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Патент USA US2132171

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Oct. 4, 1938.
A. LANGSNER
2,132,171
SURVEYING INSTRUMENT
Fiied March 16, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
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Oct. 4, 1938.
A_ LANGSNER
2,132,171
SURVEYING INS TRUMENT
Filed March 16, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Oct. 4, 1938
2,132,171 ‘
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,132,171
SURVEYING INSTRUMENT
Adolph Langsner, Chicago, 111., assignor to Eugene
Dietzgen Company, Chicago, 111., a corporation
of Delaware
Application March 16, 1935, Serial No. 11,525
8 Claims.
My invention relates in general to measuring
instruments and has more particular reference
to alidades and similar precision instruments for
use in surveying.
(CI. 33—67)
damage by external forces and against the en
trance of foreign matter, said structure serving to provide a more attractive instrument at reduced
cost.
An important object is to provide an adjustable Numerous other objects and advantages of the 5
support for a telescope or other sighting device invention will be apparent from the following
providing an alidade wherein the telescope may description, which, taken in connection with the
be adjusted in various sighted positions by ad
justing mechanism carried by and forming a part
in of the support wherein the support and adjusting
10
Figure 1 is a side elevation of an instrument.
sion of dirt and other foreign matter to the ad
embodying the features of my present invention;
A further object is to simplify and reduce the
number of operating parts in an alidade while, at
the same time, con?gurating the parts which are
retained in order to enhance the attractive ap
Figure '2 is an enlarged sectional view taken
substantially along the line 2-2 in Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a sectional view taken substantially 15
along the line 3—3 in Figure l;
‘
Figure 4 is a sectional view taken substantially
pearance of the instrument, the parts being
formed to facilitate assembly thereof.
along the line 4-4 in Figure 3; and
Another important object is to provide a sup
port for a sighting device of the character men
tioned including a tilting frame, on which the de
vice is mounted, and tangent screw means for
adjusting the tilting frame on the support, the
the drawings, a measuring instrument comprising
25 arrangement of a housing or enclosure on the sup
port and into which an end of an arm on the tilt
ing frame may extend in position to co-operate
with tangent adjusting screws carried by the sup
port whereby the adjusting screws and the arm of
30 the tilting frame are hidden within the enclosure
and protected from dirt and other foreign matter
while a neat and pleasing appearance is imparted
to the construction.
Another important object is to provide a sup
35 port for a sighting device, including a frame on
which the device is tiltably mounted, the frame
being formed with a chamber having an opening
in which extends an arm connected with the de
vice wherein the frame carries adjusting means
40 operatively associated with the arm within the
chamber whereby the adjusting means is en
closed and protected against mechanical dam
age and guarded against dust, moisture and other
45
Referring to the drawings:
means are designed to co-operate for the exclu
justing mechanism.
20
accompanying drawings, discloses preferred em
bodiments of my invention.
deteriorating elements.
Another important object is to provide, pref
erably in conjunction with the adjusting arm of
the support, cooperating scale elements enclosed
in a housing and thus guarded against the dele
terious effects of dust, moisture and the like,
whereby a more serviceable and sightly instru
ment is provided.
Figure 5 is a sectional view taken substantially
along the line 5-5 in Figure 4.
To illustrate my invention, I have shown, on
a sighting device H and support means for tilt
ingly carrying the sighting device in operative
position. The assembly also includes manually 25
operable devices carried on the support for ad
justing the angularity of the sighting device, and
means for determining a variety of data depend
ent upon the tilted position of the telescope on
the support.
~
30
The instrument, which I have illustrated, com- '
prises an alidade, although it is obvious that
many features of the present invention are not
necessarily restricted to this particular type of
surveying instrument. The sighting device ll 35
preferably comprises a telescope supported in a
'
sleeve-like frame l3 having projecting axles [5
carried in bearings H formed in spaced upstand
ing arms IQ of a support frame 2|. The frame 2|
has a base 23 mounted on a pedestal 25 which, in 40
turn, is supported on a base 21 comprising an
elongated strip, at least one edge of-which is
formed as a straight edge 29, the parts being ar
ranged so that the longitudinal axis of the tel
escope lies at all times in the medial plane of the 45
assembly and parallel with the straight edge 29.
