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Патент USA US2132376

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Oct. 11, 1938.
a. M. BIRD "
METHOD
2,132,316
J IGGING
Filed July 23, 1934
5/ Sheei's-She'et 1
[Viki/V702:
BYRON M, BIRD
Oct. 11, 1938.
B. M. BIRD
' 2,132,376
METHOD OF J IGGING
Filed July 23, 1934
5 Shueets-Sheet 2
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Oct. 11, 1938.
’B_ M_ BlRD
2,132,376
METHOD OF JIGGING
Filed July 23, 1934
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BYRON M. Buan
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Oct. 11, 1938.
B.‘ M. BIRD
2,132,376
METHOD OF JIGGING
Filed July 23, 1934
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Patented Oct. 11, 1938
, 2,132,376
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,132,376
METHOD OF JIGGING
Byron M. Bird, Columbus, Ohio, assignor to The
Je?’rey Manufacturing Company, a corporation
of Ohio
Application July 23, 1934,: Serial No. 736,443
»
In Great Britain July 24, 1933
17 Claims.
(Cl. 209-500)
This invention relates to the art of jigging,
which in general is the stratification of a bed of
material resting upon a screen by means of up
'
5
ward pulsations of water, or alternating upward
and downward pulsations of water with respect
to said bed of material.
- The particular problem which this application
will consider, as illustrative, is the strati?cation
of raw coal into clean coal and refuse such as
shale, “bone" and pyrite. This raw material is
chosen purely as illustrative and not as restrictive,
for the method disclosed may be employed for
the stratification of other minerals.
anism of Figs. 5 and 6 taken ‘on the line 7-7 of
Fig. 5;
.
r ‘Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken on. the line,8--8
of Fig. 5;
v
.
Figs. 9, 10 and 11 are typical time-velocity
curves illustrating a single cycle of movement of
the jigging ?uid with respect to a sieve, accord;
ing to the method of my invention; and
Fig. 12 is a graphical illustration of the condi- .
tion of a bed undergoing jigging according to my 10
method at several stages of each cycle of 'opera~
tion.
’
>
,
-
The principal function of jigging is to effect a
One object of the invention is to provide a new ' separation of different classes of materials ac
' method of jigging by providing a new cycle of
operation of the jigging ?uid, both as to the
period of a complete cycle employed for pulsion,
and suction, and as to the particular shape of a
curve representing the pulsion and suction
periods, as a ?uid time-velocity curve.
‘
;cording‘ to speci?c gravity found in the native 15
state in one mass.
In the art of coal cleaning,
the problem is to separate the coal from the im
purities found therewith, as it comes from a
mine. Such impurities may be shale, “bone” and
pyrite. Where a sized feed is employed with a
Another object of the‘invention is to provide" jig, the problem is not unusually difficult of solu 20
a new and highly e?icient jigging stroke which is tion, but sizing requires considerable operation
effective to stratify a large range of sizes of a raw
on the coal and, of course, increases the cost of
coal containing impurities according to the cleaning
thereof. It is therefore desirable to
speci?c
gravities
of
its
constituents.
2.5
effect a strati?cation and classi?cation of a. coal
Another object of the invention is to provide a
new cycle of operation of a jigging liquid which
will give a high capacity of separation for the
amount of liquid used and the amount of power
consumed.
7
Another object of the invention is to provide a
' new method of controlling the admission and ex
vhaustion of air under pressure to an air controlled
jig and to introduce two new periods in acycle of
35
air control thereof.
.
‘
Still another object of the invention is to pro
vide a new method of controlling the periodic con
dition of a bed of material undergoing a jigging
operation to provide improved Strati?cation of
4,0
the materials thereof.
v
Other objects of the invention will appear here
inafter, the ‘novel features and combinations being
set forth in the appended claims.
In the drawings:
45
,
-
'
Fig. .3 is a side elevational view of another form
of ‘apparatus which may be employed to carry out
-
1
-
Fig. 4 is an end elevational view of the device
of Fig. 3;
',
'
,
Fig. 5 is an enlarged detailed elevational view
of a valve and eccentric mechanism which may be
employed with the device of Figs. 1 and 2;
Fig. 6 is a sectional elevational view of the
device of Fig. 5;
‘
, Fig. 7 is a sectional view of the eccentric mech
the stratification of an unsized feed or of a feed
of a large size range and provides a more com
plete separation of the clean coal and coal im
purities than has heretofore been realized. The 35
method also reduces the amount of water and .
power necessary to effect the cleaning of the raw
coal and thus presents a more efficient method
than thoseheretofore in use. While my inven
tion realizes its greatest utility and advancement 40
in the art in the cleaning of an unsized feed, it
also has certain distinct advantages when em
ployed with a sized feed, as will hereinafter ap
pear.
Fig. 1 is an elevational end view of one form of
apparatus which may be employed to‘ carry out
my invention, parts being shown in section; Fig. 2 is a side elevational view of the device.
of Fig. 1 with parts shown in section;
.
my method;
bed without requiring a sizing operation, or, in 25
other words, to operate upon an unsized bedor a‘
bed comprised of a large range of sizes. It'is
here that the principal problems of stratification
are presented. My method is directed particu
larly to a solution of these problems presented in so
~
The art of jigging of minerals thereby to stratify 45
. and separate the constituent particles of a raw
‘ mineral according to the speci?c gravities of
the separate particles, particularly by the use
of w fer as a jigging ?uid, is very old.
_
Q te ‘generally, jigging’ devices comprise a 50
sieve ,or screen for supporting the raw material,
some means for cyclically forcing water upward
ly through‘ said sieve or screen and generally al~
lowing part of said water to return back through
said screen. Part of said water ?ows over a dam
or weir and carries with it the particles of the
lower speci?c gravity, while the [particles of .v
higher speci?c gravity collect on the screen or are
' drawn down into a hutch below the screen,
they are small enough. Some means is provided
2,132,376
2
to remove the heavier particles of material ‘ac
cumulated on the screen, generally constituting ‘a
continuous process.
"
-
39 and each has communication with the upper
part of a chamber 24, individual to each of the
sub-compartments 31, 31, under the control of
.
,As employed in this speci?cation and in the
5 claims, any movement of water upwardly through
the sieve or screen will be a pulsion movement;
thus, during each cycle of operation, there will be
a pulsion period during which water moves up
an eccentric-operated,‘ periodically-reciprocating
valve 40. The structure details of a valve 40,
which is particularly adapted to be used to carry
out my method, are illustrated in Fig. 6 and will
be considered more in detail hereinafter.
wardly through the sieve or screen. Any move
10 ment of the ?uid downwardly through the screen
will be a suction movement; thus, during any
cycle of operation in which suction is used, there
The plunger 4| of the valve 40 is connected by
a connecting rod 42 to an eccentric mechanism
43 operated from the motor 44 through the gear
reduction mechanism 45. The details of an ec
centric mechanism which is particularly adapted
will be a period during which water moves down
wardly through the sieve or screen. A suction
to cooperate with the valve 40 in carrying out my
to prevent a suction stroke or period, and this
may possibly be done in my method of operation.
20 However, as will hereinafter appear, I prefer to
employ a suction stroke or period, for, in operat
plate 46. which, with a stationary guide plate 41,
method is shown in detail in Figs. 5, 6 and 7 and '
15 stroke or period is not essential to a jigging oper
.
will be described hereinafter.
ation and sometimes is not used. This is accom
Adjacent the refuse outlet 229 is a refuse dis
. plished by supplying su?icient water to the hutch charge chute having a pivoted pressure release
ing upon an unsized feed, it has been found to
be practically essential to proper strati?cation as
it is particularly effective in separating the small
25 particles of refuse from the larger [particles of
'
coal.
V
The term mobility, as-employed in this appli
cation and in the claims is defined as that con
7 ditipn of the bed in which all of the particles are
30 just free to movewith' respect to each other.
Before discussing in detail the method com
prising my invention, it is deemed well to first
consider certain apparatus which may be em—
35
ployed to carry out said method. ’
Two devices are illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4.
either of which may be employed to carry out the
method constituting my invention, in its broadest
aspects. The device of Figs. 1 and 2 is also par
directs refuse from the sieve 28 to a discharge
control paddle wheel valve 48. Upon rotation of
said paddle wheel valve 48, under the control of
the mechanism hereinafter described, measured
quantities of the refuse are discharged into the
refuse chamber 49 where it may be removed by a 25
bucket-type chain elevator mechanism 50 which
discharges the refuse at the port 5|. The driving
chain of said elevator mechanism 59 is driven by
motor 44 through the reduction gears 45 operat
ing through a chain and sprocket mechanism 52. 30
In order to remove the ?ne particles of refuse
which collect in the bottom of the hutch 26, a
screw mechanism 53 is provided in the refuse
sump 54 which delivers said ?ne particles to the
refuse chamber 49 through a small door 55.
