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Патент USA US2132109

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Oct- f1, 1938.
,F. a. HITCHCOCK
'
2,132,109
TIME ELEMENT RELAY
Filed March 16, ' 1955
3 Sheets-Sheet- 1
FIG-1.
/7)P2;VENTOR ,
BY J A5 WW5)
‘ 4ZLUMM, @a?,
ATTORNEY
Oct. 4, 1938.
F. a. HrrcHcocK
2,132,109
TIME ELEMENT RELAY
Filed March 16, 1935
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
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INVENTOR
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'Oct. 4, 1938.
F. B. HITCHCOCK
2,132,109
TIME ELEMENT RELAY
Filed March 16, 1935
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Patented Oct. 4, 1938
2,132,109
'UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,132,109
TILIE ELEMENT RELAY
Forest B. Hitchcock, Greece, N. Y., assignor to
General Railway Signal Company, Rochester,
N.
Application March 16, 1935, Serial No. 11,517
13 Claims. (Cl. 175-375)
This invention relates in general to relays, and
has more particular reference to a time element
relay having principles of operation particularly
Oi
adapted for railway use.
In many instances, it is desirable to have a
relay which controls circuits in a manner to
measure a predetermined time following its own
energization. In some cases where relays of this
type are employed, such predetermined times may
be of such long duration as to render it impos
sible to obtain the desired delay with the usual
means of delaying an electro-magnetic structure,
thereby making it- necessary to resort to me
chanical delay devices which may not always
operate on the side of safety as required in rail
way practice.
One object of the present invention is to pro
vide an electro-magnetic structure which will
measure a prolonged predetermined period of
20 time in an accurate and reliable manner, in such
a way that any momentary failure of energy will
‘cause the device to immediately restore to normal.
Another object of the invention is to provide
that the restoration to normal of the device upon
25
closed both at the beginning of operation of the
relay and at the end of the operation.
Another object of the invention is to provide
that the relay may be employed in connection
with either alternating or direct currents as ex
plained more speci?cally hereinafter.
Other objects, purposes and characteristic fea
tures of the present invention will be in part ob
vious from the accompanying drawings, and in
part pointed out as the description of the inven 10
tion progresses.
In describing the invention in detail, reference
will be made to the accompanying drawings, in
which like reference characters designate corre
sponding parts throughout the several views, and ll
in which:
Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of one form of the
present invention as taken on lines |—l of Fig. 2;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the present inven
tion as taken upon lines 2—-2 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a modi?ed form of the present inven
tion illustrating a structure which is adaptable
for use in connection with direct current instead
of with alternating current as shown in Fig. 1;
its deenergization shall be mechanically inde
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic illustration of one
pendent of its operating means.
manner in which the present invention may be
With the above and other objects in mind, it - employed to control circuits in a manner to meas
is proposed to provide a time element relay of ure predetermined times; and
a type that has been conveniently termed “a
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic illustration of an
30 magnetic thread screw timer”. More speci?cally,
other circuit arrangement in which the present 30
a cylinder like armature having threads thereon invention may be employed to control time de
of magnetic material is caused to be rotated at layed circuits.
a predetermined'rate between two magnetized
With reference to Fig. 1 of the accompanying
pole pieces which have extending portions there
drawings, a casing 5 is employed to enclose the
35 on to conform with the threads of the cylinder operating structure of the timing device having
like armature, but which do not mechanically a dividing portion 6 to separate the driving
come into contact with the armature. The move
mechanism and the operating compartment in
ment of the cylinder like armature in a longitudi
cluding contacts and operating coils. The driv
nal direction is wholly dependent upon the mag
40 netic pull continuously exerted upon the arma
ture to maintain the threads of the armature in
alinement with the threads of the pole pieces. It
ing compartment of the casing 5 is enclosed by
a cover ‘I and includes a self-starting synchro
nous motor M which drives the shaft |2 through
pinion 8, gear 9, bevel pinion I0 and bevel gear I I.
can thus be readily seen that the cylinder like '
This shaft I2 is of non-magnetic material and
_ armature may be biased in one direction by suit
extends between the lower cover 1 and the upper
able means such as gravity, and be caused to be cover l3 having suitable bearings in the cover l3 45
actuated in the opposite direction only when the and the dividing section 6. The lower cover 1 is
provided with a suitable end thrust bearing l4
pole pieces are suitably energized and the arma
ture rotated in the proper direction, so that the constructed to provide a minimum amount of
friction by using a ball bearing as shown, or a
50 deenergization of such pole pieces causes the im
mediate restoration of the armature to its biased suitable means as may be desired in practice.
