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Патент USA US2132367

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ct“ 4, mm,
D. P. WOLHAUPTER
RAIL ANCHOR
Filed Jan. 15, 1957
2 PM?"
/ 'l
M3256?
2,132,367‘
Patented Oct. 4, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,132,367
‘ RAIL ANCHOR
David P. Wolhaupter, Washington, D. 0., assignm
to Poor & Company, Chicago, IlL, a corporation
of Delaware
Application January 15, 1937, Serial No. 120,785
3 Claims.
This invention relates'to anchors for railway
rails, and has particular reference to improve~
ments in rail anchors of the one-piece type formed
to be clampingly engaged with the base ?ange of
5 a rail, and to abut a side face of a cross tie or
(Cl. 238——330)
Weight prior anchors and still will possess all
of the advantages of light weight prior anchors,
and if it is made from lower grade steel it may
be made of lesser weight than heavy weight prior
anchors and still will possess all of the advantages
other stationary part of the roadbed to hold the
of heavy weight prior anchors. Alternatively, if
rail against creeping longitudinally.
it is made of the same weight as prior weight
anchors of either high or lower grade steel, it will
possess greater strength than the prior anchors.
Thus, if it is made of lower grade steel and com 10
Prior rail anchors of the one-piece type may
be divided intotwo main classes; namely, those
10 of relatively light weight made from high grade
steel, and those of relatively heavy weight made
parable in weight with light weight prior anchors,
from lower grade steel. Both classes have cer
tain advantages. For example, an anchor of the
it possesses all of the principal advantages of
light weight type made from high grade steel is
15 more resilient and consequently is more easily ap
plied to a rail than an anchor of the heavy weight
type. In addition, an anchor of the light weight
type is not required to be formed with the high
degree of accuracy required in the forming of an
anchor of the heavy weight type.’ Moreover, an
anchor of the light weight type can be formed
with sharp bends which cannot be done as satis
factorily in an anchor of the heavy weight type.
On the other hand, an anchor of the heavy weight
25 type has the advantages that it exerts a more
powerful grip on the rail than an anchor of the
light weight type and is not so likely, as an
anchor of the light weight type, to have its
holding power grip impaired as a result of verti
30 cal components of forces produced by sidewise
pressure of the anchor against a tie, or against
frozen ballast, when the rail tends to creep longi
tudinally.
I
»
both light weight and heavy weight prior anchors.
The invention is predicated upon a novel dis
tribution of the metal of a rail anchor bar, either
throughout its length or throughout only that
portion of its length which is comprised by the
loop or bight which connects its main body portion
with its cooperating rail~flange engaging jaw.
However, regardless of whether the present novel
metal distribution is con?ned to the loop or bight
portion of the anchor, or is practiced throughout,
the length of the anchor, important advantages of
the present construction are: that it provides
increased strength and stiffness for the loop or :..
bight portion thereof; that it aliords
a
striking
or driving face spaced outwardly from the cross
tie whereby its application to a rail is facilitated
and the’ likelihood of the corners thereof being
spalled or chipped during driving of the same
upon a rail is reduced; that, in its manufacture,
there will be less tendency to the formation of
incipient cracks therein, particularly at its loop
or bight portion, during shaping and quenching
One important object of the present invention
35 is to provide a rail anchor of the one-piece type
possessing the principal advantages of both
classes of prior one-piece anchors; that is to say,
or cooling thereof, and that it a?ords an in
creased bearing face area for cooperation with
the side of a cross tie, assuming, of course, that
to provide an anchor which may be made from
in practice the anchor will, as usual, work into
lower grade steel but comparable in weight with
40 light weight prior anchors made from high grade
steel, which possesses all of the advantages of
prior light weight anchors, and which, addition
ally, possesses the advantages of heavy weight
prior anchors, anent providing and maintaining
45 a powerful grip on the rail and being strongly
resistant at its clamping jaw to vertical deflections
tending to produce a permanent set of said jaw.
Stated another way, the present construction pro
vides for either a saving of metal without im
pairment of strength or increased strength with
out the addition of metal, as compared with
prior anchors, whether the anchor is made from
high grade or lower grade steel. In other words,
if the present anchor is made from high grade
55 steel it may be made of lesser weight than light
the tie.
,
'
To the end of attaining the foregoing and other
objects and advantages, which will become more
fully apparent as the nature of the invention is
better understood, the same consists in the novel
construction as will be hereinafter more fully de
scribed, illustrated in the accompanying drawing 45
and de?ned in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawing, wherein like
characters of reference denote corresponding
parts in related views:
Figure l is a side elevation of a rail anchor
made‘in accordance with the present invention
shown in its applied position to the base portion
of a railway rail.
. Figures 2 and 3 are horizontal sectional views
on the lines 9-~ii and I'D-4E} respectively of Fig. 1.
2
2,132,367
Figure 4 is an end view of the new form of rail
anchor shown applied to the ?ange of a rail base.