Said door'55 is made just sufficiently large to al
low the discharge of material from said sump 54
‘to said refuse chamber 49 and is maintained
small in order to confine the pulsion of the
ticularly adapted to carry out the method of my ‘ jigging liquid to the said sub-compartments 31, 40
40 invention in one of its more speci?c aspects, and
that of Figs. 3 and 4 in another speci?c aspect.
Referring ?rst to the device illustrated in Figs.
1 and 2, there is seen a jigging compartment com
prising a tank 20 mounted between upright sup
45 ports 2|, 2| carried on the base member 22 com
prising a supporting frame. Projecting down
wardly into the tank 20 and longitudinally dis
:posed with respect thereto is a plate 23 which,
with the bottom of said tank 20, forms a U-shaped
50 compartment providing an air chamber 24 and a
washing chamber 25. Below said chambers 24
and 25 and comprising a part of the tank 20, is a
hutch 26. Carried between the plate 23 and one
- side wall 21 of said tank 20, is a sieve 28 which
55 may be in the form of a screen or perforate plate.
Said sieve 28, is provided with reinforcing ribs 29
and, as viewed in Fig. 1, extends along a horizon
tal line. As illustrated in Fig.2, said sieve 28
slopes downwardly toward the right and directs
'60 refuse which is collected thereon toward the
refuse discharge port 229.
Adjacent the side wall 30 of the tank 20, there
is provided a water inlet conduit 3| in communi
cation with any desired source of water supply.
65 A hand-operated valve 32 is provided in said con
duit 3| to regulate the ?ow of water to the hutch
26.
At 33 there is seen a source of air pressure
which may comprise a blower, the output of
which is delivered to a pressure tank 34 by a con
70 duit 35. From said pressure tank 34 extend indi
vidual conduits 36, one for each of the sub-com
partments 31, 31, into which said tank 20 is divided as by a laterally-disposed, vertically-ex
tending plate 38. The conduits 35 may each be
75 provided with a manually-operable control valve
31 and to prevent any substantial pulsion of the
?uid. in the refuse chamber 49. The mechanism
for operating the refuse paddle wheel valve 48
is substantially the same as that illustrated in the
‘device of Figs. 3 and 4 and will be described in 45
connection with said ?gures. However, the driv
ing pawl is reciprocated by a driving mechanism
driven from motor 44.
The material to be jigged is fed to the device
at the inlet 56 and progresses to the right, as
viewed in Fig. 2 across the sieve 28 during the
jigging operation. Fine refuse particles are
drawn through said sieve 28 into the hutch 26
and large refuse particles collect on said plate
28 to be discharged through the refuse port 229.
The jigging liquid ?owing over the bailie or weir
51 carries with it the cleaned coal which is dis
charged at the discharge chute 58.
It is to be noted that the valves 40, for each
of the sub-compartments 31, 31, are operated
from a single motor 44; thus they are operated
in synchronism. However, each of said valves 40
is individually adjustable and in addition the ec
centric mechanism 43 for each of said valves
40 is individually adjustable. Therefore, the par 65
ticular cycle of operation of each of the sub
compartments .31, 31 may be individually con
trolled and varied at will. In addition, each of
said sub-compartments 31 is provided ‘with its
individual conduit 3| and water control valve .32
whereby the amount of water of jigging fluid
which is admitted to each of said sub-compart
ments 31 may be individually controlled. The
individual valves 39, 39 provide additional in
dividual and independent control of the admis 75
2,132,376
sion of air to the chamber 24 of each of the sub
compartments 31.
Referring to ‘Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 8, there,‘ is dis
closed an eccentric-operated valve mechanism
particularly adapted to carry out my method of
operation in the device illustrated in Figs. 1 and
2. However, neither the valve structure, per se,
nor the eccentric structure, per se, illustrated in
Figs. 5, 6, 7 and 8, is my sole invention but each is
10 the invention of another party. As illustrated in
said Figs. 5 and 6, the valve'40 comprises a cylin
der 59 provided near the upper part thereof with
circumferential inlet ports .60 communicating
with a circumferential .chamber 6| provided with
15 a pipe ?tting 62. Adjacent the lower part of said
cylinder 59 are a plurality of discharge ports 63
communicating with atmospheric pressure. The
bottom'part of said cylinder 59 communicates
with a belled conduit 64 forming the upperv part
of the air chamber 24. The upper part of the
cylinder 59 is provided with a head 65 having an
integral guide sleeve 66.
3
adjustment is made between said pistons 61 and
68, said pistons are adapted to move in unisonv
under the control of the connecting rod 42. By
virtue of the adjustability afforded by the screw
threaded connection between the threaded por
tion 14 of the hollow sleeve 13 and the cooperat
ing threaded portion of the guide thimble'l5,
said guide thimble 15 may be adjusted with re
spect to said hollow sleeve 13 and thus the posi
tions of said pistons 81 and 68 may be adjusted 10
for any given position of the connecting rod 42._
The upper end' of the connecting rod 42 'is
connected to an eccentric mechanism 43. Said
eccentric mechanism is of the variable throw type
and may be of any well-known construction.
There is illustrated in Figs. 5, 6 and 7 a par
ticular eccentric mechanism which is well adapt
ed for use in carrying out the method of my in-_
' vention, particularly in conjunction with the
valve 40. Said eccentric mechanism comprises
a split strap 86 rigidly connected with the con
necting rod 42. -Mounted upon shaft 81 for rota
tion therewith, is a bushing 88 provided with a
circumferential ?ange'89and a cylindrical hub
98. Said hub 90 is adapted to ?t into an oval
shaped. opening 9| in an eccentric plate 92, which
plate is carried rigid with the bushing 88 be
tween the ?ange 8.9 and a retaining washer 93
Within the cylinder 59 is a pair of pistons 61
and 68. The piston 61 is adapted to control the
opening andclosing of the inlet ports ‘68 and the
piston 68 is adapted to control the opening and
closing of the discharge ports 63. The piston 61
is provided with‘ a ‘central hub 69 and axially
extending spokes 10. The spokes 10 permit the _ bolted to said bushing 88.. The stroke of the
'free'movement of the air received through the connecting rod 42 .is, of course, controlled by
inlet port 60, through the. cylinder 59 to the con
the displacement of .the'axis of the eccentric
duit 64 and into the air chamber 24, when said plate 92 and the axis‘ of the shaft 81;'that is‘,
» piston 61 is in said inlet port opening position.
The piston '68 is also provided with a hub 1| and
spokes 12in order to allow the above mentioned
the stroke will be twice this displacement. In '
order to control variably the stroke of said con
necting rod 42, the eccentric plate 92 is made
adjustable with respect to said bushing 88 where
Rigidly attached to the hub 69 is a hollow sleeve by said axial displacement may be controlled
13 adapted to be guided in the guide sleeve 66. at will. The oval-shaped opening 9| permits
The upper end of said hollow sleeve 13 is screw
relative adjustment between said eccentric plate
threaded as illustrated at 14 and is adapted to 92 and said bushing 88. To effect this adjust
screw-threadedly receive a split guide thimble 15 vment, the ?ange 89 is provided with three angu
which may be clamped rigid thereto after having larly-displaced conical holes 95' adapted selec
been adjusted to a desired position with ‘respect tively to receive'the frusto-conical head 95 of a
to the threaded neck portion ‘not said guide pin 94, the axis of which is displaced with re
thimble 15. The inner cylindrical surface of said spect to the axis of said pin 94. Said pin 94v
free passage of air through the cylinder 59.v
guide thimble ‘I5 is adapted to slide on the outer
surface of the guide sleeve 66. A U-shaped link
‘l8 carrying a connecting rod 42 is pivoted to later-.
50
ally-extending lugs 8|], 89 of the thimble 15.
Projecting through the longitudinal opening
8| of the hollow sleeve 13 is a shaft 82 rigidly
attachedat its lower end with the hub ‘H of the
piston 68 and adjustably connected to the hollow
sleeve ‘I3 at its upper end by screw threads 83.
