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Патент USA US2132393

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Patented 0a. 11, 1938
2,132,393
-
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
2,182,398
SHOBTENING AND METHOD OF MAKING
SAME
Herbert s. com, Albert 8. Richardson, and Ver
vling M. Votaw, Wyoming, Ohio, assignors to The
Procter a Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio,
a corporation of Ohio
No Drawing. Application’ February 4, 1933,
'
,
.
Serial No. 855,292
40 Claims.
7 Our invention relates to semi-solid or plastic
shortenings. such as lard and partially hydro
genated cottonseed oil, which are essentially in
timate mixtures of liquid and solid fat. In par
5 ticular, our invention relates to improved plastic
shortenings containing combined glycerin in ex
cess of that occurring in the ordinary triglycer
ides oi’ fatty acids.
The common commercial shortenings, like the
"10 natural fats and fatty oils entering into their
composition, are essentially triglycerides, in which
fatty acid and glycerin are combined in the ratio
of three mols to one mol respectively. No known
natural fat contains glycerin in substantially
15 greater amount than one mol to eachv three mols
of total fatty acid. In distinction, synthetic fats
are sometimes prepared not only in the form of
triglyceride but also in the form of diglyceride
and monoglyceride, and various mixtures there
20 of. Digiycerides contain one mol of combined
glycerin to each two mols of fatty acid, and
monoglycerides- contain glycerin and fatty acid
combined in equimolecular proportion. Fats con~
sistlng of or containing appreciable proportions
25 of monoglyceride or diglyceride or both are
termed superglycerinated fats.
The object of our present invention is to pro
vide superglycerinated fat which is superior for
use as shortening not only to the ordinary com
30 mercial fats heretofore‘available but also to su
perglycerinated fat compounded in accordance
with the previous suggestions of others.
It has heretofore been proposed in a general
way to add monoglycerides and diglycerides to
35 fatty oils to increase emulsifying power with re
‘ spect to water.
It has also been proposed to
make a plastic shortening by stiffening fatty oils
by the addition of synthetic hard fat comprising
particularly the diglyceride of such fatty acids
40 as palmitic and stearic.
Notwithstanding these proposals, all or prac
tically all commercial edible fats and oils up to
the present time have consisted essentially of
' triglyceride. The failure of edible fats containing
45, monoglyceride and diglyceride to come into prac
. tical use may be explained not only by the lack
of knowledge of the true advantage of such fats,
but alsoaby the fact that in the prior art the
specific formulas proposed for superglycerinated
50 fats are defective from the standpoint of realiz
ing this advantage in a practical way.
‘ Our invention will be more clearly understood
(Cl. 99-123)
'ness-are highly prized, but these are attained in .
increasing degree at the expense of volume and
light texture. Thus it has been found that an
increase in the ratio of the amount of sugar
used to that of ?our is generally bene?cial and 5
improves the moistness and keeping qualities of
the cake, but that the amount of sugar which
may be used is limited by the increasing tendency
of the cake to fall when a predetermined ratio of
sugar to ?our is exceeded. Under present prac- l0
tice with the use of ordinary shortenings, the -
amount of sugar in commercial cakes is on the
average limited to less than the weight of flour
present, notwithstanding the fact that more sugar
and along with it more moisture would be advan 15
tageous from the standpoint of the desirable >
qualities of these ingredients. If, for instance,
50% more sugar than flour is used, the cake made
with ordinary commercial shortening has a poor
texture and is de?cient in volume, if not a com 20
plete failure, and such a cake is said to be "sad".
On the other hand, cakes made with the use
of the superglycerinated shortening described in
the present invention may contain as much as
150% or even 175% sugar (on the basis of flour),
and the proportion of milk or other liquid con 25
stituents may also be increased, without making
the cake "sad”. The result is a light, tender
cake, unusually sweet and moist and resistant to
the development of staleness. The cost of the 30
cake made thus with our shortening is at the
same time reduced on account of the relatively
greater proportion of sugar and moisture present.