Figure 5 is a diagram illustrating the develop
ment of the cross-sectional shape of the metal
bar from which the present anchor is formed in
dicating, by dotted lines, the relation of the new
shape to a bar of rectangular cross-section and
the vertices of the triangles which are eliminated
to provide the truncated formation.
10
Referring to the drawing in detail, it will be
observed that the present anchor is of a well
known type formed from a single length or bar
of spring steel, and that it comprises primarily
a main body portion If!’ to underlie the base of
a rail, a U-shaped clamping jaw II’ at one end
of said body portion ID’ to receive and grip one
of the rail ?anges, and a locking shoulder l2’ at
the other end of said body portion I 0' to en
gage the edge of the other ?ange of the rail to
20 retain the anchor in position on the rail.
While the anchor may be of any desired gen
eral shape, it is preferably of the type illustrated
having the end portions I3, I3 of its main body
portion l0’ disposed in longitudinal alinement
25 with each other and having its portion inter
(a, in dotted lines) comprises the metal of its
corners or displaced, as indicated at IT, and
worked into the inner and the outer tapering
portions as indicated at I8. This may conven
iently be done by an initial forging or rolling
operation.
The precise ?nal sectional shape of the loop
portion of the anchor may vary so long as the
original thickness of the bar is preserved me
dially of the loop and so long as the displaced 10
corner metal is distributed into the inner and
the outer projecting portions I8 of the bar to
obtain the increased moment of inertia value in
the loop. However, a symmetrical ?nal sectional
shape of the bar is preferred, and this shape may
be as shown in Fig. 5.
That is to say, the inner
and the outer portions of the loop, considering
the same crosssectionally, may have the form
of oppositely disposed or back-to-back trape
zoids, or, in other words, the inner and the outer
portions of the loop may have their side faces
equally converged toward the inner and the
outer edges of the loop from points spaced equal
distances from the middle of the loop as viewed
from the side.
-
mediate said end portions, bent or curved down
It is preferred that the original bar, through
wardly as indicated to a?'ord a wider tie engage
out its length, shall have the new sectional shape
of the finished anchor. In fact, it is‘ desirable
to form the anchor from a bar which, throughout
its length, is of the desired cross sectional shape 1
of the loop of the ?nished anchor.
In bending a bar to form a loop such as the
loop if’, there usually occurs a stretching of the
metal at the outer side of the loop and a com
ment, one of the end portions l3 being provided
with the aforementioned locking shoulder l2’
which extends upwardly from the outer end of
said end portion. The other end portion [3 com
prises the lower member of the aforementioned
U-shaped clamping jaw II’, the upper jaw mem
ber l5’ of which is formed by bending a con
35 tinuation of the last mentioned end portion l3
upwardly
and
inwardly
into
superimposed,
spaced relationship to said end portion. This
type of anchor is the well known Fair Anchor.
In accordance with the present invention, it is
40 intended that the loop or bight of the jaw ll’
shall have a deeper cross-sectional dimension
longitudinally of the anchor than transversely
thereof, and yet the amount of metal comprised
in said loop, considering the same cross section
45 ally, is not greater than would be comprised
therein if said loop were of rectangular cross
section in accordance with prior common prac
tice and equal in thickness to the present loop.
The consequence is that, as compared with the
50 jaw members of a prior anchor connected, by a
cross-sectionally rectangular loop of any given
width or depth, the jaw members of the present
anchor may be connected by a loop, of the same
cross-sectional area as the undeformed loop of
the prior anchor, have a stronger grip and are
more resistant to being spread apart and/or
“set” by the vertical component of forces pro
duced by sidewise pressure of the anchor against
a cross tie T or against frozen ballast when the
60 rail R tends to creep longitudinally.
Yet, as
aforesaid, there may be involved in the loop of the
present anchor any greater sectional area of
metal than in the sectionally rectangular loop
of the prior anchor.
In the present invention the novel cross sec
tional elongation of the ban from which the
anchor is formed, or deepening of the loop is
effected, without adding metal thereto or in any
way weakening the loop, by, in effect, removing
metal from the corners of the bar, where it is of
little or no value, and redistributing it into the
projecting inner and the outer portions of the
loop. This is best illustrated in Fig. 5 of the
drawing, from which ?gure it will be noted that,
75 .as compared with a sectionally rectangular bar
pression or concentration of metal at the inner ,
side of the loop. Therefore, in order to assure
that the inner and the outer portions of the fin
ished loop shall be substantially reversed sym
metrical duplicates of each other in sectional
shape, it is preferable to provide, before the bend
ing operation, a greater amount of taper in that
side portion of the original bar which is to com
prise the inner side portion of the loop than in
that side portion of the bar which is to comprise
the outer side portion of the loop. By so doing,
the stretching and the compression of the metal
respectively at the outer and the inner portions
of the loop, during forming thereof, will result
in said portions, in the ?nished loop, being sub
stantially reversed sectional duplicates of each
50
other. However, so long as that portion of the
bar which is to be bent to form the loop has a
cross-sectional shape of the general character
illustrated in Fig. 5 a great advantage is that in
the forming of the loop the likelihood of incip
ient cracks occurring in the loop, particularly at
the inner side thereof, is greatly reduced, due to
the freedom with which the metal may ?ow into
the voids provided by the tapered sides of the bar.