The frame I3 and axles l5 provide for the tilting
of the telescope about an axis at right angles to
the plane in which the axis of the telescope ex
tends.
The base 2'! also carries a compass 3|. 50
The pedestal 25 preferably comprises a tubular
Another important object is to provide an im- ' element formed with a ?anged base 35, which is
proved scale cover and scale construction for tilt
or may be secured preferably on the mid-portion
ably mounted sighting devices whereby the scales of the base 2‘! in any suitable fashion as by
55 are enclosed and protected against mechanical means of the fastening studs 31. The pedestal 55,_
2,132,171
'
ends 6| and 8|. The stem 52 is threaded in a
sleeve-like support collar 56, one end of which is
extends upwardly of the base and tapers inwardly
toward its upper end, said pedestal having a
?anged portion 39 at said upper end adapted
to receive and form a support for the base 23
threaded as at 58 in an opening formed in the
frame 23 at one end of the opening 49 so that
of the frame 2|, which is secured to the pedestal . the sleeve-like support element 56 extends out
wardly of the frame in substantial alignment with
in any suitable fashion as by means of the fas
tening studs 4|. The upstanding arms H! are the chamber 49. The stem 52 extends in the
, preferably of frame-like constructioncomprising sleeve 56 and has an enddisposed within the
spaced legs 43 interconnecting at their» upper chamber 49 in position to engage one side of the
disk 5| or 8| with which it is associated. The 10
said‘legs 43 carrying a cap 45 providing the upper .. .iopposite end of the stem projects outwardly of
the outer end of the sleeve 56 and is ?tted with a
half of the bearing |1.
.
The lower ends of the legs. are connected tov knob 60 by means of which the stem 52 may be
the base of the frame 2| in spaced relationship turned in the sleeve and advanced or retarded.
The turning knob 60. is preferably formed ex
15 and walls 41 are formed extending between the
ll) ends to form. the lower half of the bearing | 1,
lower portions of said legs and forming with said
legs and the base of‘ the frame an enclosed cham
ber 49 containing an elongated slot 5|.» One of
the axles -|5 of the frame l3 projects outwardly;
20 of its bearing and is formed With a head 53
adapted‘ to receive a clamping element 55 com
prising alsplit collar 51 embracingthehead 53
and an arm'59 extending radiallyv of said split
ternally with spherical surfaces of substantially
tear-drop con?guration to improve the appear
ance of the instrument by imparting a streamline
aspect. The knob‘ 69 is also preferably of sub
stantially cup-shaped con?guration internally and 20
co-operates with the sleeve in a relatively smooth
manner to prevent access of dirt, moisture, and '
other‘ foreign matter to' the stem 52;"which is sub-i
collar and having an end extending through the I stantially enclosed by the co-operation” of the
25
knob at the outer 'end of the sleeve 56.
25 slot"5|=and< into'one of the chambers 49, the end
A. stem 152 "is provided for each of thearms 59 s
of. the arm within the chamber being’ formed with '
a disk |'. The split collar 51 is held on the'head and 19." A ‘backing pin154 likewise is provided
53'flin any'suitable' fashion as by means of the
washer 63 and the :holding‘ screw 65. Clamp
means 61,. comprising a'thr'eaded shaft intercon
necting thesplit portions of the collar 51 and a
manually operablei'head 69 for tightening and
loosening the screw, is provided for clamping the
collar 51‘ on the head 53 so that the arm 59 may
7
?be~m'ade"fast with the axle I5. 7
351
_
‘
The otherraxle'of the frame projects outwardly
ofltheTbearing
whichiit is journalled and is
‘formed to provide a headhavinga portion 1|, on
which is journalled a spider-like‘element 13'of
for each of the arms‘ 59and 19, backing pins being
mounted on the frame 23 each in position oppos
ing the stems. 52. Each backing pin comprises an 30
elongated shell closed at one end and sliding in r
a’ shell-like casing. 62, ‘the closed end of the; pin
54 extending in the chamber 49 in alignment'with
the opposing end of the. stem 52. Thepcasing 62
comprises anpelongated preferably cylindrical. 35 1
shell closed at ‘one vend'and threaded as at 54 in
an vopening formed in the frame 29 so that the
open end of the shell 62'opens in‘ the chamber
49. ,The hollow :pin '54 ‘and shell 52 ‘co-operate
cross-sectional con?guration- and to form an expansible casing in which is enclosed 40'
having a central arm-15 having a projecting leg '7 a spring'or other suitable resilient means 66 ' '
11’ ‘extending through a slotv 5| into one of the adapted to expand the casing provided by the hole-1
40 Csemicircular
chambers 49, the end'of said projecting arm 19 ' low pin 54‘ and the shell 62 so that, the shell 52'
being-formed as‘ a disk 8| similar to the disk
‘like end 6| 0f the clamp arm 59. The arms 59
and 19 extend in different chambers 49 on oppo
' site'sides of the instrument.