55 A clamping nut 84 is provided for clamping said
shaft 82 ‘rigid with said hollow sleeve 13 after
the former is adjusted to a desired position. To
provide for the adjustment of said shaft 82 with
is adapted to be received in a drill hole in the
plate 92. The axial extension 91 of said con
ical head 95 is‘screw-threaded to receive a nut
96 and at its extremity is squared to receive a
too]. By virtue of this adjusting device, the posi
tion of the bushing 88 with respect to said eccen
tric plate 92 may be adjustably determined and
?xed in adetermined position. This is accom
plished by placing head 95 in one of the three
singularly-displaced holes 95' and rotating said .55
pin about its axis to move the hub 90 of bush
ing 88 to any desired position in the oval-shaped
opening 9| where it may be‘ held by‘ clamping
respect to said hollow sleeve 13, the top of said ,home the nut 96. As illustrated in Fig. 7, the distance between the outer wall of the hub 99
within the oval opening 9| and the wall de?ning
said opening 9| may be adjusted by rotation of
shaft 82 is preferably squared as indicated‘ at 85
whereby a wrench may be employed to rotate
said shaft 82 and thereby effect its adjustment.v
The portion 19 of sleeve 18 is also squared to
receives, tool and thus prevent its turning with
shaft 82 during its adjustment.
"
I
As the piston 61 is rigidly attached to the
hollow sleeve '13 and as the piston 68 is rigidly
attached to the shaft 82, it is obvious that by
rotating said shaft 82, which is screw-threaded
70 at 88 with said hollow sleeve 18, the position of
the piston 88 may be adjusted with respect to
the piston‘ 81.
the pin 94 about its axis. This may be e?ected
by a wrench ?tted on the axial extension 97.
' Along the section line illustrated in said Fig. 7,
the mentioned walls are spaced at substantially
their maximum distance. By rotating the head
95, the axis of the pin 94 will move downwardly,
as viewed in Fig. 7, and will decrease the men--_
tioned distance. In addition to the above men 70
tioned adjustment, by removing retaining washer
This adjustment may be made ' 93, it is possible to move eccentric plate 92 axi
within wide limits and, when any‘desired ad
ally and disengage the head 95 from one coni
Justment is eifected. it may be maintained by
15 clamping home the clamp nut 84. After said cal hole 95' and rotate this plate either 120 or
240 ‘degrees, and place said head '95 in another 1|
13
2,182,878
conical hole. That is, plate 92 may have any
one of three positions relative to bushing 88 vand
connecting rod 42. By this expedient, the valves
of any machine, though driven from a common
shaft 81, may be in place or di?er by 120 or 240
degrees from any other valve. This provides for
tained until the connecting rod 42 has substan
tially completed its stroke in the upward direc
tion under the control of the eccentric mecha
nism 43. When connecting rod 42 substantially
completes its upward stroke, said discharge ports 5
63 are opened while the inlet port GI is main
non-synchronous admission of the air to the
various sub-chambers which is sometimes desir
able for various reasons.
By employing the adjustable eccentric mech
10
anism and the adjustable dual piston valve
mechanism illustrated in Figs. 5, 6, '7 and 8',
very ?exible control of the. admission, mainte
nance and discharge of air under pressure to the
chamber 24 is provided. The adjustable eccen
15 trio mechanism provides for an adjustable stroke
of the connecting rod 42 and a resulting adjust
able stroke for the pistons 61 and 68 and for
adjusting the phase relation between the two or
20 more valves. The adjustable thimble 15 pro
vides for an adjustable determination of the
limits within which said pistons 61 and 68 will
operate for any given eccentric adjustment and
any given relative adjustment of pistons-61 and
68; and the adjustment provided between the
shaft 82 and the hollow sleeve 13 provides an
adjustment for the relative positions of the pis
tons 61 and 68 which, in turn, provides for the
relative time of opening and closing of the inlet
port 60 and the discharge ports 63. Instead of
employing the eccentric mechanism 43 for oper
tained closed and the chamber 24 is free to ex
haust at, atmospheric pressure. During the fol
lowing downward movement of pistons 61 and 68,
exhaust ports 63 are closed while inlet port 80 is 10
maintained closed'and the chamber 24 is effec
tively sealed. This completes a cycle of opera
tion.
In the specification and claims, the period dur
ing which inlet port 60 is open and ?uid under 15
pressure is added to the air chamber 24, is desig
nated the inlet period. The following period
during which ports 60 and 63 are both closed is
designated the expansion period. The following
period during which exhaust ports 63 are open is 20
called the exhaust period and the ?nal period
during which ports -60 and 63 are closed under
initial atmospheric pressure is called the com
pression period. It may be noted that with this
particular valve construction, the expansion and 25.
compression periods are of necessity of the same
duration, while the inlet and exhaust periods
may be varied within wide limits and be of di?er
ent
duration.
’ By lowering
‘1
the posi on of the piston 61 with 39
respect to the connecting rod 42, the period dur
ating said valve 40, I may employ a cam device ing which the inlet port SI is maintained open
and the cam surface may be given any desired _ may be increased and by raising said piston with
respect thereto said period may be reduced. This
period may be varied between wide limits, from 20 :15
ity of interchangeable cams may be provided to ‘ degrees to 300 degrees of movement vof shaft 01,
afford greater ?exibility of operation of said by controlling the position of said piston 61 onv
‘said hollow sleeve 13. Likewise, by lowering the
valve 40.
'
position of piston 68 with respect to connecting
With the valve‘ 40 and the eccentric 43 ad
justed as illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6, and with the rod 42, the period during which the discharge 40
con?guration for operating valve 40 through any
desired cycle of operation. If desired, a plural
shaft 81 rotated in a counter-clockwise direction~
as viewed ‘in Fig. 5, the cycle of operation of the
admission, maintenance, and discharge of the
air to the chamber 24 will be substantially as
v
'
follows:
With valve 40 in the position illustrated in m.
6, both the inlet port 60 and. discharge ports 63
ports 63 are open may be reduced and by rais
ing said piston with respect thereto said period
may be increased.
This period. may also be
varied between “the limits above mentioned for
,
piston 61. It is to be noted that thelength or 45
the piston 61 is such that under no condition may
said piston be moved upwardly su?icient to open
the inlet port 60. This requires the opening of
initial atmospheric pressure following a period of ' the. inlet port 60 to take place only during the
downward movement of the connecting rod 42. 50
exhaustion of chamber 24. As the shaft 81 ro
The piston 68 is also 'of.such length and is pre!- _
tates counter-clockwise and the pistons 61 and erably so adjusted that under no condition will
68 are moved downward, the inlet port 60 is the discharge ports 63 be opened duringa down
opened as the eccentric device “'43 approaches the ward movement of the connecting rod 42. That
lower limit of its stroke. The discharge ports 63 is, inlet port 60 under the control of the piston 55
are maintained closed through this portion of the 61 is ‘adapted to be opened only in response to a
cycle. It may be noted that as the inlet port 60 downward movement_ of the connecting rod 42
does not begin to open until the eccentric 43 has anddischarge ports 63 under the control of pis
approached the downward extremity of its stroke ton 88 are adapted to be opened only in response
that the rate of opening of said port 50 will be . to an upward movement of vthe connecting rodtco
small in comparison with what it would have been 42. Furthermore, the pistons i1 and ‘i are pref
had said port ‘started to open at approximately erably
so adjusted that under no condition will
the instant the axis of the eccentric plate 9| ports 60 and 63 be open at the same .time for, if
passed below the axis of the shaft 81. With the. this condition exists, the air under pressure will
connecting rod 42 in its extreme downward posi
enter the cylinder 59 through the inlet port ‘I and 65
85 tion of the stroke, the inlet port 60 will be com
be discharged to the atmosphere through the
pletely opened and the discharge ports 63 will be discharge ports 53 thereby wasting the air and
are closed and the chamber 24 is sealed at an
closed. Under these conditions, the ?uid under doing no useful work.
.
