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Патент USA US2132254

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Qc?lc 4, 193%0
H. n. BECKER
STEERING
91329254
CRAFT
Filed May 20, 1956
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2,132,254
Patented Oct. 4, 1938
UNlTED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,132,254
. STEERING OF. CRAFT
Howard I. Becker, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to
General Electric Company, a corporation of
New York
Application May 20, 1935, Serial No. 80,735
7 Claims. (Cl. 250-415)
My invention relates to apparatus useful in the
vices l and 2 connected in parallel with each
steering of a craft with respect to a particular
radiation. For example, it may be desired that
the craft shall be kept on a course directed to—
with respect to the other, that is, the anode and
cathode of device l connects directly with the
ward or away from the source of radiation or the
desired course may make some de?nite angle
with respect to source of radiation. In certain
cases the radiation employed may comprise those
visible wavelengths which constitute‘ light; in
10
other cases I may prefer to employ some of the
invisible wavelengths having properties, such as
fog penetration, not possessed by light. It is the
object of my invention, therefore, to provide im
proved apparatus useful in the steering of a craft
Mr CM
in the above-indicated manner.
My invention will be better understood from
the following description taken in connection with
the accompanying drawing, and its scope will be
pointed out in the appended claims.
Referring to the drawing, Fig. 1 is a circuit
diagram illustrating one embodiment of my in
vention; Fig. 2 shows various wave forms present
in the apparatus shown by Fig. 1; Fig. 3 illus
trates a modi?cation of what is shown in Fig. l;
and Fig. 4 like Fig. 2 shows various wave forms
present in the modi?ed form represented by
Fig. 3.
In Fig. l of the drawing I and 2 represent two
similar radiation responsive devices which are
30 mounted on the craft, not shown, to be steered,
and are arranged in such .a manner that they
are adapted to receive radiation from a certain
source. For the purposes of illustration I have
shown these devices as photoelectric tubes but it
(Lo Cl
is to be understood-that radiation responsive de
vices of various other forms may be used depend
ing upon the character of the radiation to which
they are intended to be responsive. Devices l
and 2 are supplied with alternating current hav
ing a symmetrical wave form.
Such a wave may
be supplied by various well known devices of
which the one that I have chosen to show in the
present illustration is an oscillation generator
which is adapted to produce a wave preferably of
approximately 800 cycles per second. The gen
erator is shown as comprising the electron dis
charge tube 3, the transformer 4, and the ad
justable transformer 5 across the primary of
which is connected the capacitor 6 all connected
together and to suitable voltage sources in a well
known manner. This oscillation generator sup
plies alternating current to the radiation respon
sive devices through the transformer ‘l, the sec
ondary of which is connected in series with the
55 primary of the transformer 8 and with the de
other.
Devices 5 and 2 are also reversed one
cathode and anode respectively of device 2.
As a result of this arrangement, it will be seen
that if both devices i and 2 receive the same
amount of radiation the current ?owing in the
primary of the transformer 8 will have equal
positive and negative half cycles inasmuch as the 10
generator supplies alternating current having a
symmetrical wave. If, however, the radiation
received by one device is greater than that re
ceived by the other the current in the primary
of transformer 8 will have a greater amplitude for
the half cycle passed by the device subjected to
the greater radiation than for the other half
cycle. This may be more readily understood by
referring to Fig. 2 where the curve it represents
the symmetrical voltage wave applied to the de
vices l and 2.
If both devices receive the same
amount of radiation the current flowing in the
primary of transformer 8 will likewise have a sym
metrical form. If, however, one of the devices,
for example, device l, which it will be assumed
passes the positive half cycles of applied current
receives greater radiation than device 2, then the
current traversing the primary of transformer 8
may have the asymmetrical form shown by curve
H where the positive half cycle has a much 90
greater amplitude than the negative half cycle.
Similarly if device 2 receives greater radiation
than device I the current traversing the primary
of transformer 8 might have the asymmetrical
form shown by the dotted line it where the nega- 3.
tive half cycle is greater than the positive half
cycle.