While it is our purpose to provide shortening
improved particularly for use in sweet baked 35
goods, our shortening also gives improved results.
with respect to a light, tender texture when it is
used in other classes of cooked products, such as
wailies, pancakes, and biscuit.
Shortening made according to the present in 40
vention may be described broadly as plastic edible
fat which contains superglycerinated fat of such
a nature that the monoglyceride or diglyceride or
mixture of same is without signi?cant stiffening
eifect. In other words, the plastic condition of' 45
our shortening depends essentially on the nature
of the ordinaryfats entering into its manufacture,
and not upon any substantial stiffening effect of
the superglycerinated components in the ?nished
product. In fact, we prefer that the monoglyc 50
eride and diglyceride portions of our fat shouldv
have a softening rather than even a slight sti?
by referring ‘brie?y to matters more fully dis vening ,e?'ect. on the finished shortening. The
closed in our copending application Serial No. superglycerinated fat, depending upon the excess
‘55 655,295 ?led concurrently herewith. In the of combined glycerin which it_contains, replaces 55
making of sweet baked goods such as the usual ‘ varying proportions of the usual shortening
forms of layer cake, sugar and the water com
from 100% down to 2% or even less, usually be
monly added with it impart to the ?nished prod
tween 4% and 14%. _
uct both desirable and undesirable properties.
We have found that plastic shortenings of the
,60 The resulting sweetness, moistness, and tender
type just described, and more fully disclosed be-_ Q0
2
2,132,393
low, are unusually ef?cient as judged by the qual
what would be required to form triglyceride. For
ity of baked products made therewith, especially
cakes containing more sugar than ?our.
example, .04 pound of monoglyceride incorporat
ed along with each pound of total shortening pro
duces a result roughly equivalent to 0.14 pound
of diglyceride per pound of total shortening and
required to impart the proper plasticity to a ?n- ' about the same result may be obtained if, instead
ished shortening. The simplest method is merely of using a concentrated form of superglycerinated
the selection of a natural fat that happens to be fat, the plastic shortening as a whole is prepared
of suitable composition and consistency, e. g., lard in such a way as to contain about 0.6% more com~
10 or butter fat. A second method, almost equally bined glycerin than would be present in the cor- l0
_
'
simple and better suited to positive control, is to responding triglyceride.
In the practice of our invention in its preferred
blend together two or more fats of varying melt
ing points and consistency for instance in the form, the quantity of superglycerinated fat used
is such that the excess of combined glycerin in
manufacture of compound, further described be
troduced over that required for triglyceride for- 15
15 low. A third general method is to alter the con
sistency of a given fat' by some treatment that mation is between 0.3% and 1.5% of the weight
of total shortening. However, ordinary plastic
changes the proportion of liquid and solid constit
uents in the ?nished shortening. This altera~ shortenings can also be appreciably improved by
tion is usually effected by partially hydrogenating introducing into their composition larger or
20 a liquid or very soft fat, thereby decreasing the smaller quantities of excess combined glycerin, g0
proportion of liquid fat without by any means and our invention is not limited strictly to this
making the whole shortening a true solid under preferred range.
The method of making monoglyceride or di
the conditions of its manufacture and use. Fats
glyceride does not constitute a part of the present
may also be processed to suitable plastic con
invention. Free fatty acids may be directly com- 25
25 sistency by graining, i. e. by fractional crystalliza
tion to remove excess of solid from a hard fat or bined. with glycerin in excess of that required to
excess of liquid from a soft fat, but this method form triglyceride by ,various procedures that are
of processing is more often used commercially for either well-known or readily found in the litera
the purpose of making hard fats or liquid fats ture, for instance, by simply agitating the mix
30 rather than plastic fats. Any of these methods ture at temperatures between 175° C. and 200° C. 30
Likewise glycerin may be combined directly with
may be used alone or in combination for obtain
ing the triglyceride portion of our shortening. triglyceride, for instance by agitating the mixture
Thus the main body of our shortening is made at 225° to 250° C. Preferably we prepare our
up of any of the plastic shortenings already superglycerinated fat from highly re?ned fats or
35 known. Preferably our shortening is produced in oils, processed as triglycerides through the stage 35
dry form, and conforms in a general way to one of steam deodorization.