*
'I
pressure would be admitted to the chamber 24
It is obvious that the portion of any cycle of
to produce upward movement of the jigging ?uid operation during which inlet port 5! is opened
70 throughv the sieve 28. On the return movement . and discharge ports 64 closed may be varied-with
of the connecting rod 42 under the control of the in wide limits. Likewise, the portion of
eccentric 43, the inlet port 60 is closed while the during which discharge ports 63 are opened and
outlet ports 63 are maintained closed. Under inlet port 60 is closed may be varied within wide
these conditions, the chamber 24 is effectively ' limits.- In addition, the condition under which
sealed under pressure and this condition is main
70
-
'
'
.15
2,132,878
5
both the inlet port 50 and the discharge ports 63
IOI at Ill and is pivotally connected to the
are closed may be varied within wide limits and,
piston rod I07 at the point “0 intermediate the
in fact, this period may be reduced. to substan
ends of said piston rods I07. The jigging ?uid
tially 0 or increased to substantially 150 degrees. resting
on the piston I05 exerts a downward
It may be noted, however, that with this valve _ force thereon which force may be at least par
construction this period cannot exceed, even tially balanced by the coil spring II 4 operating 5
theoretically, 180' degrees and as a practical
through the lever H0 and its extension H2. The
matter-the limit is probably about 150 degrees. lever H0 is provided at its lower face with an
In addition, the rate at which the ports 00 and 03 arcuate rack H9 with which is adapted to co
10 are opened or closed once their respective pis
tons commence an opening ~or closing operation
operate a gear I20 carried upon the upper end
of an arm Iii provided at its lower end with a
may be varied by varying the stroke of the con
‘ necting rod-42 and by varying the instant during
any cycle of operation at which said opening or
roller wheel I22 adapted to ride upon the cam
I23_carried on the shaft I24 which is supported
'15 closing operation begins. The latter is, of course,
determined ‘to a large extent by the portion of the
cycle a valve is adjusted to be opened, while the ‘
former is independently adjustable. That is, if
the portion of a cycle de?ning the limits during
-20 which port 60, for example, ?rst starts ‘to open
until it is totally closed, is small, such as 60 de
to the frame IOI by bearings I26, I20. A link
I2‘! is pivoted at I 20 at one end thereof to link 15
I21’ and at its other end is pivoted to the arm
I2I at the' axis of said roller wheel I22. Said
link I27’ also carries pivot III'and is centrally
?xed to bracket I28’ carried by frame "II. By
rotation of the gear I20, the. position of the‘ upper 20
grees, then it‘ begins to open when eccentric 43
the lever I I0, thereby adjustably controlling the
approaches the lower part of its stroke, during length of stroke of the piston rod I01 during
which the rate ofmovement of- piston 61 is rela
each cycle of operation. When said gear I20 is
tively small.
' adjacent the left hand end of said rack “9, as
It is thus obvious that with the eccentric
viewed in Fig. 3, the stroke of said piston rod I0'I ' 25
operated valve structure, illustrated in Figs. 5, will be a minimum and when it is adjacent the
6, 7 and 8, the period during which ?uid is ad * right" hand end'of said rack, the stroke of said
mitted to the chamber 24, the rate of this admis
piston rod will be av maximum.
slon, the period during which the discharge ports
Theshape of the cam I23 may, of course, be 30
_ 63 are opened and the-rate of opening thereof,
may each be varied within wide limits, thus pro
viding a very flexible means for controlling the
movement of the jigging ?uid with respect to the
sieve 20 and the consequent condition of the bed
of material undergoing jigging. Y
In Figs. 3 and 4, there is illustrated another
device which may be employed to carry out the
end of arm I 2| may be adjusted with respect to
made anything that is desired and may be made
to control the operation of the piston I05 to per
form the method of my invention. It the device
of said Figs. 3 and A is to be operated for dif
ferent cycles comprising my method, more than 35
_ one cam I23 will be provided each with a dif
ferent shape whereby different speci?c embodi
ments of my invention may be realized. It will,
method of my invention, at, least in some of its .of course, be appreciated that the shape of the
aspects. This device‘ is similar to the device in cam I23 will determine the particular shape of
40v
Figs. 1 and 2 in a number of respects. The de
the curve representing the flow of ?uid through
scription will be directed principally to the dif
ferences between-said device and that of Figs.
1 and 2. Instead of employing air under pres
sure to perform the jigging operation, the de
vice of Figs. 3 and 4 employ mechanical means
for this purpose. Said device comprises a tank
I00 mounted upon a frame designated generally
by IN. The tank I00 is provided with a sieve
I02 which is horizontal along a transverse axis
of said tank and slopes downwardly to the right
along a longitudinal axis thereof.
Said sieve I02
may be of substantially the same construction as.
the sieve 28 in the device of Figs. 1 and 2. Said
sieve leads to a refuse port I03 which is in com
munication with the refuse chamber I04 of sub
stantially the same construction as the refuse
chamber "illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. The
bottom of the tank I00 comprises a piston I05
?exibly connected to the bottom wall of the
tank I00 by a ?exible ring I06, which may be
the sieve I02 and by predetermining the shape
of a cam any desired curve may be obtained.
In
this respect this particular mechanism is more
?exible than that of Figs. 1 and 2 for there is
45
no restriction on the shape of the ,cam and
nothing analogous to the requirement of equal
expansion and compression periods oi.’ the air
valve thereof. As above indicated, by making a
plurality of cams of different shapes, a plurality
of curves may be followed. Adjustment of the 50
gear I20 will, of course, merely control the am
plitude of the stroke of a single cycle but will
in no wise vary the general shape of the curve
representing said cycle of operation.
An electric motor I29 driving through a. belt 65
I30 and a V-belt variable speed mechanism I3I .
made of rubber. Said ?exible ring I00 allows
vvibratory movement of the piston I 06 which is
effective to control periodically the ?ow of the
and a gear-type speed-reduction mechanism I32
is provided for driving the shaft I24 at any de
sired variable speed.
60
The discharge chute I04 is provided with a
discharge paddle wheel valve similar to the.
paddle wheel valve 40 of the device of Figs. 1
"jigging ?uid inside of the tank illgwwith respect
to the sieve I02. To reciprocate the piston I05,
?oat mechanism I33 which is effective to render
a mechanism is provided comprising a piston rod
"I01 extending downwardly with said piston I05
and rigidly attached thereto as by reinforcing
.70 webqs I00. ‘Said piston rod IN is pivoted at I 09
to a lever I I0 pivoted at III and provided with an
extension H2 carrying a piston II3 adapted to
move upwardly against the tension of the spring
H4 carried in the guide cylinder “5. A U
75 shaped guiding link H0 is pivoted to the frame '
and 2 which is operated under the control as a
operative or non-operative a pawl and ratchet
mechanism I34, the pawl of which is constantly
reciprocating under the control of the recipro-V
eating rod I35 connected at one end to a crank
I36 geared on the shaft I24 and at the otherend
to one arm of the bell crank lever I37, the other
arm of which carries a pawl I38. The position
of the float I33 is adapted to be determined by
the refuse carried by the sieve 28 or I02.
Under
the control of- refuse carriedon the said sieves‘ 28
2,182,376
6
the time of closing thereof. The “Exhaust valve
open” indicates a similar condition with respect
to the exhaust ports. The "Expansion-compres
sion" column indicates the portion of each cycle
during which both the inlet ports and the ex
haust ports are completely closed. ‘These pe
riods are inherently equal. The "Stroke of valve"
and I02, the ?oat I33 is controlled and through
the link I38 controls a semi-cylindrical shield
I40 adapted to control the engagement or non
engagement of the pawl I38 and a ratchet wheel
I4I rigidly connected to the shaft of said refuse
discharge valve 48. When said refuse becomes
of predetermined depth, the ?oat I33 is lifted,
column is the stroke of the air valve which de
termines the rate of opening and the rate of
thereby rotating the semi-cylindrical shield I40
in a counter-clockwise direction as viewed in
Fig. 3. This removes the wall of said shield I40
closing of the
inch stroke is
for this cycle
of the port at
which previously prevented the engagement of
the pawl I38 with the ratchet wheel “I. The
refuse discharge valve 48 is then operated by the
reciprocating pawl I38 to discharge the accumu
inlet and exhaust ports. A 11/2 10
indicated by curve E on Fig. 9
ofv operation, in which the. size
any interval of time after either
the inlet or exhaust valve starts to open or close
is given in square inches per square foot of 15
screen surface. Curves E on Figs. 10 and 11
give similar indications for a 1. inch stroke and
15 lated refuse on the sieve 28 or I02. When said
refuse has been discharged or reduced to a de
sired level. the ?oat I33 moves downwardly and
through the link I38, rotates the shield I40
a 1% inch stroke respectively for the cycle of
operation illustrated in said ?gures.
whereby it is interposed between the pawl I38
and the ratchet wheel “I, thereby preventing
the operation of said ratchet wheel even though
the pawl I38 is continually oscillating.
Fig. 12 is a graphic illustration of several con 20
ditions of a bed undergoing jigging according
to my method and the various stages thereof are
approximately indicated on the curves of Figs.