As the resulting asymmetrical waves thus ob
tained are of very small. magnitude, it is desir
able that they be suitably ampli?ed before being 40
applied to a responsive device which I am about
to describe. For so amplifying the asymmetrical
waves I have shown a three-stage ampli?er, which
may be of any well known form, and which I
have represented as comprising the three elec- 4,.
tron discharge ampli?er tubes iii, 55, and i6, tubes
M and !5 being connected by means of the ca
pacitor ll’, tubes is and iii being connected by
means of the transformer l8. By means of the
transformer 3 a voltage wave is applied to the
control grid of ampli?er tube M, the secondary
of the transformer being shunted by the variable
capacitor [9.
The output of the last tube 55 of the ampli?er
after being passed through the transformer 20, 55
2
2,132,254
which preferably is a step-down transformer, is
used to operate the electroresponsive device in one
direction or the other in accordance with whether
the positive or negative half cycles have the
CI greater maximum value, hence whether device I
or device 2 is receiving the greater amount of
radiation. The electror‘esponsive device which I
have chosen to illustrate is a well known form of
zero center indicating meter 2|. Current ?ow
through the meter 2| in one direction causes the
pointer 22 thereof to de?ect to one side of the zero
and likewise current ?ow in the opposite direc
tion shall cause the pointer to de?ect to the
other side of zero.
15
Connected in series with the secondary of
transformer 29 and the meter 2| is the non
20
25
30
86
greater in one direction than that in the other
direction, and vice versa if device 2’ receives
greater radiation than device I’.
The poten
tial difference across the reactor 28, which is
shunted by the capacitor I9’, is ampli?ed by a
three-stage ampli?er comprising tubes I4’, I5’,
and I6’ as in Fig. 1 and the output circuit of
the last ampli?er connects through the trans
former 20’, the non-linear resistor 23’ with the
right and left zero center indicator 2I’, all as 10
in Fig. 1.
'
In Fig. 4 I have represented at 30 the pulses
of the intermittent radiation received from the
distant source which as pointed out above may
comprise one or more neon lamps operated on
an alternating current circuit. If device I’, for
linear resistor 23. This resistor preferably is of > example, receives a greater amount of the ra
the type described in United States Letters Pat
diation than device 2’ the wave of potential dif
ent No. 1,822,742 to K. B. Mc'I‘achron September ference across the reactor 28 and the capacitor
8, 1931, such a resistor being commercially I9’ due to the current passing the reactor and
20
known as “Thyrite”. The resistance and cur
the effect of the capacitor may take the asym
rent relationship of such a non-linear resistor metric form shown by the curve 3|. Likewise if
can be expressed in the form of the hyperbolic device 2’ receives the greater amount of radia
equation, RIa=C, Where R is the resistance, I is tion the wave of potential difference may have
the current, and C and a are constants, the lat
the asymmetric form shown by curve 32. These
ter being less than unity. This material has curves while differing somewhat in form from 25
the peculiar property of reacting substantially the corresponding curves II and I2 of Fig. 2
instantaneously to asymmetrical wave shapes so due to the squarewave form 30 of the radiation
that a direct current may be obtained there
impulses and the distorting effect of the reactor
from, but when symmetrical waves are applied 28, nevertheless have a characteristic common
30
to it no direct current results. In the appa
thereto in that the maximum value of one half
ratus thus described the direct current ?ow cycle is greater than that of the other in ac
through the indicating meter 2| will be in a cordance with which of the two radiation de
direction, such for example as will move the vices receives the greater amount of radiation.
pointer to the right, if the radiation responsive The asymmetrical voltage waves after being
device I is receiving the greater amount of ra
ampli?ed by the three-stage ampli?er and ap 35
diation and will move to the left if radiation plied to the circuit including the non-linear re
responsive device 2 is receiving the greater
amount of radiation. If both devices I and 2
40 receive the same amount of radiation the pointer
22
will
remain
on
zero.
I preferably
em
ploy the bypass capacitor 24 which being con
nected in shunt with the indicator 2! serves to
bypass any alternating current which may pass
Instead of
employing the direct current received from the
non-linear resistor 23 for operating the indi
45 through the non-linear resistor 23.
sistor 23 produces a direct current in one direc
tion or the other resulting in a right or left
de?ection of the pointer of the indicator 2|’
just as in the case of the apparatus shown in 40
Fig. 1. Inasmuch as the radiation responsive
devices of that form of my invention shown by
Fig. 3 are supplied by continuous direct cur
rent, the pointer of the indicator 2|’ will not
be deflected in response to radiation which is 45
uniform and continuous but requires the use of
cating device 2| I may employ it for the opera- ' radiation of an intermittent character.
tion of an automatic steering device of any well
50 known form where the polarity and the amount
of direct current control the direction taken by
the craft.
