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Патент USA US2132093

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Oct. 4, 1938.
c. K. BENNETT
7 LIQUID
'
HEATER
‘
Filed Jan. 14; 1937
7
84
2;132,9%
3 Sheets-Sheet l
30
36
2,
526
Oct. 4, 1938.
c. K. BENNETT
2,132,093
LIQUID HEATER
Filed Jan. 14, 1937
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
//VJ/E/V70/F
W/7#551617”
cy/mm/igpmgzal
Oct. 4, 1938.
‘
c. K. BENNETT
LIQUID
'
HEATER‘
Filed Jan. 14, 1937
‘WIT/V558.’
' 60
-
'
(Zr/226225
2,132,093
_
‘
I
is SheetSI-ISheeIt s
Patented
4, 193a '
2,132,093
‘v , UNITED STATES
PATENT oFFlcE
2,132,093 '
' noun) HEATER
Clement K. Bennett, Philadelphia, Pa., assignor
I
to C. H. -Wheeler Manufacturing Company,
Philadelphia, Pa, a corporation of Pennsyli
vania
' Application January 14, 1937, serial Nc. 120.533
'
'
8 Claims. .ol. 251-225)
This invention relates to a liquid heater and
particularly to a water heater to which steam is
I applied during the blow down of wood ?ber di
gesters. -
5
sions being made for free expansion and con
traction of the tubes which it contains.
'
Heretofore it has been generally customary to
use substantially an ordinary surface condenser "
In normal operation digesters are operated at . as a blow down heater with some additional pro
about 100 lbs. per square inch pressure and are
arranged to cook wood ?ber for extended .pe
riods of time, normally around two or more hours.
At the end of the cooking period the pressure is
10 reduced to about 75 lbs. per square inch and
the blowing takes place at such pressure. The
contents of the digester during'the blowing op
eration are discharged into a tank having ap
proximately one and one-half times the capacity
15 of the digester, the blowing taking from eight to
?fteen minutes time. In general the blow'down
may occur approximately every six hours from
a single digester.
.
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_
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From the blow down tank the steam which is
formed is generally passed through a separator
into a blow down heater wherein the latent heat
content is recovered and used for heating proc
ess water or other liquid.
s
It sometimes happens that operators are care
25 less about the liquid level in the blow tank or in
the manner of blowing and the liquid level may
then reach too high a level in the blow tank, in
which case liquor is blown over into thelheater.
When this occurs the paper ‘pulp contained in
vision forv the insertion of a hose to wash on‘ the
tubes. The arrangement of tubes in the con
ventional surface condenser is by no means 's'at
isfactory in such cases since inv general it is found
that while high pressure water may remove the 10
wood ?ber from the tubes nearest its inlet, it may
serve to compact the wood fiber even more into
remoter locations. Furthermore, the conven-'
tional surface condenser must be specially made
to provide for uneven expansion'necessitated by 15
the very rapid impingement of steam upon cold
surfaces. The multiple passes of the cold water v
which is being heated. are also generally arranged
in a fashion which contributes in'causing asym
metrical
'It is a stresses
general to
object
be setofupthe
in present
the heater.
invention
to provide an improved'liquid heater (generally
for‘ heating water) designed for use in conjunc
tion with the blowing down of wood ?ber di
gesters. In the attainment “of this object provi 25
sion is made ?rst for the reduction of the strains
incidental to the very rapid heating of a cold
apparatus by insuring that the heating takes
place in a symmetrical fashion with respect to
the mechanical structure. This is accomplished 30
theliquor quickly foulsand plugs the heat ex
change surfaces and the e?iciency of the heater ‘by providingradial symmetry for the multiple
is very much reduced. Even if the liquor is not ‘liquid passes together with a single passage of
blown over due tortoo high a liquor level, the the steam in such fashion that substantially all
?ashing of water into steam takes place almost ' of Ythesteam is caused to ?rst impinge uponv the -
35 explosively and the repidity of flow causes a car
40
hottest'tubes from which the~ water flows out
rying over into the heater of very considerable
quantities of the wood ?ber which will be de-'
of the heater. Ample provision is also made for
permitting the expansion which will result with
posited upon the heat exchange surfaces of the
out thevimposition of :gre'at strains upon, the,
heater.
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structure.
.
.