A bucket-type chain elevator indicated gen
erally by I42 is provided to lift the refuse from 9, 10 and 11 by the numbers corresponding to
the bed condition or stage numbers. It will,
25 the elevator boot I43 and discharge it at the
of course, be obvious that each stage merges into
outlet I44.
'
'
'
the
next stage and no clear cut limits there
In the operation of the device of Figs. 3 and 4,
between are possible. Furthermore, a stage may
the coal to be cleaned enters the tank IOI ad
jacent the end I45 and is subjected to a jigging~ not occur at the exact location indicated on the 30
30 operation while forming a bed above the sieve curve but may appear at either side thereof.
I02. The refuse is discharged at the port I03 However, an attempt is made to illustrate with
and the clean coal ?ows over the bailie I46 to observation accuracy the limits of each stage.
It "may be stated that the arrows adiacent each
the discharge chute I41. The fine refuse ac
cumulated in the hutch I48 may be discharged number represents the approximate extent of
'
35 into elevator boot I43 through an opening I48’. each stage.
Stage 1 is the initial stage and represents the
A valve I41’ is provided to control the supply
condition of the bed with the mass of the par
of water to the hutch I48 from conduit I48’.
Referring particularly to Figs. 9, 10 and. 11
ticles resting on the sieve or screen, but with
the top layers in partial suspension, which par 40
tial suspension is indicated by the particular
of the drawings, there is illustrated three time
40
velocity curves which represent the velocity of
the waiter ?owing through a sieve or screen dur- _
shading there illustrated.
Stage 2 illustrates substantially the same bed
condition as is illustrated by Stage 1 but with
the entire bed raised to a slight extent above
ing a complete cycle of operation. Each of these
curves illustrates the method of my invention, in
one of its aspects, and illustrates a cycle of
45
jigging operation which has been found to pro
duce an improved and highly e?lcient result.
the sieve or screen.
Purely by way of illustration and not as a
limitation, it may be stated that Figs. 9,. 10 and
11 represent a curve obtained with a jig of the
general type illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, with the
exception that it had only one hutch compart
ment 3‘! and one air valve 40, the screen area
layers have fallen toward the sieve or screen
somewhat, or in other words, are in an open 50
condition.
Stage. 4 illustrates the condition in which the
top of the bed is raised still more and the bottom
layers have fallen downward, the opening of
the mass of the particles having extended to 55
approximately the center of the bed.
being 1/2 square foot area, the coal being %-0
bituminous or soft coal. The following table
gives the other conditions of operation, for a
55 tonnage of 2000 pounds, per hour:
,
'
Air
(tlg‘rves Cycles it ate/rt , prcs-
60
0
1g.——
per mm.
. sec.
.
sure
lbs./in.1
9
45
. 0376
2. 9
10
11
B0
45
. 0376
. 0376 ,
2. 9
29
Ex
Expan
333g hglusi;
3i‘); Stggke
‘2W1 '
open.
gig;
valve
Degree:
180
Degrm
45
Inches
1}‘
120
120
, 60
60
>
‘ Degree:
90
120
120
v
ve
'
Stage-8 illustrates the condition in which the
top of the bed is raised still more but the bottom
_
1
1%
Stage 5 illustrates, the condition where the
top of the bed has approached its maximum
height and the bed is almost entirely open.
Stage 6 illustrates the condition of full mobil 70
ity
of the bed, where it is entirely open.
the pressure in the air supply tank which re
Stage 7 illustrates the bed condition in which
mains vsubstantially constant. The “Inlet valve '
open" column indicates the portion of eachrcycle ‘the bottom thereof has closed but the greater
open.
during which the inlet ports are opened to any part of-the top is stillthe
condition in which the 15
76 extent, thus covering the time of opening and > Stage 8 illustrates
/
By way of explanation, the “Water" column in
dicates the amount of water used asexpressed
in cubic feet/per second/per square ‘foot of sieve
70 or screen area. The "Air pressure” column is
2,132,376
‘lower half of the bed is closed while the top
part is still open.
Stage 9 illustrates the ?nal stage in a cycle
of operation, in which the bed is entirely closed.
The several‘ stages, as above illustrated, are
representative of the average bed condition dur
ing a cycle ofv operation in which the bed is
constantly receiving raw coal and discharging
?nished products; that is, under- full operating
10
conditions.
-
In Figs. 9, 10 and 11, there is illustrated three
time-velocity curves A which represent the rate
of ?ow of the jigging ?uid with respect to a sieve
7.
observations from actual operation. Referring
to Figs. 9, l0. and 11 and without consideration of '
the bed conditions. comparison of the pulsion
period of curve A with the half cycle of sine wave .
C which has the same maximum amplitude and
same base, or time period is facilitated by dividing
the total time of this period into four equal time
periods indicated as a, b, c and d. Similarly,
comparison of the suction period of curve A with
the half cycle of sine wave D which has the same
absolute maximum amplitude and same base or
time period is‘ facilitated by dividing the total
time of this period into four equal time periods
or screen carrying a bed of material subject to _
15 a jigging operation. Each of these curves is rep
resentative of my method and each has been
found to produce an improved strati?cation of
materials. Of the three curves, that represented
indicated as e, f, g and h. ' With reference to
Fig. 9 and considering ?rst the pulsion period, 15
during the first part of period a, curve A rises
at a rate less rapid than the sine curve C, or,
by Fig. 9 is preferred, thoughno great di?erence stated in a different manner, the magnitude of
the velocity is less than that of the sine curve
24117 appears to be found between the results of“ the
three. The curves A of these Figs. 9, l0 and 11 ' C. In period b, the velocity is less than that of 20
may be obtained by any desired apparatus, as, sine curve C while the slope is greater.- The
maximum amplitude of curve A and the sine
for example, the apparatus of Figs. 1 and 2 or
curve C appear at substantially the same time.
that of Figs. 3 and‘ 4. There is illustrated at B in In
periods a and d, the velocity is less than that
2425» each of said Figs. 9, 10 and 11 a typical pressure of the sine curve C and the slope of curve A is
25
curve which represents the air pressure in the
greater than that of sine curve C except for
chamber 24 when a jig of the general type illus
trated in Figs. 1 and 2 is employed. There is .the last half of period it in which the slopeis
also illustrated at F in Fig. 9 a wave curve, or a.
3d curve which is the‘integral of curve A. 'This
curve represents the developed surface of a cam
which should be employed to obtain curve A when
a device like that of Figs. 3 and 4 is employed.
That is, the entire curve represents 360 degrees
,35 of a cam and at spaced radial points the cam
radius above a given base is given by the curve
height. The zero ordinate of said curve repre
sents the shortest radius of the cam and the
maximum point represents the longest radius
It is obvious that by a similar integra
40 thereof.
tion of curves A of Figs-10 and 11, similar de
veloped cam surfaces may be obtained.
In addition, purely for comparison, there is il
lustrated two sine waves, of half a cycle each,
45 one, C, for the pulsion period and one, D, for
the suction period for each curve A, to form a
basis for discussion of said curves A. Each of
these sine curves has the same maximum ampli
ture, in absolute value, as the corresponding
60 pulsion or suction period and has the same base
as its corresponding pulsion or suction period
thus representing the same time interval as said -
period. It may be stated, that in the speci?ca
tion and claims any relative or comparative term
65 or expression employed in describing either a
pulsion or a suction period has as areference the
half cycle of sine curve associated therewith.
For example, if it is stated that the pulsion
period ‘has a small rate of increasing velocity
60 during part of a period, it is meant that this rate
of increase of velocity is small as compared with
the increase in velocity represented by said sine
less than that of sine curve C.
It is also to be
noted that the top ‘portion of curve A, represent
ed by about one-fourth of the height thereof at
the top, has a smaller radius of' curvature than
the sine curve C. or in other words, persists during
a shorter time interval than does the sine curve C.
Considering next the suction period, in which
absolute values will be considered throughout,
during period 2 curve A has a greater velocity
and a greater slope than the sine curve D. Dur
ing period 1‘, curve A reaches its maximum value
and changes its slope from negative to positive,
also crossing the sine curve D. During periods
gr and h, curve A has a velocity less than the sine
curve and has a particularly pronounced change
in slope near-the end of ‘period :7 with a velocity
and slope much smaller than the sine curve D
during period it. It may be stated that curves
A. as well as the other curves of Figs. 9. 10 and
ll, are drawn to scale and the maximum value
of the water velocity during the pulsion period
is approximately 8.5 inches per second and the
maximum absolute ovalue of the suction period 150
I is approximately 4.7 inches per second.
