Патент USA US2132254код для вставки
Qc?lc 4, 193%0 H. n. BECKER STEERING 91329254 CRAFT Filed May 20, 1956 m . F _ ms?w‘m. b,2 w m. rM ‘f ea D/“Fi FT a” W AR A V I} AI m .v. 1 F .ma W o .t. , I. 9 ‘n 2,132,254 Patented Oct. 4, 1938 UNlTED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,132,254 . STEERING OF. CRAFT Howard I. Becker, Schenectady, N. Y., assignor to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York Application May 20, 1935, Serial No. 80,735 7 Claims. (Cl. 250-415) My invention relates to apparatus useful in the vices l and 2 connected in parallel with each steering of a craft with respect to a particular radiation. For example, it may be desired that the craft shall be kept on a course directed to— with respect to the other, that is, the anode and cathode of device l connects directly with the ward or away from the source of radiation or the desired course may make some de?nite angle with respect to source of radiation. In certain cases the radiation employed may comprise those visible wavelengths which constitute‘ light; in 10 other cases I may prefer to employ some of the invisible wavelengths having properties, such as fog penetration, not possessed by light. It is the object of my invention, therefore, to provide im proved apparatus useful in the steering of a craft Mr CM in the above-indicated manner. My invention will be better understood from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, and its scope will be pointed out in the appended claims. Referring to the drawing, Fig. 1 is a circuit diagram illustrating one embodiment of my in vention; Fig. 2 shows various wave forms present in the apparatus shown by Fig. 1; Fig. 3 illus trates a modi?cation of what is shown in Fig. l; and Fig. 4 like Fig. 2 shows various wave forms present in the modi?ed form represented by Fig. 3. In Fig. l of the drawing I and 2 represent two similar radiation responsive devices which are 30 mounted on the craft, not shown, to be steered, and are arranged in such .a manner that they are adapted to receive radiation from a certain source. For the purposes of illustration I have shown these devices as photoelectric tubes but it (Lo Cl is to be understood-that radiation responsive de vices of various other forms may be used depend ing upon the character of the radiation to which they are intended to be responsive. Devices l and 2 are supplied with alternating current hav ing a symmetrical wave form. Such a wave may be supplied by various well known devices of which the one that I have chosen to show in the present illustration is an oscillation generator which is adapted to produce a wave preferably of approximately 800 cycles per second. The gen erator is shown as comprising the electron dis charge tube 3, the transformer 4, and the ad justable transformer 5 across the primary of which is connected the capacitor 6 all connected together and to suitable voltage sources in a well known manner. This oscillation generator sup plies alternating current to the radiation respon sive devices through the transformer ‘l, the sec ondary of which is connected in series with the 55 primary of the transformer 8 and with the de other. Devices 5 and 2 are also reversed one cathode and anode respectively of device 2. As a result of this arrangement, it will be seen that if both devices i and 2 receive the same amount of radiation the current ?owing in the primary of the transformer 8 will have equal positive and negative half cycles inasmuch as the 10 generator supplies alternating current having a symmetrical wave. If, however, the radiation received by one device is greater than that re ceived by the other the current in the primary of transformer 8 will have a greater amplitude for the half cycle passed by the device subjected to the greater radiation than for the other half cycle. This may be more readily understood by referring to Fig. 2 where the curve it represents the symmetrical voltage wave applied to the de vices l and 2. If both devices receive the same amount of radiation the current flowing in the primary of transformer 8 will likewise have a sym metrical form. If, however, one of the devices, for example, device l, which it will be assumed passes the positive half cycles of applied current receives greater radiation than device 2, then the current traversing the primary of transformer 8 may have the asymmetrical form shown by curve H where the positive half cycle has a much 90 greater amplitude than the negative half cycle. Similarly if device 2 receives greater radiation than device I the current traversing the primary of transformer 8 might have the asymmetrical form shown by the dotted line it where the nega- 3. tive half cycle is greater than the positive half cycle. As the resulting asymmetrical waves thus ob tained are of very small. magnitude, it is desir able that they be suitably ampli?ed before being 40 applied to a responsive device which I am about to describe. For so amplifying the asymmetrical waves I have shown a three-stage ampli?er, which may be of any well known form, and which I have represented as comprising the three elec- 4,. tron