In that form of my invention shown by Fig. 1
it is assumed that the radiation received is rela
55 tively uniform in value. In the modi?ed form
shown by Fig. 3 the source of radiation is in
termittent or pulsating. Radiation of such a
I have chosen the particular embodiments de
The radiation responsive devices I.’
scribed above as illustrative of my invention and
it will be apparent that various other modi?ca 50
tions may be made without departing from the
spirit and scope of my invention which modi?
cations I aim to cover by the appended claims.
What I claim as new anddesire to secure by
55
Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. Incombination, means including a plurality
of radiant energy responsive devices for produc—
ing an alternating current whose positive and
negative half cycles are proportional to the rela
and 2’ in this case may be photo-electric tubes
as in Fig. 1 but are excited by direct current
tive amounts of energy received by said devices, 60
means for amplifying said alternating current,
character may be produced, for example, by the
use of a neon lamp excited by an alternating
60 current.
which, for example, may be supplied by the bat
tery 21. Opposite ends of the battery are shown
65 connected respectively with the cathode of de
vice I’ and the anode of device 2’ and the mid
point of the battery is shown connected through
the reactor 28 with the anode of device I and
the cathode of device 2. If with this arrange
70 ment both devices I’ and 2’ receive the same
amount of radiation there will be no current
flow through the reactor 28. However, if the
radiation impulses reaching device I’, for ex
ample, are greater than those reaching device
75 ,2’, the current flow through the reactor will be
a device operative in one direction or the other in
response to the polarity of the current supplied
thereto and a non-linear resistor connected in
circuit with said device and said amplifying 65
means.
2. In combination, means including a plurality
of- similar radiation responsive devices for pro
ducing an unsymmetrical alternating voltage
wave Whose positive and negative half cycles vary
in accordance with the relative amounts of radia
tion received by said devices, an electro-respon
sive device operable in one direction or the other
in accordance with the polarity of the current
2,132,254
supplied thereto, a non-linear resistor connected
3
connected to be energized by said current, a
in a series circuit therewith and means for ampli
device operative in one direction or the other in
fying said unsymmetrical wave and supplying it
to said series circuit.
3. In combination, a plurality of rectifying radi
thereto and a non-linear resistor connected in a
ant energy responsive devices, a source of alter
nating current, means for connecting said source
with said devices, one device being reversed with
respect to another, means for amplifying the cur
10 rent supplied by said source to said devices, a
device operative in one direction or the other in
response to the polarity of the current supplied
thereto and a non-linear resistor connected in
circuit with said device and said amplifying
means.
4. In combination, a plurality of rectifying
photo-electric devices, a source of alternating
current, means for connecting said source with
said devices, one device being reversed with re
spect to another whereby an unsymmetrical wave
is produced in response to an unequal illumina
tion of said devices, an ampli?er for said wave, a
polarity responsive device and a non-linear re
sistor connected in series with said ampli?er and
said polarized device.
5. In combination, a source of alternating cur
rent, a plurality of similar photo-electric tubes
connected to be supplied in parallel from said
source and reversely arranged whereby the posi
tive and negative half cycles of said current vary
in accordance with the relative illumination of
said tubes, an ampli?er having its input circuit
response to the polarity of the current supplied
series circuit with said device and the output
circuit of said ampli?er.
6. In combination, a plurality of radiation re
sponsive devices adapted to receive intermittent
radiation, an impedance member, means for pro
ducing a current ?ow through said member in 10
one direction or the other in accordance with
relative amounts of said intermittent radiation
received by said devices, means for amplifying
the potential difference across said impedance
member, an electro-responsive device operable in 15
one direction or the other in accordance with the
polarity of the current supplied thereto and a
non-linear resistor connected in series with said
electro-responsive device to receive the output of
said amplifying means.
'7. In combination, a plurality of radiation re
20
sponsive devices adapted to receive intermittent
radiation, a reactor, means for producing a cur
rent ?ow through said member in one direction
or the other in accordance with relative amounts 25
of said intermittent radiation received by said
devices, an ampli?er having its input circuit con
nected across said reactor, a zero center indicator
and a non-linear resistor connected in a series
circuit with said indicator and the output circuit 30
of said ampli?er.
HOWARD I. BECKER.
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