The class of shortening known as compound
of the three types known as compound, lard, or
partially hydrogenated vegetable shortening. consists essentially of a fatty oil plasticized by
the addition of a hard fat. Thus 85-88% re?ned
Our shortening may also be prepared pre-emulsi
cottonseed oil mixed with 15-12% of the same 40
m tied with water, for instance, in the form of mar
garine, or in the form of butter containing added oil almost completely hydrogenated, after steam
Three general methods are in common use for
5 obtaining the balance of solid and liquid fats
deodorization, chilling and thorough mixing, is
superglycerinated fat.
In the practice of our invention in its simplest
form, we prepare separately and add to the main
‘5 body of shortening a smaller quantity of liquid
or plastic synthetic fat containing a considerable
excess of combined glycerin over that required to
form triglyceride. Alternatively the whole or a
part of our shortening may be prepared or proc
m essed in such a manner as to contain the required
excess of glycerin in the form of monoglyceride
or diglyceride or a mixture of the two.
In any
event, the fatty acids combined in this mono
glyceride and diglyceride must consist in sub
55 stantial part, preferably more than half, of the
unsaturated type, and are preferably of average
molecular weight corresponding to not less than
sixteen carbon atoms. For example, animal fats
one of the best known compound shortenings on
the market. Other fatty oils, such as peanut,
sun?ower, sesame, soybean, and corn oils may be 45
used in the formula of compound shortenings, or
these same oils may be hydrogenated to yield a
suitable hard fat. Hard animal fat, especially
oleostearin, may also be blended with a soft or
liquid fat in compound.
It has previously been proposed to substitute
for the usual hard fat (which is of course tri
glyceride) in compound a synthetic fat, the
mixed diglyceride of palmitic and stearic acid
being specifically recommended for the purpose. 55
According to the present invention, we prepare
an improved compound shortening by blending
in the manner just described a fatty oil and a
such as lard or beef tallow, unsaturated vegetable
6o oils such as cottonseed, sesame, peanut, palm or
soybean oils, and these same oils or marine oils
after partial hydrogenation are suitable raw ma
hard fat, preferably'of the triglyceride type, and
by adding as an extra ingredient predominantly 60
terials for the preparation of the superglycer
inated portion of our shortening. Oils of the
a‘ coconut type, unless blended with larger quanti
ties of fat of the type just mentioned, are not
suitable for use in the preparation of the super
ture as a whole.
glycerinated fat, although the natural triglycer
ides of the coconut type may be used in our short
” enings up to the point permitted by the require
ment that the‘shortening as a whole be plastic.
The proportion of superglycerinated fat, or
more specifically of monoglyceride and diglycer
ide, in our total shortening is best de?ned in
1' terms of the excess of combined glycerin over
unsaturated superglycerinated fat of little or no
plasticizing value with respect to the fatty mix
A suitable raw material for pre
paring the superglycerinated fat is, for instance,
a portion of the blended triglycerides forming
the main body of compound or of the liquid or
soft base used therein, but the superglycerinated
fat may also be prepared from numerous other
fats or fatty acids conforming to the general
requirements already explained. While it will 7,;
ordinarily be found economical to produce the
superglycerinated portion of our shortening in
concentrated form, 1. e., with a high combined
glycerin content, so that about 15% at most will
be required in the ?nished shortening, an alter- 13
3
native method of making compound according to
our invention is to combine a larger proportion,
even up to 100%, of the soft base, or of the com
plete blend of triglycerides, or of the fatty acid
mixture derived therefrom, with the quantity of
glycerin required in the ?nished product.