The shaft 12 has a key-way in which a key l5
position because of the absence of any mechani
cal contact between the armature and pole pieces. may freely slide in a longitudinal direction but
Another object of the invention is to provide is attached to the helical armature I6 by a suit
able set screw IT. The armature i6 is of mag
55. that the controlled circuits may be opened and/or vvvnetic material and has a cylinder like shape with
55
2,132,109
2
controlled, a control relay C, which may be man
a thread helically located thereon which thread
has a flat surface so that it may pass between the
ually or automatically governed, is provided with
pole pieces 18 and IQ with a minimum amount of
air gap and still provide for absolute freedom
of movement.
Pole pieces i8 and 19 are a part of circular
shaped magnetic structure 29 (see Fig. 2) which
may be formed of any suitable magnetic material
and laminated or not as may be most desirable
10 in practice.
This magnetic structure 20 is suit
ably mounted within the ‘casing 5 so as to be
magnetically insulated therefrom which has been
illustrated in Fig. 2 by insulating portions 2!, 22,.
'23 and 24.
.
The pole pieces 58 and i9 have their pole faces
arranged in a thread like manner so that the ex
tending portions conform'with and follow adja
cent'the threads of the armature E6 to thereby
form a magnetic path from one pole piece to the
20 other by the way of the threads upon the arma
ture IS in a manner that the lowest possible re
luctance of this magnetic path will be when the
threads of the armature and the pole pieces co
incide.
'
'
The pole pieces .18 and I9 have mounted there
on suitable coils 25 and 26 which are energizable
in series in a manner 'to cause magnetic flux to
pass from pole piece I8 to pole piece i9 or vice
versa depending upon the polarity applied to the
coils. The ‘circular structure 2!! provides two
return paths for the magnetic circuit so that the
?ux divides substantially equally between such
return paths thereby making it possible to pro
vide a greater cross sectional area in the pole
vpieces then in the circular portions 20 and still
retain the same ?ux density.
.
It may be noted here, that the armature l6
may have its cylinder like portion of non-mag
netic light weight material, such as aluminum
for example, provided that the threads are of
magnetic material. This arrangement may be
desirable in order to reduce the weight vof the
armature as much as possible to thereby neces
sitate a smaller degree of energization of the
45 operating coils 25 and 26.
In the operating compartment of the casing,
suitable contact blocks are located. More speci?
cally, the contact blocks may be radially located
about the shaft l2‘ both on the lower dividing sec
tion 6 and on the upper cover 13 so that a large
number of contacts may be operated by the arma
ture 16. The disclosure of Fig. 1 illustrates one
contact block 2'! on the dividing section 6 pro
vided with front contact 28, back contact 29 and
55 movable contact 3|]. The movable contact 30 is
normally biased to a front ‘contacting position
but when the operating coils 25 and 2B are de-en
ergized the armature it assumes its downwardly
biased position (biased by gravity) which causes
the‘ movable contact 30 to engage the back con
tact 29.
_
'
Contact blocks 3| and 32 are illustrated as
mounted on the cover plate l3. Contact block
3| has back contact 33, front contact 34, movable
65 contact 35; while contact block 32 has back con
tact 36, front contact 31, movable contact 38.
The movable contacts 35 and 38 are normally
biased to make contact'with their back points 33
and 36 respectively, but when the armature l6 has
70 beenoperated to its’ upper extreme position the
movable contacts 35 and 38 are caused to make
contact with their front points 34 and 31 respec
‘tively.
,. For thepurpose of illustrating one manner in
75 which the relay of the present invention may be
contacts 39 and 49'. Contact 60 controls the ap
plication of alternating current from a suitable
alternating current source represented by trans
former Ill to the self-starting synchronous motor
M, while the contact 39 provides the application
of direct current to the operating coils 25 and 26
from a suitable battery source 42. Thus,>upon
the energization of the control relay C the con 10
tacts 39 and 40 close simultaneously causing the
operating coils 25 and 26 to be energized at the
same time that motor M is energized.
The self-starting synchronous motor M starts
almost instantly and operates at a predetermined 15
speed in accordance with the frequency of the
alternating current which rotates the shaft I2
at a predetermined reduced rate. This causes
the armature IE to climb the magnetic thread at
a predetermined rate opening back contacts 20
29-30 and closing front contacts 28-40 at the
very beginning of its operation while at the end
of its operation back contacts 33-35 and 3t—-38
are broken and front contacts 34-35 and 3'l—-38 ' r
are closed. . The de-energization of the control 25
relay C‘causes the armature iii to return almost
instantly to its normal position.
