutment of the surfaces
lid-lid of the cooperating closure elements,
and by the pins 60 engaging the ends 01' the
grooves ii. The closure elements thus shut oil the
bore t except for the restricted bore lte-ile
I through which the well string 2 extends. Con
tinued ?uid pressure exerted against the cup
packings then expansibly radially distorts the
bottoms Illa oi’ the cups so that they seal around
the well string 2, with the abutment plates Ii
I preventing distortion oi’the packing cups longi
'
tudinally of the bore I. By regulating the ?uid
pressure exerted in the cylinders 4, a limited pres
sure may be maintained whereby the bottoms of
the packing cups may radially yield from their
I sealing position responsive to the radial i'orce ex
erted by drawing a tool Joint of the well string
‘
‘
a
into said bore for sealing around a member ex
tending therethrough.
.
3. In a packing device, a plurality oi’ closure
‘elements relatively radially contractible for abut
ting cooperation de?ning a closure means' sur- 5
rounding a bore opening therethrough axially of
said‘ radial contraction, the portions of the clo
sure elements which de?ne the wall of, the bore
being formed or packing‘ material, and means
for exerting ?uid pressure against said portions 10
of the closure elements, other than directly from
the bore, for expansibly distorting the packing
material for projection into the bore subsequent
to abutment oi the closure elements, for sealing
around a member extending through the bore.
15
4. In a packing device, a plurality of closure
elements each formed 01' packing ‘material, and
means for exerting ?uid pressure directly against
the packing material of the closure elements for
?rst relatively radially contracting the closure 90
elements for abutting cooperation de?ning a clo
sure means surrounding a bore opening there
through axially of said radial contraction, and
subsequent to abutment of the closure elements
expansibly distorting the portions of the packing a
material which de?ne the wall oi! the bore, for
projection into said bore for sealing around a
member extending therethrough.
5. In a blowout preventer, a housing having a
.
bore, more than two equi-distantly circumferen- so
tially spaced radial cylinders opening into the
through the seal, with the ?uid pressure retum- , bore, closure elements in the cylinders each com
ing the bottoms of the packing cups to their seal
ing position as soon as the tool joint has passed;
I, or in the event of a blowout, such pressure may
be maintained in the cylinders 4 as will hold
the seal against any well pressure liable to be
encountered.
By providing more than two of the cooperating
d0 closure elements, each one is required to seal
around less than half of the bore de?ned by the
cooperating recesses llle—l is, so that the bot
toms of the cup packings may be expanslvely dis
torted to provide a tight seal all the way around
as said bore, without subjecting any one 01’ the bot—
toms III‘ to excessive distortion; and by limiting
relative radial contraction of the closure elements,
but continuing to exert pressure against the bot
toms of the packing cups, the distortion of the
IQ bottoms of the cups is an expansible distortion,
insuring a tight seat around the well string 2.
I claim:
1. In a packing device, a plurality of closure
elements relatively radially contractible for co
5‘ operation de?ning a closure means surrounding a
bore opening therethrough axially of said radial
contraction, the portions of the closure elements
which de?ne the wall of the bore being formed
” of packing material, and means functioning in
dependently oi! pressure in the bore for exerting
?uid pressure against said portions of the closure
oelements tor expansibly distorting e packing
material for projection into the bore ‘ r sealing
55 around a member extending therethrough.
2. In a packing device, a plurality oi.’ closure
elements each formed of packing material, and
means for exerting ?uid pressure directly against
the packing material of the closure elements for
70 ?rst relatively radially contracting the closure
prising a cup packing and arcuate abutment
plates at :the' peripheral surface 01 the cup ad
jacent the bottom of the cup, the bottom of each 35
cup being toward the axis of the bore, the arcu
ate abutment plates for each cup being ?xed
against longitudinal displacement relative to the
cup and being respectively at the upper and
lower portions of the peripheral wall 01' the cup,
a spider in each cup, connections between each
spider and the wall or its cup ?xing the spider
against longitudinal displacement relative to its
cup for permitting radial displacement of the
wall of the cup with relation to the spider, an
auxiliary cylinder for each of the ?rst mentioned 45
cylinders, a piston in each auxiliary cylinder,
a conduit communicating with the plurality of
?rst mentioned cylinders, a conduit communicat
ing with the plurality of auxiliary cylinders, a
valvular control for selectively supplying ?uid ‘50
pressure to either one of said conduits and its
communicating cylinders and exhausting ?uid
pressure from the other of said conduits and its
communicating cylinders, the walls of the pack
ing cups being sealed against the cylinder walls 55
by ?uid pressure supplied to the ?rst mentioned
cylinders, whereby the ?uid pressure projects the
closure elements along the cylinders and into the
bore of the housing for abutting cooperation de
?ning a closure means for said bore, the bottoms 60
of the cups and the abutment plates being re
cessed so that when the closure elements are in
abutting relation the recesses de?ne a restricted
bore opening through the closure means longi
tudinally of the bore of the housing, means co 65
operating with the abutment plates for arresting ‘
projection thereof when the closure elements are
in abutting relation with the restricted bore co
axial with the bore of the housing, the bottoms 70
elements for cooperation de?ning a closure means
of the packing, cups being expansibly distorted by
surrounding a bore opening therethrough axially
oi’ said radial contraction, and then expansibly
distorting the portions of the packing material
stricted bore for sealing around a_,men,1b§,1‘.,.ex--- - '
a Y which de?ne the wall 01' the bore, for projection
the ?uid pressure for projection into the- re
tending therethrough, and an operating connec
tion between the spider for each packing cup and "
2,132,037
the piston in the corresponding auxiliary cylin
der, whereby ?uid pressure supplied to the aux
iliary cylinders moves the pistons therein and
retracts the closure elements along their cylinders
so as to clear the bore of the housing.