'
For example, we may use as the soft base of
our compound re?ned cottonseed oil, and proceed
as follows:
1. A hard fat is made by hydrogenating a por
tion of the soft base to 10 iodine value.
steam deodorization.
'
3. superglycerinated fat is prepared by saponi
fying a portion of the deodorized blend (2) with
caustic soda, acidulating with sulphuric acid,
washing the liberated fatty acids with water, and
then combining the fatty acids with one ?fth
their weight of 'C. P. glycerin, exposure to air
being avoided as much as possible.
genated oil or other hard fat.
'
Partially hydrogenated shortenings, such as
cottonseed oil hydrogenated to about 63 to 80
iodine value and partially hydrogenated shorten
ing of plastic texture derived from peanut,
sesame, soybean and other unsaturated oils of
edible grade, are among the very best of com 10
2. A blend of 15% hard fat (1) and about 85%
unhydrogenated soft base is subjected to vacu
15
sistency. In distinction, shortening of the com
pound type is a plastic mixture of unhydrogen
ated fatty oil and practically completely'hydro
.
4. The deodorized triglyceride mixture (2) and
the synthetic fat (3) are mixed in the ratio 9:1,
and ?nished in the usual manner by chilling onv
a roll and intimately mixing the chilled fat with
a small amount of air.
mercially available shortenings, and are much
used in making cakes and other baked products
on account of good ?avor, stability, and desir
able consistency. However, the partially hydro
genated plastic shortenings heretofore available 15
are de?cient from the standpoint of their capac
ity for carrying sugar into cakes, and the over
coming of this deficiency is a particularly im
portant application of the present invention.
Our invention may be practiced by adding to 20
a partially hydrogenated shortening, for exam
ple, hydrogenated cottonseed oil of 63 to 80 iodine
value, a. superglycerinated fat made by combin
ing glycerin with the same partially hydrogen
ated fat or with the fatty acids obtained there 25
from. Again we do not limit our invention to
this particular source of superglycerinated fat.‘
izing and the other special processing steps re
What has been said in the foregoing regarding
ferred to above are well-known operations and variation in the nature and quantity of super
require no detailed description.
glycerinated fat incorporated in-our shortening
Lard is another important plastic fat which" applies. also to partially hydrogenated oils. In 30
can be greatly improved for use as shortening by addition to vegetable oils, marine oils such as
the practice of our invention, preferably by whale, pilchard or menhaden oil may be hydro
mixing ordinary lard and a highly superglycer
genated to the degree required for plastic texture
Alkali re?ning, hydrogenating, steam deodor
inated lard in such ratio that the mixture con
and improved by increasing the combined glyc
tains between 0.3% and 1.5% more combined
erin content as already described.
Likewise plastic shortening of mixed type may
be improved by the practice of our invention.
glycerin than the original lard. A highly super
glycerinated lard containing between 14% and
' 25% combined'glycerin, suitable for mixing with
40 ordinary lard to increase the glycerin content of
the latter to the desired ratio, is conveniently
made by combining either ordinary lard (already
Thus we have found an under-hydrogenated
vegetable oil, softer and of loyver melting point
than desired in the finished shortening, when
mixed with a small percentage of very hard
containing about 10.6% glycerin) or the free triglyceride fat and a plastic or liquid super
fatty‘ acids of lard by known me s with the glycerinated fat, yields a. product which combines
desired quantity of glycerin. How ver, we do a particularly ?ne plastic consistency for mixing
not limit our invention to these exact quantities with unusually high shortening value in baked 45
or to the preferred method of applying the in
goods. Such a shortening, which is in a sense of
vention to lard. An improved shortening may the compound type as well as the partially hydro
i also be made by subjecting the whole of a batch genated type, is illustrated hereinafter by Ex
of lard to reaction with glycerin until the re
ample 8.