The axle portion 1| has an extension 83 carry
ing asegmental spider 85, which extends adjacent
50'" and
in front of the spider, 15. The “segmental
spider 85 is secured toand made fast in any suit
able fashion, asbythe fasteningstuds 81-, to the
axle.
55'
The sider 85' consequently is fast with the
being enclosed on the frame 23, the closed end,
of the pin is urged outwardly of the shell and
4531'
into the chamber 491 in position'to yieldingly'bear .
upon and press against the opposite side of the
disk 6|.or 8| with which it is associated opposite »
fr'omthestem52. Eachv of the arm-ending disks '
(5| and 8|.therefo're is held by'andbetween the 50
facing ends of a stem ‘52' and a co-operating back;
ingpin 54, the backing pinbeing normally urged"
by the spring to maintain the-disk, withwhich
frame |3 vand will turn with the telescope or " it"is‘ associated, firmly against the opposing end
‘sighting device; The spider '15, however, is loose of the stem.‘ In order to adjust the position of
on the axle portion 1| and may consequently be
' held stationarily with respect to the support ped-'
estal; by means of the arm 19. The telescope may
' be rotated freely by hand by loosening the nut 69
in order» to release the ‘clamp 51. After, the tele
scopejhasbeen sighted in a rough way, the nut 69
may be tightened to clamp the arm 59' to the tele
scope so that further accurate adjustment of the
telescope may be accomplished through said arm.
In order to accurately level the spider 15 and also
either. arm/59Pand19 on the support frame 23,
it‘ is merely necessary to'rotate the head 69 of
theistem co-operatively associated With-said arm
in one direction or another‘ in order to either ad
vancev the stem and push the'end of the arm in 60
ther'chamber 49 against the yieldingly vmounted
backing pin or to retract the ‘stem and permit
the backing pinto maintain the end of the arm:
against the end of the retracted’ stem. 7 It will be
seen that the stem 52 and the backing-pine 54 65
are" enclosed in a dust-proof manner preventing
tor'accurately adjust the telescope in sighting the
same, the pedestal isprovided with tangent screw* deterioration of the operating parts, that the
adjusting means 59 in position to co-operate with opposingends of the stem and-backing pin ex
tend in the chamber 49, which is substantially *
the ends of ‘the arms 59 and 19 Within ‘the cham
enclosed save-for the slot 5|,through which the‘ 70
70 bers 49, there being separate adjusting means for '
adjusting arm 59 or 19, as the case may be‘, ex}
eachiarm.
.
.
.
7
r
.
Thejtangent adjustingmeans 50 are preferably
ofl'rlike‘Vconstructioncomprising a threaded stem
0 52 and. a backing pin 54 having bearing portions
75.. ‘adapted to engage opposite-sides of the disk-like
tends into the-chamber.
_
’
The assembly' is particularly attractive and
neat“ infappearance, all operating parts being
substantially enclosed not'only to prevent access
.
3" I
2,132,171v
thereto of foreign matter but also to prevent dam
age to the threads of the stem and to the backing
pin by accidental impact upon these parts.
stems I23, which penetrate the opposed ends of
A preferably sheet metal cover 89 is secured
nuts I25 are or may be provided on the stems
the vial housing H9 and. are threaded at their
lower end into the top of the spider ‘I5, clamping
an on the spider ‘I5, said cover having-?anged pe
I23 to secure the parts in mounted relationship. 5
ripheral portions 9I fastened in any suitable fash
By screwing the stems I23 to a proper distance in
ion as by means of the studs 93 to the edges of the frame 15, it is‘possible to adjust the vial
the spider ‘I5, the cover 89 enclosing the out
in proper alignment on the spider, and I prefer
wardly facing surface of the spider ‘I5 and the . to utilize a vial, housing, and adjustable mount
10 spider 85 is enclosed between the spider ‘I5 and
ing substantially as shown in my co-pending
the cover 89. The cover 89 is formed with open
application, Serial Number. 751,241, ?led No
ings 95 in position to reveal portions of the cir
vember 2, 1934.