It is to be noted that the gearing ratio between
the synchronous motor M and the shaft i2 will
be wholly dependent on the frequency’ of the al .30
ternating current source and upon the time pe
riod desired to be measured. It should also be
noted that the battery source 52 may have sub
stituted therefore suitable recti?ers so as to deé
rive the energy for coils 25 and 26 from the al 85
ternating current source‘ 4 l .
With reference to Fig. 3, the driving compart
ment of the structure of Fig. 1 has been shown as
provided with a suitable fly-ball governor. con
nected through bevel pinion All to the bevel gear 40
5 I of Fig. 1. This fly-ball governor includes balls
43 rotated at a rate dependent upon the speed of
operation of the shaft I2 as operated by the gear
H which compresses a spring 25 in accordance
therewith.
As the spring 45 is compressed, a ro
45
tating braking surface 46 is drawn toward and
contacts a ?xed braking surface 41. When the
speed increases to a predetermined point the
friction between 46 and ti prevents further in
crease, so that the speed of rotation of the shaft 50
I2 is maintained at a substantially constant rate
as determined by the setting of this governor.
The addition of this governor is particularly
desirable, as the motor M3 is contemplated as
being of the direct current type controlled from 55
the suitable battery source 42 through the con
trol relay C by contact 40. The operating coils
25 and 26 of the relay are controlled from the
same battery source 42 as shown in Fig. 1. This
arrangement of the timing device and its control 60
in .accordance with the present invention is de
sirable when direct current is employed, because
it is well understood that the voltage of a direct
current source may vary due to the different de
gree of charge of a battery source, or due varia 65
tions in current by reason of changes in tempera
ture thus changing the resistance of the operat
ing coils of the motor as well as the resistance of
the lead wires.
7
In this arrangement, the normal voltage ap
plied to the direct current motor M3 should be
of a suf?cient value that the governor is effective
in determining the speed of operation of the shaft
[2, so that a change in voltage ‘either up or down
will still allow the governor to dominate and 75
2,132,109
thereby ‘ determine. that. the‘ speed remains sub‘
stantially constant.
:3
.
Although a fly-ball governor arrangement has
been disclosed for this modi?ed form of the pres
ent invention, it is to be understood that any
suitable governing device may be employed such
as an escapement of the spring type or of the
pendulum type, or any other means which may be
adaptable to measuring accurately the rate of
ll) speed of av driven shaft and governing such speed
in accordance with its setting.
Fig. '4 shows in a diagrammatic manner the
timing device 'of the present invention as con‘
trolling a suitable circuit indicated on the draw
15 ings by the legend “circuits to be controlled.”
This ?gure is intended to illustrate that the
motor M may be de-energized at the end of the
operating stroke of the armature [6 by the open
ing of its contacts 33--35, and to also illustrate
20 ‘that the timing device may be so controlled as
to fail to _be operated unless it is in its normal
position. This latter feature is accomplished by.
providing that'the control relay C is capable of
being picked up by its control means, suchlas the
manually operable lever L, unless contacts 29-30
are closed with the armature H5 in ‘a normal de
energized position. Once the relay C is picked up,
it is maintained picked up until the lever L is
restored to normal by a stick circuit including
30 its front contact 48. The operating coils 25and
,26 of the timer are controlled by contact 39 of
relay C from suitable direct current source such
as battery 42 which has been merely indicated
by symbols in the ?gure, while contact 40 of re
35 lay C is employed to control the self-starting
synchronous motor M as shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 illustrates the manner in which ‘circuits
may be opened and/0r closed at the end of the
operation of the armature l6 (by contacts 36, 31
40 and 38), but this relay timing device of the pres
ent invention may also be employed to close a
circuit dependent only upon the complete oper
ation of the armature 16 to an operating position
and then returned to its normal position as shown
45 in Fig. 5 of the accompanying drawings.