»
quired increase in combined glycerin, for exam
Our shortenings are characterized by high
ple, 0.3% to 1.5%, is obtained.
emulsifying power toward water, and lend them
The superglycerinated fat incorporated in our selves particularly well to the preparation of
improved lard may be derived from other than smooth emulsions containing even several‘fold
lard fatty acids, for example, from the fatty acids more water than fat, but it is usually more con
of beef or mutton tallow or of peanut, cottonseed venient to produce and handle the shortening inv 55
or other vegetable oil, with or without‘ partial dry form up to the point of incorporation with
hydrogenation.
'
-
Other plastic animal fats, such as a soft beef
tallow, may be similarly‘ improved for use as
shortening by incorporating therewith super
glycerinated fat in accordance with the present
invention. Our invention is particularly useful
as applied to lard and other plastic animal fats
65 which have been alkali re?ned or steam deodor
ized, or have received both these treatments.
Our invention is even more useful as applied to
plastic shortening of the type variously known
as hydrogenated, all hydrogenated, selectively
70 hydrogenated, or partially hydrogenated. This
shortening, which we will hereafter refer to as
partially hydrogenated, is made from fatty oil,
such as re?ned cottonseed. oil, by subjecting all
of the oil to hydrogenation, the degree of which
is limited so as to produce a fat of plastic con-4
?our, etc., in the mixture'to be cooked, it being
understood that'lthe expression “substantially
dry”, as applied to a shortening is intended to
exclude margarin or any other emulsion of fat
with water or aqueous material in which the
water contributes an essential property to the
shortening.
This emulsifying power is naturally of advan-‘
tage in the production of margarine, but we do
not claim that superglycerinated fat incorporated
in our margarine is superiod in emulsifying action
to other emulsi?ers previously used. The utility
of our invention as applied to margarine de 70
pends, as in the case of our dry shortenings-upon.
the improved shortening action due to the pres
ence in a plastic fatmixture of a superglycerin
ated fat of the type ‘described, i. e., liquid or
plastic, and preferably derived from a fatty acid 75
2,182,393
4
Example 5
mixture consisting of more than 50% of oleic and
Per cent
other unsaturated fatty acids. In keeping with
what has been said above, oils of the coconut type
Cottonseed oil __________________________ __ 76.8
Hydrogenated cottonseed oil of 15 iodine
are satisfactory for use in the triglyceride portion
of the margarine, but the monoglycerides and
diglycerides of the coconut type are not suitable
for use unless blended with substantial quantities
of superglycerinated fat derived from fatty acids
value ________________________________ __ 13.0
Diglyceride of hydrogenated cottonseed oil of
66 iodine value _______________________ __ 10.0
Soap __________________________________ __
of the preferred type already described.
Butter or butter fat may similarly be improved
10
for use as shortening by the practice of our in
vention. For this purpose superglycerinated but
ter fat may be used, or some other liquid or
0.2
Example 6
10
Per cent
Cottonseed oil hydrogenated to 66 iodine
value _______________________________ __ 93.85
Free fatty acid from same fat __________ __
plastic superglycerinated fat of the kind already
.15
Monoglyceride of free fatty acid from same
described may be incorporated with our improved
fat _________________________________ __
butter or butter fat.
We have also found that shortening containing
15
6.0
Example 7
superglycerinated fat is further improved for bak
ing if, in addition to superglycerinated fat, 8.
small quantity of free fatty acid or an equivalent
quantity of soap is present, the amount of which
is preferably not less than about 0.13% of the
total shortening. This is higher than the per
centage of free fatty acid found in many shorten
ings heretofore generally classed as being of best
quality for baking purposes. We are able to ob
tain such excellent results in baked products with
the use of 0.25% or less of soap or free fatty acid
in our shortening that ordinarily we prefer not
30 to use a larger amount. However, it should be
understood that the effectiveness of soap and free
fatty acid is greater with higher percentages and,
to obtain the maximum volume of the finished‘
baked products, it may be desirable to use 4% or
35 even more of free fatty acid in our shortening.