discharge ampli?er tubes iii, 55, and i6, tubes M and !5 being connected by means of the ca pacitor ll’, tubes is and iii being connected by means of the transformer l8. By means of the transformer 3 a voltage wave is applied to the control grid of ampli?er tube M, the secondary of the transformer being shunted by the variable capacitor [9. The output of the last tube 55 of the ampli?er after being passed through the transformer 20, 55 2 2,132,254 which preferably is a step-down transformer, is used to operate the electroresponsive device in one direction or the other in accordance with whether the positive or negative half cycles have the CI greater maximum value, hence whether device I or device 2 is receiving the greater amount of radiation. The electror‘esponsive device which I have chosen to illustrate is a well known form of zero center indicating meter 2|. Current ?ow through the meter 2| in one direction causes the pointer 22 thereof to de?ect to one side of the zero and likewise current ?ow in the opposite direc tion shall cause the pointer to de?ect to the other side of zero. 15 Connected in series with the secondary of transformer 29 and the meter 2| is the non 20 25 30 86 greater in one direction than that in the other direction, and vice versa if device 2’ receives greater radiation than device I’. The poten tial difference across the reactor 28, which is shunted by the capacitor I9’, is ampli?ed by a three-stage ampli?er comprising tubes I4’, I5’, and I6’ as in Fig. 1 and the output circuit of the last ampli?er connects through the trans former 20’, the non-linear resistor 23’ with the right and left zero center indicator 2I’, all as 10 in Fig. 1. ' In Fig. 4 I have represented at 30 the pulses of the intermittent radiation received from the distant source which as pointed out above may comprise one or more neon lamps operated on an alternating current circuit. If device I’, for linear resistor 23. This resistor preferably is of > example, receives a greater amount of the ra the type described in United States Letters Pat diation than device 2’ the wave of potential dif ent No. 1,822,742 to K. B. Mc'I‘achron September ference across the reactor 28 and the capacitor 8, 1931, such a resistor being commercially I9’ due to the current passing the reactor and 20 known as “Thyrite”. The resistance and cur the effect of the capacitor may take the asym rent relationship of such a non-linear resistor metric form shown by the curve 3|. Likewise if can be expressed in the form of the hyperbolic device 2’ receives the greater amount of radia equation, RIa=C, Where R is the resistance, I is tion the wave of potential difference may have the current, and C and a are constants, the lat the asymmetric form shown by curve 32. These ter being less than unity. This material has curves while differing somewhat in form from 25 the peculiar property of reacting substantially the corresponding curves II and I2 of Fig. 2 instantaneously to asymmetrical wave shapes so due to the squarewave form 30 of the radiation that a direct current may be obtained there impulses and the distorting effect of the reactor from, but when symmetrical waves are applied 28, nevertheless have a characteristic common 30 to it no direct current results. In the appa thereto in that the maximum value of one half ratus thus described the direct current ?ow cycle is greater than that of the other in ac through the indicating meter 2| will be in a cordance with which of the two radiation de direction, such for example as will move the vices receives the greater amount of radiation. pointer to the right, if the radiation responsive The asymmetrical voltage waves after being device I is receiving the greater amount of ra ampli?ed by the three-stage ampli?er and ap 35 diation and will move to the left if radiation plied to the circuit including the non-linear re responsive device 2 is receiving the greater amount of radiation. If both devices I and 2 40 receive the same amount of radiation the pointer 22 will remain on zero. I preferably em ploy the bypass capacitor 24 which being con nected in shunt with the indicator 2! serves to bypass any alternating current which may pass Instead of employing the direct current received from the non-linear resistor 23 for operating the indi 45 through the non-linear resistor 23. sistor 23 produces a direct current in one direc tion or the other resulting in a right or left de?ection of the pointer of the indicator 2|’ just as in the case of the apparatus shown in 40 Fig. 1. Inasmuch as the radiation responsive devices of that form of my invention shown by Fig. 3 are supplied by continuous direct cur rent, the pointer of the indicator 2|’ will not be deflected in response to radiation which is 45 uniform and continuous but requires the use of cating device 2| I may employ it for the opera- ' radiation of an intermittent character. tion of an automatic steering device of any well 50 known form where the polarity and the amount of direct current control the direction taken by the craft. In that form of my invention shown by Fig. 1 it is assumed that the radiation received