Considering curve A of Fig. 10 and comparing.
it with the half cycle sine curves C and D, it is
seen that during the’ ?rst part of period a curve
A rises at a rate less rapid than the sine curve
C. 0.1‘ stated in a different manner, the magnitude
of the velocity is less than that of the sine curve
C. During period b, the velocity is less than
that of sine curve C while the slope is greater.
The maximum amplitude of curve A appears near 60
the center of period c and thus at a ‘time later
than the maximum amplitude of sine curve C.
During the latter part of period c and during
stant or over'the same period of time.
period at, the velocity is greater than that of the
Referring to Figs. 9, 10 and 11, there is indi~ ' sine curve ‘C and the slopeis greater than that of
65
cated by the several stage numbers along line said
sine curve C. It is also to be noted that
G—-G the periods of each cycle during which the the top
portion of curve A has a smaller radius
several bed conditions illustrated in Fig. '12 are
of. curvature than the sine wave C, or in other
realized. It is to be distinctly understood that words, persists during a shorter time interval
70 these conditions are approximate as to time, and than does the sine curve C. '
.
70
certain of ‘them may. vary appreciably from the
Considering the suction period, in which ab
positions indicated. It is also to be. understood ' solute values are considered, during period c
that they'are not sharply de?ned, but merge, one .and most of period 1‘, the slope is greater than
into the other. However, the representation that of sine curve D and the velocities greater.
75 given is in accordance with the best obtainable The maximum value occurs near the center of
'
Wave as a time-velocity curve at the same in
1
2,132,876
8
period I. During the latter part of period 3‘ and
substantially the whole of period g, the velocity
is much less than the sine curve D and has a
greater slope. An abrupt change in slope isgseen
at the end of period 9 followed by a velocity and
slope both smaller than the sine curve D during‘
period It.
The maximum value of .r the pulsion
period velocity is approximately 5.9 inches per
second, and the maximum absolute value of the
10 suction period is‘ approximately 6.1 inches per
value of the velocity is smaller than the sine curve
and the slope is greater. Also near the end of
this period, the slope decreases rather abruptly.
During period h the velocity is smaller than the
sine wave and the slope quite generally smaller.
It is also to be noted that the pulsion and suction
periods need not be of equal time duration,
though they may be, and in the illustrations given
they are not.
In the illustration of Fig. 9, the pulsion period 10
is much shorter than the suction period; in the
illustration of Fig. 10, the pulsion period is some
Considering next curve A of Fig. 11, and com
paring it with the half cycle sine curves C and D, what long-er than the suction period; while in
it is seen that during the ?rst part of period a the illustration of Fig. 11, they are nearly equal, 15
the suction period being slightly longer.
15 curve A rises at a rate less rapid than the sine
Near the bottom of each of the Figs. 9, 10 and
curve C, or the magnitude of the velocity is less
than that of sine curve C. During period b, the - 11, there is indicated along line G-G, by the
velocity follows the sine curve rather closely. numerals I through ‘9, the extent of each of the
bed conditions illustrated by Fig. 12 as these bed
The maximum amplitude of the curve A substan
occur under the action of the water 20
tially coincides with that of the sine curve C. conditions
During period c the slope is greater than that of passing through the sieve or screen according to
sine curve C‘ and the velocity less. During period the time-velocity curve A of that ?gure. ' A dis
(I the velocity is less than that of C and the slope cussion of the water action and the consequent
bed condition and stratifying action which takes
less. It is again to be noted that the top por
place withcurve A of Fig. 9 will be representative 25
tion of curve A has a smaller radius of curva
of the entire group, due account being taken in
tu're than the sine wave C, or in other words, each case as to the position of the bed condition
persists during a shorter time interval than
does the sine curve C. Considering the suction indicating numerals. In this consideration, I set
period, it is seen that it is essentially the same as forth, not only my belief as to the bed condition 30
it changes under the control of the jigging
that of Fig. 10 and the description of said Fig. 10 as
?uid
during each cycle of operation, but my
may apply with equal force to Fig. 11. The maxi
theory as to the reasons why this jigging cycle
mum value of the pulsion velocity is approximate
produces an improved. result. However, it is to
ly 7.2 inches vper second, and the maximum ab
be understood that I am not bound by this theory,
solute value of the suction period is approxi
for whatever the reason may be, and regardless 35
mately 5.6 inches per second.
the mode of stratification, it is known that .
As a general statement respecting each of the of
the particular cycle of operation illustrated by
curves A of Figs. 9, 10 and 11 many time-velocity
time-velocity water curves illustrated, pro
curve representative of my method of operation, _ the
duces an improved and desirable jiggling cycle.
it vmay be stated that in comparing .the pulsion
In a given feed, stratification of the coarser 40
40 period with a half cycle of a sine curve having sizes according to speci?c gravity, is primarily
a maximum amplitude and a frequency equal to
by the pulsion periods; the stratification
the maximum amplitude and frequency thereof effected
of the ?ner sizes must be effected by the suction
and comparing the suction period with a half
periods. In other words, properly used, the suc
cycle of a sine curve having a maximum ampli
tion periods make it possible to treat a large
tude and a frequency equal to the maximum am
of sizes in one operation. However, the
plitude, in absolute value, and frequency thereof range
suction periods are only effective between the
and dividing each half sine curve into four equal time the water starts downward and the time the
time intervals, designated a, b, c, d and e, f, g‘, h, bed closes. During this short interval, the sepa
respectively, the following conditions will main
ration is according to speci?c gravity and with
tain, though certain exceptions may be encoun
out regard to the size and shape of the particles
tered. During period a and particularly during being treated. If, during the pulsion periods
the ?rst part thereof, the magnitude of the veloc
which occur intermittently between the suction
ity will be small as compared with the sine curve periods, the bed is held in a condition of mobility
or the rate of increase of velocity will be small. for a longer time than necessary for the particles 55
This characteristic is almost always obtained. to become free to move; that is, if there is any
During period b, the magnitude of the velocity sustained mobility in any part of the bed, the
may be greater or less than the sine curve but jig in effect becomes an upward current classi?er
quite generally the slope thereof will be greater, and stratifies ?ne refuse with coarse particles of
at least over the ?rst half of the period. During
60
period c, the velocity may be greater or less than coal. To whatever extent this occurs, it nulli?es
the
effect
of
the
separation
according
to
speci?c
the sine curve but if the velocity is greater the
obtained in the suction periods. The result
slope will be less and if the velocity is lower the gravity
is
a
great
loss in capacity in the jig, or the actual
slope will be equal to or greater on the average.
Period (1 may vary considerably depending on discharge of the ?ner, particles of refuse with the 65
washed coal. In my improved method, the pul
65 period c. In addition, it is quite uniform that sion period is effective to give a nearly simul
the top of the curve, representing about one
taneous opening of the whole bed presenting a
fourth of the ordinates from the top down, has condition of full mobility followed by a quick
’ a smaller radius of curvature than the sine curve,
closing of the bed and thus avoiding in a large
or in other words, persists over a smaller time
measure the deleterious effects of any sustained 70
70 interval than the sine curve. During period e, period of bed mobility;
the velocity is greater, in absolute value, than
As seen in said Fig. 9, during the ?rst part of
the sine curve and the slope is greater. The peak period a the water velocity upwardly through the
of the‘ suction stroke quite generally appears in screen increases slowly and is less than the sine
period I, or at a time in advance of the peak of curve C. This is followed by an increasing rate 75
15 the sine curve. During period 9, the absolute
second.