.
cular edges of both spiders which are formed
The telescope or sighting device II comprises
with scale-carrying surfaces 91 visible through a tubular; preferably cylindrical barrel I3I, which
15 the openings 95.
is or may be provided with a belled extension
It will be seen that the spider 85, since it is
I33 at one end to receive an objective lens as
fastened on the frame I3 will tilt with the tele
sembly I35. At its opposite end, the telescope
scope while the spider ‘I5, which is journalled on barrel is provided with an eyepiece assembly
the axle of the ?ange may be held in adjusted ‘ I3'I including an eyepiece focusing device I39 and
position with respect to the support by means an adjustable reticle MI. The barrel also carries 20
of the arm ‘I9. The surfaces of the spiders ex
an objective focusing slide I 43 between the eye
posed through the openings 95 may be formed piece and objective lens assemblies. .The objec
with suitable scales for indicating the angularity tive slide carries a lens assembly I45 ?tted there
of the telescope and the vertical and horizontal in. and slidable longitudinally within the barrel
25 components of the angularity expressed in suit
for the purpose of focusing the telescope. The 25
able terms as for instance in horizontal and ver
objective slide comprises a preferably cylindrical
tical stadia distance constants, which may be sleeve having an aperture Ill‘! in its end facing
determined directly by reading the scales when the eyepiece assembly and carries a frame I 49
the telescope is in adjusted position. To this
securedv at its end opposite in the aperture
30 end, one of the openings 95 may expose a surface
of the spider 35 containing an angularity scale
99 and a co-operating portion of the spider ‘I5
containing a gauge mark HM and a vernier scale
I03 so that the angularity of the telescope may
be determined on the scale 99 by means of the
gauge mark IUI and the Vernier scale M33.
The
other of the openings 95 likewise may expose a
portion of the scale surface 91 of the spider 85
containing a scale I85 comprising horizontal sta
40 dia constants and a scale IIl'I of vertical stadia
constants, the scales I95 and it? extending at
opposite edges of the segmental scale surface 91,
said opening also exposing a portion of the scale
surface Bl carrying a gauge mark I09 in position
45 to co-operate with the scale ID'I in order to indi
cate the stadia constant determined by the sight
ing position of the telescope. Means is or may
be also provided affording a gauge mark I II in
position to co-operate with the scale I05 and vis
ible through the opening in order to indicate the
horizontal stadia constant corresponding with
the sighting position of the telescope. The gauge
mark I I I is preferably formed on a suitable plate
H3 secured on the inner surface of the cover 89
55 in any suitable fashion as by the holding screws
M1 in any suitable fashion as by means of the
holding screws I5I. The frame I49 carries the
focusing lens I 53 in alignment with the aper
ture I41.
Means having a portion I55 extending within
and a preferably knurled collar portion I'II op 35
erable outwardly of the barrel of the telescope
may be provided for adjusting the position of the
slide I133 within the barrel of the telescope. The
reticle also is adjustable in the barrel by means
of screws I8I having heads exposed outwardly 40
of the barrel and normally enclosed by a readily
removable cover 205.
The eyepiece also has a
turnable part I95 projecting from the cover 295
at the end of the telescope for focusing the eye
piece lens system on the cross hairs of the reticle; 45
and a scale 2I3 and index 2I5 may be arranged
on the part I95 and the cover to indicate the ad
justment of the eyepiece.
' The telescope or sighting device II also prefer
ably carries a spirit level 2H, preferably detach 50
ably mounted thereon, as by. means of a remov-.
able support frame ‘225 demountably secured on
seats provided on the telescope barrel by rings
or collars 229 shrunk thereon, to- facilitate level
II 5, said plate having an edge disposed opposite ing of the telescope, and any suitable or pre 55
the edge of the scale surface 97 containing the ferred means may be employed for securing the
scale I05 and carrying the gauge mark III in po . telescope barrel in the tilting support sleeve I3.