Secondly, provision is made for the complete 40
and easily accomplished cleaning of the surfaces
ample provision must be made in properly de
signed blow down heaters to permit periodicv of the tubes. This end is?accom'plished by reason
washing down of the surfaces, this wash down of the radial symmetry ‘of the arrangement in
conjunction with the provision of suitable pas
45 preferably occurring between blows by means of
sages for high pressure liquid introduced from 45
water under pressure. Means must also be pro
the outside of the shell and also by the strategic
vided for sluicing the surfaces with a high pres
location of wash down nozzles for causing wash
sure hose inserted through the shell, this latter ing water to ?ow downwardly along the vertical
operation taking place when results indicate that tubes in such fashion as to reach and wash all '
50 the surfaces are badly fouled.
As a result of ."the fouling which thus occurs '
‘of them.
‘ Due to the fact that the heater is cold for ex
tended periods and then receives a certain rush
‘of steam the construction must be such as to
cause it to stand severe temperature changes
without distortion or weakening, ample provi-_
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‘
~
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Other objects of the invention relate primarily
to details of 'construction'which will‘ be apparent
from the accompanying drawings in which Fig
ure 1 is an elevation of a heater constructed in
accordance with the invention. certain parts vbe-. 55
2,182,098
ing broken away and shown in section to clarify
the internal construction.
I
'
Figure 2 is a section taken as indicated at 2-2
inFigure 1;
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Y
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Figure 3 is a plan view or the heater showing
the manifolding of the wash down nozzles;
'
Figure 4 is a vertical section showing the ar
rangement and construction of a ' wash down '
‘
nozzle;
Figure 5 is a fragmentary vertical section ‘taken
on the plane indicated at 5—5 in Figure 1; and
10
Figure 6 is a fragmentary section showing _
speci?cally the mode of connecting the ?oating
tube plate and its cover.
The heater comprises a shell 2 extended at its
lower end, as indicated at 4, into a non-conden
15
sible gas belt 6 provided witha gas outlet 1. ' The _
extensions 52 threaded to receive nuts 60. The
heads 58 are provided with hook elements 6!
designed to be received in an annular groove 62
formed adjacent the periphery of the upper sur-1
face of the plate 40. By. turning the hook mem
bers ii to an outer position the cover 42- may be
aligned with the plate 40 ‘with the interposition
of a~ gasket indicated at 64'. ‘The heads 56 may
then be turned to cause the hook members ii to
enter the groove 62, whereupon the bolts 60 may
be tightened to secure the cover 42 tothe vplate.
It will be noted that wherever tight connections
are required annular gaskets are set into grooves
to prevent blowout. Besides the connection by means of the hook bolts, there are providedstay 15
bolts between the cover 42 and tube plate 40.
. Nozzles 66 'are provided inproper locations rel
.ative to the tubes to introduce the necessary
'water
for washing down-the outside of the, tubes.
prevents to a considerable extent the carrying out .
These nozzles 66 are shown in Figure 4 and_com 20
20 with non-condensible gases of steam condensate. prise vertically extending pipes carrying distribu
The lower wall of the belt 6 may be made square
provision of the skirt provided by the extension 4
so asto provide corners extending beyond the cir
tion nozzles 68. Each of the pipes is threaded
into a coupling ‘I0 secured by a member 12 to the
upper end of a tube 14 welded to the cover 30 and
on which the apparatus may be supported.
25
A lower outside shell cover In is provided hav ' drawn down by means of stay bolts 18 in contact
with
the
upper
?xed
tube
sheet
28
with
the
inter
ing a condensate outlet l2. This is secured to
position of suitable gaskets such as indicated at
the under?de of the plate 8.
The upper end of the shell 2 is continued as ‘I6 to prevent leakage. Distribution, of wash
cular portions of, the apparatus to provide feet
' indicated at I4 and IS.
The first continuation ll
provides a steam impingement baille cut away
at its lower corners, as indicated at Hi, to permit
the reaching of the tubes by the stream from a
washing ‘nozzle. Surrounding the upper end of
the shell and extending somewhat below the‘ex
water to the nozzles is provided through a mani
folding arrangement. indicated at 8, receiving the 30
water from a common inlet 82. The pipes of this
manifolding arrangement are graduated, as indi
cated in Figure 3, to insure that all the nozzles
receive an adequate supply of water under pres
sure to insure proper cleaning of all of the tubes.