is rela 55 tively uniform in value. In the modi?ed form shown by Fig. 3 the source of radiation is in termittent or pulsating. Radiation of such a I have chosen the particular embodiments de The radiation responsive devices I.’ scribed above as illustrative of my invention and it will be apparent that various other modi?ca 50 tions may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of my invention which modi? cations I aim to cover by the appended claims. What I claim as new anddesire to secure by 55 Letters Patent of the United States is: 1. Incombination, means including a plurality of radiant energy responsive devices for produc— ing an alternating current whose positive and negative half cycles are proportional to the rela and 2’ in this case may be photo-electric tubes as in Fig. 1 but are excited by direct current tive amounts of energy received by said devices, 60 means for amplifying said alternating current, character may be produced, for example, by the use of a neon lamp excited by an alternating 60 current. which, for example, may be supplied by the bat tery 21. Opposite ends of the battery are shown 65 connected respectively with the cathode of de vice I’ and the anode of device 2’ and the mid point of the battery is shown connected through the reactor 28 with the anode of device I and the cathode of device 2. If with this arrange 70 ment both devices I’ and 2’ receive the same amount of radiation there will be no current flow through the reactor 28. However, if the radiation impulses reaching device I’, for ex ample, are greater than those reaching device 75 ,2’, the current flow through the reactor will be a device operative in one direction or the other in response to the polarity of the current supplied thereto and a non-linear resistor connected in circuit with said device and said amplifying 65 means. 2. In combination, means including a plurality of- similar radiation responsive devices for pro ducing an unsymmetrical alternating voltage wave Whose positive and negative half cycles vary in accordance with the relative amounts of radia tion received by said devices, an electro-respon sive device operable in one direction or the other in accordance with the polarity of the current 2,132,254 supplied thereto, a non-linear resistor connected 3 connected to be energized by said current, a in a series circuit therewith and means for ampli device operative in one direction or the other in fying said unsymmetrical wave and supplying it to said series circuit. 3. In combination, a plurality of rectifying radi thereto and a non-linear resistor connected in a ant energy responsive devices, a source of alter nating current, means for connecting said source with said devices, one device being reversed with respect to another, means for amplifying the cur 10 rent supplied by said source to said devices, a device operative in one direction or the other in response to the polarity of the current supplied thereto and a non-linear resistor connected in circuit with said device and said amplifying means. 4. In combination, a plurality of rectifying photo-electric devices, a source of alternating current, means for connecting said source with said devices, one device being reversed with re spect to another whereby an unsymmetrical wave is produced in response to an unequal illumina tion of said devices, an ampli?er for said wave, a polarity responsive device and a non-linear re sistor connected in series with said ampli?er and said polarized device. 5. In combination, a source of alternating cur rent, a plurality of similar photo-electric tubes connected to be supplied in parallel from said source and reversely arranged whereby the posi tive and negative half cycles of said current vary in accordance with the relative illumination of said tubes, an ampli?er having its input circuit response to the polarity of the current supplied series circuit with said device and the output circuit of said ampli?er. 6. In combination, a plurality of radiation re sponsive devices adapted to receive intermittent radiation, an impedance member, means for pro ducing a current ?ow through said member in 10 one direction or the other in accordance with relative amounts of said intermittent radiation received by said devices, means for amplifying the potential difference across said impedance member, an electro-responsive device operable in 15 one direction or the other in accordance with the polarity of the current supplied thereto and a non-linear resistor connected in series with said electro-responsive device to receive the output of said amplifying means. '7. In combination, a plurality of radiation re 20 sponsive devices adapted to receive intermittent radiation, a reactor, means for producing a cur rent ?ow through said member in one direction or the other in accordance with relative amounts 25 of said intermittent radiation received by said devices, an ampli?er having its input circuit con nected across said reactor, a zero center indicator and a non-linear resistor connected in a series circuit with said indicator and the output circuit 30 of said ampli?er. HOWARD I. BECKER.