Combinations of free fatty acid and soap are also
effective. Any added free fatty acid or soap, of
Per cent
Soybean oil hydrogenated to 75 iodine value- 88
Diglyceride of cottonseed oil hydrogenated to
60 iodine value _______________________ __
Per cent
Peanut oil hydrogenated to 80 iodine value_ 84
Completely hydrogenated peanut oil ______ __
value ________________________________ __
Per cent
Rendered lard with a free fatty acid content
of .3% _______________________________ __
94
Monoglyceride of lard ___________________ __
6
Example 10
Per cent
Hydrogenated lard of 55 iodine value____ 91.8
amounts are su?icient to produce substantial re
sults. Free fatty acids having more than 12 car
bon atoms per molecule are preferred on account
Free fatty acid from lard ______________ __'
'
45 made in accordance with our invention.
Per cent
Cottonseed oil __________________________ __
84
Hydrogenated cottonseed oil of 15 iodine
value ________________________________ __
Monogiyceride of cottonseed oil __________ __
4
Examplez
8.0
.2
40
Example 11
Per cent
Freshly churned margarine _____________ __
96
Monoglyceride of peanut oil hydrogenated to
45
The freshly churned margarine in Example 11
may be made, for instance, with use of a fat mix
ture consisting of 15% oleostearin, 45% coconut
oil, 20% palm kernel oil, and 20% peanut oil. 50
The freshly churned margarine is intimately
mixed with the superglycerinated fat, with or
without addition of water other than that con
Per cent
Peanut oil ______________________________ __
Cottonseed oil __________________________ __
15
Diglyceride of peanut oil ________________ __
10
Example 3
Per cent
oil _____________________________ _..
‘l6
Hydrogenated sesame oil of 12 iodine value-
12
Diglyceride of hydrogenated cottonseed oil
12
Example 4
Per cent
Cottonseed oil _________________________ __ 83.85
mechanically agitated with 10% by weight of
glycerine in an atmosphere of nitrogen at atmos 60
pheric pressure at about 240° C. for one hour.
The reaction mixture is cooled to about 60° C.
and settled. The lower glycerin layer is drawn
off and reserved for reuse. The superglycerin
ated fat is ?ltered with kieselguhr and made 65
plastic by chilling and mixing in the usual man
ner.
Example 13
4.0
0.15
acid in the ?nished shortening 0.15%.
value _______________________________ __ 12.0
Monogiyceride of hydrogenated cottonseed
Free fatty acid from hydrogenated'cotton—
seed oil of 66 iodine value ____________ __
value, after the usual steam deodorization, is
To the superglycerinated fat made as described 70
in Example 12 (containing normally as made
not more than about 0.1% free fatty acid) there
is added su?lcient free fatty acid prepared from
70 Hydrogenated cottonseed oil of 15 iodine
oil of 66 iodine value _________________ __
65
Example 12 V
Hydrogenated cottonseed oil of about '10 iodi'ne
value ________________________________ __
of 66 iodine value _____________________ __
tained in the regular margarine emulsion.
25
50
Hydrogenated cottonseed oil of 15 iodine
Sesame
to 66 iodine value ____________________ __
80 iodine value _______________________ __
ExampleI
60
12
Ewample 9
Diglyceride of cottonseed oil hydrogenated
The following are examples of shortening
4
Diglyceride of cottonseed oil of 66 iodine
course, should be carefully prepared from fat of
strictly edible grade, even though very minute
of flavor.
12
Example 8
the same fat source to make the total free fatty
75
5
2,182,893
In the above examples, the term “monoglyceride" does not necessarily refer to a material ex
clusively monoglyceride, but includes synthetic
fat consisting predominantly of monoglyceride.
Likewise the term “diglyceride" is used in a
broad sense so as to comprise a synthetic fat
' in which the diglyceride predominates.