point of maximum diversion from the shell with It will be noted from ‘Figure 2 that the tubes 38
a steam inlet indicated at 20. The ba?ie ll is ‘ are so arranged as to provide a series of eight
.35 tension II is an, eccentric belt l8 provided at its
. opposite this steam inlet and causes the steam’ . radial passages which are substantially clear
to ?ow laterally within the eccentric belt it so into the innermost pass of ‘tubes throughout the
entire vertical’ extent of the heater. Opposite 40,
‘40 that it is distributed substantially‘uniformly to j these passages there are provided openings 84
the periphery of the tube bundle. The belt II is . normally closed by covers 86 against which press
provided with a bottom plate 22 shaped to .?ll
the space between the outer wall of-the belt and adjustable screws 88 threaded into levers 90 piv
the shell 2. Drain openings 24 are provided in oted at 92 and arranged to be held in their
‘closing positions by means of loop members 94. _
, this plate 22, these openings being normally cov
, ered by suitable cover plates bolted thereto.
" 50
The top 20 of the belt It serves to support the‘
fixed tube plate 20, which in turn is surmounted
by the water distributing head 20. This head is
provided with a water inlet passage 32 feeding
water into a central pass of tubes, an annular
connecting passage 24 and an outer annular water
' discharge passage 38. The construction shown is
designed to provide four water passes, the water
The covering arrangement just described is read
ily opened and closed by manipulation of the
loop members 84 and screws 88. ‘Through the
openings 84 there may be manipulated high pres
sure water streams for'the purpose of reaching 550
and cleaning the tubes when the accumulation
takes place to such extent that the nozzles at
the uppermost portion of the apparatus may be
ine?'ective to provide complete cleaning. The
or other liquid being led ?rst to the innermost passages, it will be noted, have between them only
relatively small numbers of the tubes, with the
pass and then successively through the intermedi
ate passes to the outermost one, from which it is ‘result that streams of washing water introduced
discharged into the passage 26. The symmetrical into any passage will readily effect the washing
» arrangement of the successive passes is indik out into an adjacent passage of accumulated ?ber.
cated in Figure 2. The tube bundle at its lower However, the nozzles 66 are primarily depended
760' end-supports
the ?oating tube plate ".which is upon for washing down purposes. These nozzles
are located withinv the groups of tubesbetween >
provided with a cover 42 containing suitable par
titioning means to provide connections‘ between the passages and serve to wash out the accumu
the ?rst and second and the third and fourth lated material into the passages. whence it will
?ow down and out theonening 44.
>
~
‘passes, as indicated at 48 and 50. A central open
A considerable accumulation of ?ber and other L,
ing 46, through the cover, is aligned with a cen
tral opening 44 through the tube plate 40 to pro sediment will occur in the channel formed be?
vide for the passage of condensate into the tween the extension ll of the shell 2 and the
cover l0.
.
The connection between the ?oating cover 42
Wand the tube plate 40 is worthy of note and is
indicated on- an enlarged scale‘in Figure 6. The
connection is made by means of- a series of hook
outer wall of the belt 18. Such accumulation
may be readily washed out through the openings '
“by the insertion of a hose into the various
openings 84 formed inthe belt. .I .
The construction has been speci?cally described
as applied to a four pass liquid ‘arrangement. It
bolts generally indicated at 52 and comprisini . will
be obvious that a similar construction will
75 upper hook ends it forwarded integral with bol)
‘2,182,098
> be applicable to single mother multiple pass ar
rangements, suitable changes being made in the
headers to secure the proper ?ow.
The fact that the cold liquid enters the center
Cl and ?ows to the outside through the successive
passes and that the passes are arranged annu
larly around the center insures a symmetrical
distribution of stresses when expansion and con
traction take place to prevent any tendency to
10 ward lateral buckling of the structure.
The sym
metry of the stresses is also promoted by the dis-_
tribution of the steam in the eccentric belt II,
which, together with the baille ll, produces a
?ow oi’ the steam so as to substantially equally
distribute it to all of the outer tubes of the last
liquid pass. It will be noted that a counter?ow
_
3 .
each other throughout the lengths of the
4. A heat exchange apparatus comprising an
outer shell, a passage for the introduction of gas
into the shell, a series vof tubes extending longi—
tudinally within the shell, and connections be
tween groupsof tubes to provide a multiple pass
arrangement, the groups 0! tubes iorming the
passes being concentrically arranged longitu—
dinally within the shell, said tubes being ar
ranged in groups with passages between the 10
groups, and washing nomles arranged to direct
liquid along the tubes within the groups to wash
material therefrom into said passages.