I do not herein claim the telescope or any of
sition visible through the opening 95.
its details nor the arrangement shown for se
The
spider
75
carries
a
spirit
level
I
I
‘I
mounted
60
curing the telescope in the support sleeve I3, nor 60
thereon preferably along its upwardly facing sub
stantially ?at edge in order to permit the spider
75 to be accurately adjusted on the support ped
estal by means of its tangent adjusting screws in
65 conditioning the instrument for use in a partic
ular location. It will be understood that the
plane table, on which the instrument is mounted
for use, may not be exactly level, for which rea
son it is necessary to level the spider ‘I5 before
sighting the telescope and making the stadia
readings on the scales.
The spirit level II? may be of any suitable or
convenient form or construction and preferably
comprises a housing H9 containing a vial IZI
75 therein and support means comprising headed
the compass 3I, nor the spirit levels II‘! and 2H,
nor the means for mounting the said spirit levels,
nor the tilting telescope support means I5, in
cluding the sleeve-like portion I3 thereof, since
the same form the subject-matter of copend
65
ing divisional applications.
It is thought that the invention and numerous
of its attendant advantages will be understood
from the foregoing description and it is obvious
70
that numerous changes may be made in the
form, construction, and arrangement of the sev
eral parts of the illustrated apparatus without
departing from the spirit or scope of my inven»
tion or sacri?cing any of its attendant advan
2,132,171:
tages; . thev ‘forms: herein“ 'describ'edbeing- merely ‘
for the purpose of‘ illustrating the invention:
5.--A deviceof the class described comprising a ,
frame having a pair of enclosed chambers, means :
‘Having thus"... described my'inventiori,‘ what 1 ‘ for mounting a sighting‘device forrelative'angue
claimasnlewand desire to secure by Letters Pat’
.ent ,is' as follows: .
'
1.1A ‘device, of ‘the class described,,comprising
a pair of frame elements" interconnected for,
relative .rotational-imovement, one ‘of the ele-'
ments forming a support for theother, and said
10 other?elementv carrying means forming amount
ing fo-r'ra sighting device, andmeansto- ‘adjust '
the angular relationship of the elements com
15
lar movement on the frame, scale meanscompris
ing a membershiftable with the sighting device,
and a cooperatinglmember adjustable with respect i
tov the'iframe, means to adjust said vcooperating
device with respect to said framecomprising an ‘
arm connected .to the sighting device‘and extend-'
ingv in one of said chambers’, means‘to drivingly
clamp said arm on said sighting device, another
armconnected on the cooperating deviceand ex
prisingichamber-forming means on‘said support
tending in the other of said chambers, spirit level »1
providing an enclosing chamber-having a lateral
means mounted on said cooperating-member, and:
opening; :means :. on ' said mounting ‘element com
adjusting means for each of said arms compris-_
prising ..a ?nger ,in :positionextending, in said » ing means on the frame and cooperatively associ
ated with said arms within the chambers whereby V
chamber‘ "throughtsaid ' opening and .having a
bearing portion within said chamberfand adjust
ing means onsaid chamber-forming means and
20 cooperatively.associated with ‘said bearing por—.
tion withinthe chamber for shifting said ?nger
therein to adjust the relative angular, relation
ship of the said frame elements.
2.'A‘device ofithe' class idescribed" comprising
‘a support frame ‘having a pairiof enclosed cham-x
,bers, a sightingxtdevice tiltable on theirframe,
scale means comprising a membershiftable with 1
to shift the same with respect to the frame.
6. A device of the class describedcomprising a
frame element formed with a bearing for the re
ception of .an axle, an axle in ‘said bearing, a
sighting device carried by said axle, said frame
comprising a pair of spaced legs extending from
said bearing and an integral frame portiori'inte'r
connecting said spaced legs and forming a cham 25*
ber having ‘an opening'between said legs, means
on
said axle , comprising
a ?nger
extending
through said chamber opening and having'a bear
adjustable with ‘respect’to the‘, frame, means . ing portionjwithin the chamber, a stem threaded
‘to ‘adjust said co-operating' device, with respect inv a wallof said chamber and having a portion
to ,saidframe comprising an’ arm ‘connected to extending in said chamber in position "to engage
the. sighting device and a co-operating member.