,
-
.
arsasvc
9
of ?ow during the latter part of said period.
ated water jigof the type illustrated by Figs. 3
I The ?rst part with the slow increase in velocity,
and 4. Where the latter is used a cam is formed
partially opens the top of the bed‘ as indicated
by the bed condition character I. However, be
fore the bed can open, the increased rate of water
velocity lifts the entire bed as a whole oil the‘
sieve or screen, indicated by the bed character 2,
so that there is a freedom of the bottom particles
to move. This freedom of movement allows the
10 coarse particles of refuse normally found near the
screen to fall back and become mobile. This
condition is indicated by bed character 3. As . the water continues to increase in velocity, it
lifts the upper'layers further and the bottom
15 layers continue to drop off the bed.
to produce the desired time-velocity curve A in
the manner above described in connection with
curve F of Fig. 9. Where an air controlled jig
is used, designated generally in the art by the
name Baum type, the curves A of Figs. 9, 10 and
ii may be obtained by setting the valve shown in
detail in Figs. 5 and 6 as indicated by the table
hereinabove and on Figs. 9, 10 and 11. ‘This set
10
ting of water, air pressure, air volumeand stroke
is for a tonnage of 4000 pounds per square foot
per hour of bituminous or soft slack coal of
%-0 size range. The same water volume would
hold for a cam type jig. Certain variations may 15
be necessary with different coals and particu
This con
tinues further, as indicated by bed characters It
andv 5, until the bed is entirely open as indicated - larly if a different size range‘or a di?'erent tons
by bed character 6. It is to be noted that the nage is used. Knowledge of these. variations
full mobile condition as indicated by bed char
will be easily acquired by skilled operators and
20 acter 6 is indicated as appearing on the latter will, of course, be made in carrying out the meth 20
part of period c, or after the maximum velocity od as employed under conditions not identical
is reached. 'It may be that this condition is
realized much sooner, for example, near the end
of period b or before the maximum velocity is
reached. However, the entire bed opening, par
ticularly from bed condition 3 to bed condition 6,
with the illustrations given. With high .peak
velocities required for ‘coarse coal it may be neces
sary to operate the jig at lower speeds to give’
ample timefor the bed to open. This is particu 25
larly necessary on the cam produced stroke.
or full mobility, takes place in a rather short
Referring again to the curve A of Fig. 9 as
time interval.
# illustrative of all of the A curves and considering
The deceleration of the ?uid, or decrease in ‘ particularly the four periods of operation of the
30 velocity after the peak velocity is reached, ‘is air valve, comprising inlet or air admission, -eX- 30
more rapid than the sine curve, as is seen during pansion, exhaust and compression, the resulting
period c and the ?rst part of period d; This'is pressures in the air chamber as indicated by
effective to reduce to a minimum the separation curve B and the resulting time velocity ?uid or
as an upward current classi?er which tends to -water curve A; it is seen that ‘the velocity is zero
stratify 'the fine refuse with the larger particles at substantially the "instant the valve starts to 35
of coal. It also allows opening of any top layers open, but the pressure in the air chamber is ap
which were possibly not previously completely preciable. The water reaches its maximum ve
opened. It is also to be noted that the rapid locity during the air admission or inlet period and
decrease in velocity after the peak velocity is .starts to drop off while this valve is still open.
reached has as an incident the maintaining of The maximum air chamber pressure is reached
w
the higher pulsion velocities for a relatively short
time.
.
During period e, which is the ?rst part of the
suction period, and particularly during the first
45 part thereof, the ?uidflows down through the
screen under the'pull of gravity. The bed is in
the condition indicated by bed character ‘I, with
the bottom layers closed and most of the top open.
During this part of the period, there is a maxi
mum separation of particles accgrding to speci?c
gravity. With the-bed completely mobile at the
beginning of this period, this period reaches its
maximum e?’ectiveness. This action continues
into periods 1‘ and g as indicated by bed char
55 acter 8 until a distinct downward pull is caused
in the topmost layers of the bed. After this
period has reached its maximum effectiveness,
toward the end of period 9, the downward ?ow
before the-maximum.?uid velocity is reached.
During the expansion period, when both inlet and
exhaust valves are closed, the water velocity de
creases rapidly at least until the latter part
thereof. During this decrease in velocity, the 45
air chamber pressures drop and may, as, in Fig. 9,
actually become slightly negative. This means
the continued upward movement of water which
takes place after the air chamber is sealed,
actually produces a negative pressure in said 50
chamber. This is a characteristic of a high
maximum ?uid velocity and a short pulsion
period as found in Fig. 9. The air pressures do
not become negative in Figs. 10 and 11 where the
pulsion period is longer and the maximum ve 55
locity is lower. In Fig. 9, the pulsion period
ends at approximately the end of the expansion
period. The suction period reaches its maximum
of current is sharply reduced to prevent too solid ‘ downward velocity during the exhaust period,
60 a packing of the bed and the bed closes during when the exhaust ports are open, during which 60
the latter part of period 9' and during period it. . time the chamber‘ pressure is zero, as it is open
The increased downward velocities during period to atmospheric pressure. Near the end of this
c and part of period I is necessary inorder to period, the downward ?uid velocity decreases
have strong suction throughout the bed and to rather sharply due to closing ofthe bed and its
reach the topmost layers. However, to prevent consequent restriction to fluid flow. The com 65
extreme packing of the bed which would result pression period, with both valves closed, then
in an undesired lifting of the entire bed during occurs and forms an air cushion for the ?nal I
the ?rst part of period a of the pulsionperiod, downward movement of the ?uid, preventing
it is desirable to retard the velocity of the ?uid severe packing of the bed. During this compres
70 during the latter part of the suction period or
sion period, the pressure in the air chamber 70
during period It.
gradually ‘rises.
As has been above stated, the time-velocity
It may be noted that in the curve A of Fig. 10
?uid curves A of Figs. 9, l0 and 11 may be ob
the. latter part of the pulsion stroke is during
I _ tained by either an air operated water jig of the
type illustrated by Figs. 1 "and 2 or a cam oper
an exhaust period with a consequent very rapid
rate of. deceleration of ?uid ?ow. It is also who
w
2,182,876
10
noted that in this case the inlet or air admission
period starts before the suction period is entirely
ended.
In some cases, it has been found that
the compression period is effective not only to
complete the suction period but actually starts
a pulsion period before the air admission period
to a chamber containing a jigging liquid adapted
to be moved relative to a bed of material, each
cycle of which constitutes 360 degrees and com
prises, admitting a ?uid under pressure to said
chamber for a period of a cycle to force said jig
is started.
The rate of opening and closing of the inlet
and exhaust ports are indicated by curve E of
10 Figs. 9, 10 and 11. These rates, particularly the
rate of opening of the inlet ports during air ad
ging liquid upward through said bed, discon
tinuing the admission of ?uid to said chamber,
maintaining said chamber sealed for a period
which may be variably determined at a value be—
tween 30 and 150 degrees of said cycle and there 10
after opening said chamber to reduce said pres
‘
~
mission, are effective to control the shape of the sure for a period.
4. The method of jigging by cyclically con
curve A. It is obvious that by controlling the
rate of opening and closing of the inlet and ex trolling the application of ?uid under ‘pressure
haust
ports, and by varying the relative periods to a chamber forming one leg of a U-shaped tank
15
of air inlet or admission, expansion, exhaust and carrying a perforate bed supporting plate in the
compression, time-velocity ?uid curves A, of a other leg thereof, said tank containing a jigging‘
large variety of shapes may be obtained. This,
in itself, is an important feature of my invention.
The curves are also effected by the rate of water
inlet, for by supplying su?icient water the suc
tiorr stroke may be greatly reduced or even
eliminated. The maximum upward ?uid ve
locity may also be regulated by controlling the
cycle of the air control valve and also by control
ling the air pressure in the air reservoir. The
speed of the jig or the frequency may be varied
within wide limits.
The range actually used has “
liquid adapted to be moved relative to said plate,
each cycle of which constitutes 360 degrees and
comprises, admitting a ?uid under pressure to
said chamber for a period of a cycle to force said
jigging liquid upward through said plate, dis
continuing the admission of ?uid to said cham
ber, maintaining said’ chamber sealed for a period
which may be variably adjusted at a value from 25
20 to 150 degrees of said cycle and thereafter
opening said chamber to reduce said pressure for
a period.
,
'
5. The method of jigging by cyclically con
30
Instead of employing the apparatus of Figs. 3 trolling the application of ?uid under pressure
to
a
chamber
containing
a
jigging
liquid
adapted
and 4 to produce the desired time-velocity curve
A, the apparatus disclosed in the application of - to be moved relative to a bed of material, each
Byron M. Bird and Ernst F. Muller for Apparatus cycle of which constitutes 360 degrees and com
for treating mineral materials, Serial No. ‘736,442, prises, admitting a ?uid under pressure to said 35
chamber for a period of a cycle to force said
?led July 22, 1934, may be employed. '
Obviously those skilled in the art may make jigging liquid upward through said bed, discon
various changes in the details and arrangement _ tinuing the admission of ?uid to said chamber,
,of parts without departing from the spirit and maintaining said chamber sealed for a period of
scope of the invention as de?ned by the claims not less than 30 degrees of said cycle and there
hereto .appended, and I wish therefore not to be after opening said chamber to reduce said pres 40
been between 20 and 150 cycles per minute.
restricted to the precise constructionlherein dis- closed.