>
.
5. A heat exchange apparatus comprising an
outer shell, a passage for the introduction of gas.
into the shell, a series of tubes extending ver
arrangement is substantially provided to further tically within the shell, and connections between
minimize the stresses and promote e?iciency.
' groups oi tubes to provide a multiple pass ar
While an arrangement having a steam inlet at. rangement, ‘the groups of tubes forming the
20 the top has been speci?cally described and is pref
passes being concentrically arranged vertically
erable because there is no counter?ow of con
within the shell, said tubes being arranged in
densate and steam, it is also feasible to cause groups with vertically clear passages between the
the steam to enter at the bottom and ?ow up
groups, and washing nozzles arranged to direct
wardly. In both cases condensate will run down liquid downwardly within the groups to wash ma
Ni M the tubes and aid to some extent in preventing
terial therefrom into said passages. ‘
i
the deposition of ?ber or other sediment.
6. A heat exchange apparatus comprising an
It may be remembered that the steam carries outer shell, a passage for the introduction of gas
over with it both volatile and non-volatile ma-' into the shell, a series of tubes extending longi- terials, which may be‘of a corrosive nature, and tudinally within the shell, and connections be
30 depend upon the particular digestion process tween groups of tubes to provide a multiple pass
which is used. Consequently, the tubes and the arrangement, the groups of tubes forming the
other parts which come into contactwith such passes being concentrically arranged longitudi
corrosive materials should be made of suitable nally within the shell, said tubes being arranged
metal to withstand the corrosive action.
in groups with radial passages between the
36
What I claim and desire to protect by Letters groups, and openings in said shell aligned with
Patent is:
.
the passages for the, introduction of washing
l. A heat exchange apparatus comprising an liquid to force accumulated material from the
outer shell, a passage for the introduction of gas tubes into said passages.
I
into the shell, a series of tubes extending longi
7. A heat exchange apparatus comprising an
tudinally within the shell, and connections be
outer shell, a passage for the introduction of gas
4 tween groupsci tubes to provide a multiple pass into the shell, a series of tubes extending longi
arrangement providing at least three passes, the - tudinally within the shell, and connections be
groups of. tubes forming the successive passes-be
tween groups of tubes to provide a multiple pass
ing circularly and concentrically arranged, the
45 gas spaces‘ about the various groups being in free
communication with each other throughout the
lengths of the tubes.
2. A heat exchange apparatus comprising an
outer shell,'a passage for the introduction‘ of gas
into the shell, a series of tubes extending'longi
arrangement, the groups of. tubes forming the
passes being concentrically arranged vertically'
within the shell, said tubes being arranged in
groups with vertically clear radial passages be
tween the groups, and openings in said shell
aligned with the passages for the introduction of
washing liquid to force accumulated material
50
from the tubes into said passages.
tween groups oi.‘ tubes to provide a multiple pass
8. A heat exchange apparatus comprising an
arrangement providing at least three passes, the ‘_ outer shell, a. passage for the introduction of gas
tudinally within the shell, and connections be-v
groups of tubes forming the successive passes be
ing circularly and concentrically arranged with
the ?nal pass outermost, the gas spaces about
the various groups being in tree communication
with each other throughout the lengths oi’ the
tubes.
69
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.
3. A heat exchange apparatlm comprising an
outer shell, a passage for the introduction of gas
into the shell, a series of tubes extending longi
tudinally within the shell, connections between
groups of tubes to‘ provide a multiple pass-ar
rangement providing at least three passes, the
groups of tubes forming the successive passes
being circularly and concentrically arranged and
means for distributing the introduced gas mainly
to the outermost group, the gas spaces about the
70 various groups being in free communication with
into the shell, a series of tubes extending longi
tudinally within the shell, and connections be
tween groups of tubes to provide a multiple pass
arrangement, said connections including means
joining the lower ends of the tubes provided with
9. ~ central wash-out port, the groups of tubes
‘forming the passes being concentrically arranged so
vertically within the shell, said tubes being ar
ranged in groups with vertically clear radial pas
sages between the groups of the outer passes, and ,
' openings in said shell aligned with the passages
for the introduction .of washing liquid to force
accumulated material from the tubes into said 65
passages, the group of tubes forming the'inner
most pass surrounding a vertical space, clear of
tubes, aligned with said wash-out port.
CLEMENT K. BENNETT.
70
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