Figures 1 and 2 of the drawing are illustra to
tive of some of the more important advantages
of the present anchor as compared with prior
anchors. First, of course, there is the advantage
of increased strength in the loop, so that when
the jaw II’ is driven onto one of the rail ?anges
l2’ as illustrated in Fig. 1, until the lug I2 snaps
behind the edge of the other rail ?anges and
thereby retains the anchor on the rail, it grips
the rail more powerfully than prior anchors and
any likelihood of the jaw members l3 and I5’ 70
being strained apart to a permanent set in any
manner is correspondingly reduced. In addition,
there is the advantage of the increased bearing
area afforded by the loop for cooperation with
the side of the tie, since, in practice, the side of
2,132,367
the loop works into the tie until eventually the
entire side face of the loop engages the tie.
Moreover, there is the advantage, when the an
chor initially is applied to the rail, that the
outer rounded edge of the loop I6 is held spaced
from the tie whereby it may easily be struck a
solid blow with a hammer and whereby the
danger of striking the same a glancing blow with
consequent spalling or chipping of the corners
10 of the loop is correspondingly reduced.
As heretofore described bar is bent to pro~
vide a body portion ID’, a jaw II’ and a locking
shoulder l2’. In addition, in order to provide
bearing 01' contact faces substantially the full
width of the bar at the points where the mem
bers l3’ and I5’ of the clamping jaw i!’ and
the member I3’ adjacent to the locking shoulder
l2’ engage the rail ?ange, the bar at these points
may be ?attened and widened, as indicated at
20 a, b and 0, respectively.
It is known that by cutting off the vertex as
d in Fig. 5 of a triangular beam at a de?nite
depth, a trapezoidal section can be formed whose
maximum strength will be greater than the
25 strength of the original triangular section and
such a section is known as the paradox beam.
3
section of the same area and as compared with
a section comprising, in effect, two truly trian
gular sections disposed in opposed relationship.
It is upon this plan of metal distribution that
the present invention is based.
I claim:
1. A rail anchor formed from a metal bar of
truncated triangular form both above and below
its horizontal-axis with an intervening portion
of rectangular cross-section, said bar being of 10
greater depth vertically than horizontally and
provided at one end with a resilient rail grip
ping jaw and at its opposite end with rail en
gaging retaining means, said rectangular por
tion of the bar providing side ?at tie engaging 15
faces, the edge portion of the rail engaging trun
cated triangular part of the bar being provided
with laterally widened rail bearing faces at the
locations of the bar which engage the rail, said
bar. being otherwise of uniform cross-section
throughout its length.
2. A rail anchor formed from a metal bar of
a tapering and narrowed formation both above
and below its horizontal axis with an intervening
portion of rectangular cross-section, said bar
being of greater depth vertically than horizon
In cross section, either substantially throughout
tally and provided at one end with a resilient
its length, or at least in the loop or bight por
rail gripping jaw and its opposite end with rail
engaging retaining means, said rectangular por
tion providing side flat tie engaging faces, the
edge portion of the rail engaging narrowed part
of the bar being provided with laterally widened
tion thereof, the present anchor comprises, in
30 effect, two oppositely disposed, truncated trian
gular sections. Therefore, it is of greater strength
than if said sections were of true triangular
shape. Moreover, due to the increased depth
of the bar of the present anchor, particularly in
the loop or bight of the anchor, as compared
with a rectangular bar having the same sectional
area of metal, the present anchor obviously is
of materially greater strength, in gripping and
holding power. It thus follows that the present
40 anchor may be made considerably lighter than
prior anchors made from bars of rectangular
rail bearing faces at the locations of the bar
which engage the rail, said bar being otherwise
of uniform cross-section throughout its length.
3. A rail anchor formed from a metal bar of
truncated triangular form both above and below
its horizontal axis with an intervening portion
of rectangular cross-section and of uniform cross
section throughout its length, said bar being of 40
greater depth vertically than horizontally and
cross section and with a consequent material
provided at one end with a resilient rail grip
saving in cost, without sacri?cing strength; or,
alternatively, that increased strength is obtained
ping jaw and at its opposite end with rail en
45 without the use of more metal than has hereto
fore been used in anchors made from bars of
rectangular cross section. In this connection,
Fig. 5 of the drawing illustrates the present
sectional shape as compared with a rectangular
gaging retaining means, said rectangular portion
of the bar providing side ?at tie- engaging faces,
and the inside edge portion of the inner trun
cated triangular part of the bar providing ?at
rail engaging faces.
DAVID P. WOLHAUPTER.
45
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