-
Having thus described and shown “an embodi
ment of. my invention, what I'desire to secure
45 by Letters Patentof the United States is:
1. The method of jigging by cyclically control
ling the application of ?uid under pressureto a
chamber forming one leg of a U-shaped tank
carrying a perforate bed supporting plate in the
other leg thereof, said tank containing a jigging
liquid adapted to be moved relative to said plate,
each cycle of which constitutes 360 degrees and
comprises admitting a ?uid under pressure to
said chamber for a period of said cycle less than
55 130 degrees to force said jigging liquid upward
through said plate, discontinuing the admission
of ?uid to said chamber, maintaining said cham
ber sealed for a relatively long period of said
cycle and thereafter opening said chamber to
reduce the pressure therein for a period.
sure for a period.
~
6. The method of jigging by cyclically control
ling the application of ?uid under pressure to a
chamber, containing a jigging liquid adapted to
be moved relative to a bed of materials, each 45
cycle of _which constitutes ,360 degrees and com
prises, admitting a ?uid under pressure to said
chamber for a period of a cycle to force said
jigging liquid upward through said bed, discon
tinuing the admission of ?uid to said chamber, 50
maintaining said chamber sealed for a period of
not less' than 60 degrees of said cycle and there
after opening said chamber to reduce said pres
sure for a period.
'7. The method of jigging by cyclically con 55
trolling the appllcation of ?uid under pressure
to a chamber containing a jigging liquid adapted
to .be moved relative to a bed of material, each
cycle of which constitutes 360 degrees and com
prises, admitting a ?uid under pressure to said
chamberfor a period of a cycle to force said
2. The method of jigging by cyclically control
liquid upward through said bed, discon
i' ling the application of ?uid under pressure to. jigging
a chamber containing a jigging liquid adapted to tinuing .the admission of ?uid to said chamber,
maintaining said chamber sealed for a period of
be moved relative to a bed of materiaL- each
65
cycle of which constitutes 360 degrees and com ' not less than 90 degrees of said cycle and there
prises admitting a ?uid under pressure to said after opening said chamber-to reduce said pres
‘
chamber for a period of said cycle less' than 150 sure for a period.
degrees to force said jigging liquid upward
through said bed, discontinuing the admission of
70 fluid to said chamber, maintaining said chamber
sealed for a relatively long period of said cycle
and thereafter opening said chamber to reduce
8. The method of jigging by cyclically control
ling the application of ?uid under pressure to a
chamber‘ forming one leg of a U-shaped tank 70
carrying a perforate bed supporting plate in the
other leg thereof, said tank containing a jigging
'liquid adapted to be moved relative to said plate,
the pressure‘therein for a period.
‘ .
each cycle of which constitutes 360 degrees and
3. The method of jigging by cyclically con
trolling the application of, ?uid under pressure comprises, admitting a ‘?uid under pressure to
I
2,139,876
said chamber for a period of a cycle to force said
jigging liquid upward through said plate, dis‘
continuing the admission of ?uid to said cham
ber, maintaining said chamber sealed for a
period of not less than 120 degrees of said cycle
and thereafter opening said chamber to reduce
said pressure for a period.
'
EhThe method of jigging by cyclically con
~ trolling the applicationof fluid under pressure
10 to a chamber containing a jigging liquid to be
moved relative to a bed of material, each cycle
of which comprises, admitting ?uid under pres
sure to said chamber, sealing said chamber
against air ingress or egress, opening said cham
15 ber to reduce the pressure therein and again
sealing said chamber against air ingress or
egress, the periods during which said chamber is
sealed being variably determined at a valuebe
tween 30 and 150 degrees of a cycle of 360 degrees.
10. The methodof jigging by cyclically con
trolling the application of ?uid under pressure
to a chamber containing a jigging liquid to be
moved relative to a bed of material, each cycle of
which comprises, admitting fluid under pressure
25 to said chamber, sealing said chamber against air
ingress or egress, opening said chamber to re
duce the pressure therein and again sealing said
chamber against air ingress or egress, the periods
during which said chamber is sealed being not
less than 30 degrees of a cycle of 360 degrees.
' 11. The method of jigging by cyclically con
trolling the application of ?uid under pressure
to a chamber containing a jigging liquid to be
moved relative to a bed of material. each cycle
of which comprises, admitting ?uid under pres
sure to said chamber, sealing said chamber
against air ingress or egress, opening said cham
ber to reduce the pressure therein and again
‘sealing said chamber against air ingress or egress,
the periods during which said chamber is sealed
being not less than 60 degrees of a cycle of 360
11
of a cycle of 360 degrees, thereafter opening said
chamber to reduce the pressure therein, thereby‘
‘stratifying the clean coal and refuse in different
strata, and directing said refuse and coal into
different channels.
'
15. The method of cleaning coal which com
prises subjecting a bed of raw coal to a jigging
operation by controlling the application of ?uid
under pressure to a chamber containing a jigging
liquid to be moved relative to said bed'of coal, 10
comprising cyclically admitting fluid under pres
sure to said chamber for a period, sealing said
chamber for a predetermined period which is at
least half as long as said admission period, there
after opening said chamber to reduce the pres 16
sure therein,» thereby stratifying the clean coal
and refuse in different strata, and separating said
strata.
16. The method of separating materials of dif
ferent densities by cyclically varying the move-v
ment of a ?uid with respect to a perforate sup
port carrying a bed of said materials of different
densities to stratify said bed, each cycle of which
may be represented by a time-velocity curve hav
ing successive pulsion and suction periods in
which the curve of the pulsion period fairly close
ly follows a half-sine wave of equal maximum
value and time except for the following varia
tions; (1) the slope thereof is lower at ?rst and
then increases rapidly to a higher value as the
curve peak is approached, (2) the crown of the
curve has a smaller curvature, (3) the slope of
the curve immediately after the crown is greater;
and in which the curve of the suction period
roughly follows a negative half-sine wave of
equal maximum absolute value and time except
that during the final part thereof it is consider
ably less than said half-sine wave; thereby
stratifying said bed of materials into strata of
different speci?c gravities with the high gravity
degrees.
materials on the bottom and the low gravity ma
12. The method of jigging by cyclically con terms on top, and directing the stratified high
trolling the application of ?uid under pressure and low gravity materials along different paths.
17. The method of jigging by cyclically varying
to a chamber containing a jigging liquid to be
moved relative to a bed of material, each cycle the movement of a ?uid with respect to a perfo
rate support carrying a bed of materials of dif
of which comprises, admitting ?uid under pres
sure to said chamber, sealing said chamber. ferent densities to stratify said bed, each cycle
of which may be represented by a time-velocity
against air ingress or egress, opening said cham
curve having successive pulsion and suction
ber to reduce the pressure therein and again seal
ing said chamber against air ingress or egress, periods in which the curve of the pulsion period '
the periods during which said chamber is sealed fairly closely follows a half-sine wave of equal
being not less than 90 degrees of a cycle of 360 maximum value and time except for the follow
degrees.
ing variations; (1) the slope thereof is lower at
55
13. The method of jigging by cyclically‘con- - first and then increases rapidly to a higher value
trolling the application of ?uid under pressure to as the curve peak is approached, (2) the crown
a chamber containing a jigging liquid to be of the curve has a smaller curvature, (3) the
moved relative to a bed of material, each cycle slope of the curve immediately after the crown
is greater; and in which the curve of the suction
of which comprises, admitting ?uid under pres
sure to said chamber, sealing said chamber period roughly follows a negative half-sine wave
of equal maximum absolute value and time ex—
against air ingress or egress, opening said cham
her to reduce the pressure therein and ‘again cept that during the final part thereof it is con
sealing said chamber against air ingress or egress, siderably less than said half-sine wave, and in
the periods during which said chamber is sealed which the bed of materialsbeccmes completely
being not less than 120 degrees of a cycle of 360 mobile at a time which is reached after the peak
degrees.
.
~
velocity of the pulsion period is passed; thereby
liquid to be moved relative to said bed of coal,
stratifying said bed of materials according to
specific gravities with the high gravity materials
in the bottom stratum and the low gravity mate
rials in the top stratuni, and directing said
stratified materials along separate paths to e?'ect 7'
comprising cyclically admitting ?uid under pres
a separation thereof.
14. The method of cleaning coal which com
prises subjecting a bed of raw coal to a jigging
operation by controlling the application of fluid
under pressure to a chamber containing a jigging
sure to said chamber for a period, sealing said
chamber for a period of not less than 120 degrees
-
BYRON M. BIRD.
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