In this Fig. 5, the control relay C is illustrated
as capable of being picked up by lever L only
when a relay 2Cv is de-energized closing its back
‘contact 49. The relay 2C is always de-energized
50 except when it has been picked up upon the com
pletion of the operation of the armature I6 clos
ing contacts 34-—35 at which time it. has a stick
circuit including its own contact 50 and front
contact 5| of relay C. In other words, the oper
55 ation of the lever L causes the relay C .to be
picked up and stuck up through its contact 48,
which energizes the operating coils 25 and 25
through contacts 52 and 53 of relays 2C and C
respectively, and also energizes the self-starting
60 synchronous motor M through contacts 54 and
55. The armature I6 is operated after a pre
determined time to close contacts 34—35 which
picks up relay 2C. The picking up of the contacts
of relay 2C closes its stick circuit including front
65 contact 5| of relay C and its own front contact
50. The opening of back contact 52 and back
contact 54 de-energizes the operating windings
25 and 26 and the windings of the motor M so
that the armature l6 almost instantly assumes
70 its normal position and the motor stops operat
ing.
As soon as the armature I6 assumes its nor
mal position the “circuit to be controlled” as in
dicated by a legend on the drawings is closed by
76 reason of the closure of contacts 29-30 and front
3
contact 58 of relay 2C. Relay C and 2C remain
picked up so long as the lever L remains in an
operated position, but, when the lever L is re
stored to its normal position, the relays C and
2C are immediately de-energized. Thus, the “cir
cuit to be controlled” is closed a predetermined
time after the operation of the lever L as meas
ured by the operation of the armature I6 and
the return of such armature to its normal posi
tion.
10
Having described a relay timing device and
some of its control circuits as one speci?c em
bodiment of the present invention, it is desired
to be understood that this form is selected to
facilitate in the disclosure of the invention rather 15
than to limit the number of forms which it may
assume; and, it is to be further understood that
various modi?cations, adaptations and altera
tions may be applied to the speci?c form shown
to meet the requirements of practice, without in
any manner departing from the spirit or scope
of the present invention except as limited by the
appended claims.
What I claim is:—
1. In a power operated time element device for
operating contacts, pole pieces having helical
threads, a magnetic thread screw armature co
acting with said pole pieces to give relative move
ment when driven, a synchronous motor for driv
ing said armature, contacts operated by the rela
tive movement of said armature, whereby said
contacts are operated within a predetermined
time.
2. In a power operated time element device for
operating contacts; pole pieces having helical
threads; an armature having helical threads and
associated with said. pole pieces but mechanically
free from said pole pieces, said armature coact
ing to give relative movement when said pole
pieces are energized and said armature is driven; ;
a direct current motor for driving said armature;
a governor for maintaining the speed of said
motor substantially constant; means for at times
magnetizing said pole pieces; and contacts oper
ated by the completion of the relative move- ‘
ment of said armature; whereby said contacts
are operated a predetermined time after said
pole pieces are magnetized.
3. In a power operated time contactor, a ro
tatable armature having threads thereon of mag
netic material, said armature being movable lon 50
gitudinally, pole pieces located around said arma
ture, said pole pieces having threads thereon but
mechanically free from said threads on said
armature, means for magnetizing said pole 55
pieces, means for rotating said armature, whereby
said armature moves longitudinally between said
pole pieces, and contact means operated by said
armature.
‘
4. In a power operated time contactor, a thread 60
ed armature mounted so as to be rotatable and
movable longitudinally, said armature being
biased in one longitudinal direction, threaded
pole pieces associated with said thread armature
but mechanically independent therefrom, means 65
for rotating said armature, means energizing
said pole pieces, whereby said armature moves
longitudinally in a direction opposite to its bias,
and whereby the de-energization of said pole
pieces allows said armature to freely return to 70
its biased position, and contact means operatively
connected to said armature.
5. In a power operated timing device, a thread
ed armature mounted so as to be rotatable and
movable longitudinally, said armature being 75
2, 132,109
4
biased in one longitudinal .direction, threaded pole
pieces-associated with said thread armature but
mechanically independent therefrom, means for
rotating said armature, means energizing'said
pole pieces, contacts operated by said armature,
and means controlling said energizing means.
6. In a power operated time measuring device,
a threaded armature mounted so as‘ to be ro
tatable and movable longitudinally, said arma
10 ture being biased in one longitudinal direction,
threaded pole pieces associated with said thread
armature but mechanically independent there
from, a self-starting synchronous motor for ro
tating said threaded armature in a direction to
longitudinally move said armature away from its
biased position whensaid threads are rendered
. effective by the magnetizing of said pole pieces,
pieces to produce tractive effort on‘said arma
ture so as to move in a longitudinal direction
against its bias when rotated; and contacts op
erated by the longitudinal movement of said
armature at the extremities of such movement.