6. In a blowout preventer, a housing having a
bore, radial cylinders opening into the bore, clo
sure elements in the cylinders each including a
cup packing having the bottom of the cup toward
the axis of the bore, and means for supplying
?uid pressure to the cylinders, the walls of the
packing cups being sealed against the cylinder
walls by the ?uid pressure, whereby said pressure
projects the closure elements along the cylinders
15 and into the bore of the housing for abutting
cooperation de?ning a closure means for said
bore, the bottoms of the packings being recessed
so that when the closure elements are in abutting
relation the recesses de?ne a restricted bore
20 opening through the closure means longitudinally
of the bore of the housing, and the bottoms of the
packing cups being expansibly distorted by the
?uid pressure for projection into the restricted
bore for sealing around a member extending
therethrough.
7. In a blowout preventer, a housing having a
bore, radial vcylinders opening into the bore, clo
sure elements in the cylinders including a cup
packing having the bottom of the cup toward
the axis of the bore, a spider in each cup, con
nections between each spider and the wall of
the cup ?xing the spider against longitudinal dis
placement relative to its cup but permitting
radial displacement of the wall of the cup with
relation to the spider, means for supplying ?uid
pressure to the cylinders, the walls of the packing
cups being sealed against the cylinder walls by
the ?uid pressure, whereby said pressure pro
iects the closure elements along the cylinders and
into the bore of the housing for abutting cooper
ation de?ning a closure means for said bore, the
bottoms oi’ the packings being recessed so that
when the closure elements are in abutting rela
tion the recesses de?ne a restricted bore opening
through the closure means longitudinally of the
bore of the housing, and operating connections
for the spiders whereby when the ?uid pressure
in the cylinders is relieved the closure elements
are retracted in their cylinders so as to clear the
bore of the housing. a
8. In a packing device, a plurality of closure
elements relatively radially contractible for co
operation de?ning a closure means surrounding
a bore opening therethrough axially of said radial
contraction, the portions of the closure elements
which de?ne the wall of the bore being formed of
packing material and adapted for expansive dis
tortion into said bore, the closure elements shut
ting of! the bore from the space in rear oi’ said
packing material, and means for exerting fluid
pressure in said space for expansibly distorting
the packing material for projection into the bore
for sealing around a member extending there
through.
9. In a packing device, at least three of closure
elements relatively radially contractible for co
operation de?ning a closure means surrounding
a bore opening therethrough axially of said ra
dial contraction, the portions of the closure ele
70 ments which de?ne the wall of the bore being
formed oi’ packing material and adapted for ex
pansive distortion in said bore, and means for
exerting ?uid pressure against said portions of
the closure elements, other than directly irom
78 the bore, ior expansibly distorting the packing
5
material for projection into the bore for sealing
around a member extending therethrough.
10. In a packing device, a plurality of closure
elements relatively radially contractible for abut
ting cooperation de?ning a closure means sur
rounding a bore opening therethrough axially of
said radial contraction, the portions of the clo
sure elements which de?ne the wall of the bore
being formed of packing material and adapted for
expansive distortion into said bore, the closure 10
elements shutting off the bore from the space in
rear of said packing material and means for ex
erting ?uid pressure in said space for expansibly
distorting the packing material for projection
into the bore subsequent to abutment of the clo
sure elements for sealing around a member ex
tending through the bore.
11. In a packing device, a plurality of closure
elements comprising packing and cooperating
abutment plates, the closure elements being rela
tively radially contractible for cooperation de
?ning a closure means surrounding a bore open
ing therethrough axially of said radial contrac
tion, the portions of the closure elements which
de?ne the wall of the bore being formed of pack
ing material and adapted for expansible distor
tion into said bore, the closure elements shutting
off the bore from the space in rear of the packing,
and means for exerting ?uid pressure in said
space for expansibly distorting the packing for 30
projection into the bore for sealing around a
member extending therethrough, with the abut~
ment plates preventing excessive distortion of the
packing longitudinally of the bore.
12. In a blowout preventer, a housing having
a bore, radial cylinders opening into the bore,
closure ‘elements in the cylinders each compris
ing packing and an abutment plate ?xed against
longitudinal displacement relative to the pack
ing and positioned relative to the packing longi
tudinally or the bore of the housing, the portions
of the closure elements which de?ne the wall of
the bore being formed of packing material and
adapted for expansible distortion into said bore,
and means for exerting ?uid pressure in the cyl
inders for projecting the closure elements along
the cylinders and into the bore oi.’ the housing
for abutting cooperation de?ning a closure means
for said bore, the packings and the abutment
plates being recessed so that when the closure
elements are in abutting relation the recesses
de?ne a restricted bore opening through the clo
sure means longitudinally of the bore of the
housing, and the packings being adapted for dis
tortion by said ?uid pressure and‘ relative to the 55
abutment plates which are ?xed thereto, for pro
jection into said restricted bore for sealing
around a member extending therethrough.
13. In a blowout preventer, a housing having
a bore, radial cylinders opening into the bore,
closure elements in the cylinders each including
a cup packing having the bottom of the cup pack
ing toward the axis of the bore, said bottoms of
the cup packing being formed of packing material
and adapted for expansive distortion into said
bore for sealing around a member extending
therethrough, and means for supplying ?uid
pressure to the cylinders for projecting the 010- ,
sure elements along the cylinders and into the
bore of the housing for abutting cooperation and 70
for expansively distorting the bottoms of said
cup packings for sealing around a member ex‘
tending therethrough.
JOHN W. MACCLATCHIE.
76
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