'30
the 'sighting'device and ‘extending in‘ one of. said i, _ one side of said bearing portion, means extending '
chambers, an arm connected on the co-operating
member and I extending. in ‘the other, of said
35. chambers, adjusting meansifor each of said arms
outwardly of said chamber and manually operable
to turn said'stem, means carried on the walls of
said chamber and having a presser portion ex
35
comprising 'means'on. the frame co-operatively' tending in said chamber ,on the opposite sideof
associated with its associated armwithin the said bearing portion, and means yieldingiy urging 1
chamber :in which said arm extends‘ whereby to '
shift the same with respect to the frame.
3. A‘devic’e of the'class described comprising
7 a support framegmeansufor mounting-a sight
ing device for relative angular movement on the
frame,"scale meanscomprising a member carried
by and shiftable with. the sighting device, and a
45 cooperating member‘adjustable with'respect to
the frame, said members having adjacently ex
said presser portion toward the bearingportion
wherebyto hold. the same, in engagement with
said stem so that by adjusting the stem the rela
tive‘ angular position of said arm with respect to
said frame about the axis of said shaft may be‘
critically adjusted.
7. A device of the class described comprising a’
support frame, a sightingrdevice turnab-leion the 45‘
frame, scale means'comprising a member carried ‘7
by and shiftable with thesighting device, and a'
cooperating member adjustable with respect to _
the relative angular position of the sighting de
vice with1.respect 'to the 'framemay be detere the frame, said members having adjacently ex»
50' .jmined',;and:'a coverfast with the co-operating I tending surfaces carrying scale means whereby
member and positionedto- enclose said scales and the inclination of the sighting'device with-respect ' tending surfaces carrying scale means whereby
protectthe same.
to the horizontal may becdetermined, a cover fast ' i
‘
with the cooperating member» and positioned to 7'
4. A device of the class described comprising a
support frame, a sighting device turnable on the
frame, scale means comprising 1a member carried
by and shiftable with ‘the sighting device, and av
enclose said scales and. protect, thesame, the.
sighting device being mounted ,for- tilting; move-V
cooperating member" adjustable with. respect vto
comprising a segmental spider ?xed on'said axle,
ment on an axle ‘and one of. vthe scale ‘members?
the framasaid members having adjacentlyi ex~ ' the cooperating scale member comprisinga seg_—.
tendingsurfaces carrying scale means whereby
, atheinclination of the sighting device with respect
to the horizontal may be determined, a cover fast
mental spider journalled .on said axle adjacent
theother spider, said cover, member being carried
by one of said ‘spiders and enclosing the-other,
with the cooperating‘ member'and positioned to
and said cover member being formed with open
enclose said scales and protect the same, said
ings in position to expose the scale-carrying sur
sighting'device being mounted for tilting move~
_ faces of both spiders.
,ment on an axle- and one of the scale members
8. A device of the class described comprising a
comprising a segmental spider fixed on ,saidaxle,
said, cooperating ‘scale ,me-mber comp-rising a
spider journalledon said axle adjacent the ?xed
spider, the cover member being carried by'one of
frame element formed with ‘a bearing for receiv-
saidspider's and] enclosing theother and being
element, means on said frameelement forming a
. 'V '
ing an axle, an axle in said bearing, means ~
mounting a sightingrdevice for rotation with said
axle, means on said axle comprising a projecting
chamber having an openingiand the projecting
scale-carrying surfaces of both spiders, said cover ' element, having a ?nger portion‘ extending into f
member also vcarrying a ‘gauge mark thereon in, the chamber through "said opening and having-a
formed with openings in position to expose the‘
position to cooperate’ with a scale formed on'the-v
753 'ij ournalled
spider:
/
r
-
bearing portion‘ disposed within the'chamber, a > V
stem threaded in a wall of said-‘chamber'at-one
'
2,132,171
end thereof in position to engage one side of said
bearing portion, means extending outwardly of
said chamber and manually operable to turn said
stem, means in the walls of said chamber at the
(R opposite end thereof and having a p-resser portion
extending in said chamber on the opposite side
of said bearing portion, and means yieldingly
~ 5
urging said presser portion ‘toward the bearing
portion whereby to hold the same in engagement
With said stem so that by adjusting the stem the
relative angular position of said ?nger about the
axis of said axle with respect to the element hav
ing the chamber may be critically adjusted.
ADOLPH LANGSNER.
i)
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