11. In a time measuring device; a threaded
armature mounted so as to be rotatable and mov
able longitudinally, said armature being biased
by gravity in one longitudinal direction; thread- ,
ed pole pieces associated with said thread arma
ture but mechanically independent therefrom; a
self-starting synchronous motor for'rotating said
threaded armature in a direction to longitudi
nally move said armature away'from its, biased
position when the threads of said armature and 15
said pole pieces are rendered eifective by the
magnetizing of said pole pieces; contacts oper
ated by said armature when said armature'is in
a position opposite to its biased position; means
contacts operated by said armature when said
armature is in a position opposite to its biased
for simultaneously energizing said synchronous
20 position,v means for simultaneously rendering motor and magnetizing said threads; and means
said synchronous motor energized and said
threads effectively magnetized, and means for de _for deenergizing said synchronous motor when
energizing said motor when said armature reaches said armature reaches said opposite position
said opposite position.
7
‘7. In a power operated time contactor, a ver
tical rotatable shaft of non-magnetic material,
an armature of magnetic material having threads
thereon and located on said shaft so as to be slid
able longitudinally but non-rotatable thereon,
‘30
means for rotating said shaft at a predetermined
rate, pole pieces adjacent said armature and pro
12. In a power operated time measuring de 25
vice; a threaded armature mounted so as to be
rotatable and movable longitudinally, said arma
ture being biased by gravity in one longitudinal
direction; threaded pole pieces associated with
said threaded armature but mechanically inde 30
pendent therefrom; a substantially constant speed
vided with threads opposite the threads of said
armature but mechanically independent there
motor for rotating said threaded armature in a
direction to longitudinally move said armature
from, and means for energizing said pole pieces to
away from its biased position when said threads
are rendered effective by the magnetizing of said 35
pole pieces; contacts operated by said armature
when said armature is in a position opposite to
its biased position; control means effective, when
operated, for simultaneously rendering said syn
chronous motor energized and said threads effec
tively magnetized; and means for deenergizing
said motorwhen said armature reaches said op
35 cause magnetic ?ux to pass between said pole
pieces by the way of said armature, whereby said
armature moves upwardly on said shaft.
8. In a time ,measuring circuit control mech
anism, a stationary helical ?eld, a rotatable heli
cal armature coacting with said ?eld and longi
tudinally movable, means for at times energizing
said ?eld whereby magnetic threads provide the
tractive force for longitudinally moving said
armature when it is rotated, a substantially con
stant speed driving means for rotating said arma
45 ture, and contacts operated by the longitudinal
movement of said armature.
9. In a power driven time contactor, pole pieces
having threads thereon, means for magnetizing
said pole pieces, an armature having threads
50
thereon coacting with the threads on said pole
pieces only by magnetic traction to thereby give
relative movement to the armature when it- is
rotated, a substantially constant speed driving
motor for rotating said armature, means for ini
tiating operation of said motor, and contacts
operated by a predetermined movement of said
armature to thereby be operated a predetermined
time after the initiation of armature rotation.
60
without demagnetizing said pole pieces.
10. In a power driven time contactor; a thread
edrarmature mounted so as to be rotatablerand
posite position without demagnetizing said pole
pieces, said means acting only while said control
45
means is in an operated condition.
13. In a power operated time measuring device;
a threaded armature mounted so as to be ro
tatable and movable longitudinally, said arma
ture being‘biased in one longitudinal direction;
threaded pole pieces associated with said thread 50
ed armature but mechanically independent there
from; a self-starting synchronous motor for ro
tating said threaded armature in a direction to
longitudinally move said armature away from
its biased position when said threads are ren 55
dered e?ective by the magnetizing of said pole
pieces; contacts operated by said armature when
said armature is in a position opposite to its bi
ased position; means for simultaneously render
ing said synchronous motor energized and said
threads effectively magnetized; and means in
cluding said contacts for deenergizing said motor
and for demagnetizing said pole pieces when said
armature reaches said opposite position; and a
circuit closed only after said armature has been
movable longitudinally, said armature being bi
ased by gravity in one longitudinal direction;
threaded pole pieces associated with said arma
65 ture but mechanically independent therefrom; ’ operated to said opposite position and returned
means for at times rotating said armature for
a predetermined period of time; means for at to its normal biased position.
times, energizing said pole pieces to cause mag
FOREST B. HITCHCOCK.
netic flux to pass between the threads of said pole
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