The term “shortening” as employed herein and
in the appended claims is used in the normal
10 sense, to designate a material employed in the
preparation of baked edible products to render
the latter short and friable. In the preparation
of a bakery mix in accordance with the present
invention it is of advantage to employ the short
15 ening in the plastic condition and it will be un
derstood that a shortening described herein as
plastic is one having that consistency at the tem
perature at which the bakerymix will be formed,
which ordinarily will be normal temperature.
20
No claim is made in this application to baked
goods made with our improved shortenings, but
certain classes of these baked products are de
for triglyceride formation is between .3% and
1.5% of the weight of total shortening.
,
10. The process of improving previously re
?ned and deodorized edible fat having a substan
tially lard-like consistency in the range of ordi
nary room temperatures and consisting essen
tially of triglycerides of predominantly unsatu
rated higher fatty acids, which comprises mix~
ing glycerin with the molten fat and heating to
a sufficient extent to increase the combined 10
glycerin content of the fat in amount not less
than .3% of the total weight of the resulting
glycerides.
1
11. A blended plastic shortening comprising
a major proportion of fat consisting of solid and
liquid triglycerides and at least about 4% syn
thetic fat belonging to the group consisting of
monoglycerides and diglycerides of predominant
ly unsaturated higher fatty acids, said synthetic
fat being without substantial stiffening effect on 20
the shortening.
12. The shortening claimed in ‘claim 11 in
scribed in greater detail and claimed in our co- ' which the main body of the triglyceride fat con
pending application Serial No. 655,295, ?led con
25
currently herewith.
Having thus described our invention, what is
claimed as new and desired to be secured by
Letters Patent is:
1. A process for improving edible plastic tri
30 glyceride fat for use in baking which comprises
embodying therein synthetic fat of the group con
sisting of monoglycerides and diglycerides of
predominantly unsaturated higher fatty acids,
said synthetic fat being without substantial stiff
35 ening action on and constituting at least about
4% of the total glyceride mixture.
2. The process claimed in claim 1 in which
the plastic triglyceride fat consists of vegetable
oil partially hydrogenated prior to embodying the
synthetic fat therein.
.
3. The process claimed in claim 1 in which
the plastic triglyceride fat is prepared by hydro
genating cottonseed oil to about 63 to 80 iodine
' value and subsequently deodorizing same prior to
45 embodying the synthetic fat'therein.
4. The process claimed in claim 1 in which
the plastic triglyceride fat consists of lard.
5. The process claimed in claim 1 in which
sists of previously hydrogenated, deodorized fat.
13. The shortening claimed in claim 11 in 25
which the triglyceride portion of the fat consists
of hydrogenated, deodorized cottonseed oil of
about 63 to 80 iodine value. v
14. The shortening claimed in claim 11 to
which there is also added a small quantity of a 80
reagent selected from the group consisting of
fatty acids and soaps.
15. The shortening claimed in claim 11 in
which the synthetic fat is derived predominantly
from fatty acids of molecular formula contain 35
ing one double bond and containing at least 16
carbon atoms.
‘
v
16. A plastic shortening agent comprising a
natural plastic fat and a synthetic glyceride fat
of liquid to plastic consistency containing pre 40
dominantly unsaturated higher fatty acids in
combination with an excess of glycerin over that
required for triglyceride formation, said excess
of combined glycerin being not less than .3% of
the weight of total fat.
_
45
17. The shortening claimed in claim 16 in
which the natural plastic fat is lard.
18. A compound shortening consisting essen
tially of‘- fatty oil, a su?icient proportion of hard
triglyceride fat to make the shortening plastic,
and synthetic fat of liquid to plastic consistency 50
containing glycerides of the group consisting of
monoglycerides and diglycerides of predominant
the synthetic fat is derived predominantly from
50 fatty acids of molecular‘ formula containing at
least 16 carbon atoms.
6. A‘ process for producing plastic shortening
which comprises blending deodorized fat con
sisting of solid and liquid ‘triglycerides together ly unsaturated higher fatty acids in amount suf
v55 with synthetic predominantly unsaturated fatty flcient‘ to give the whole shortening between 65
glycerides of the ‘group consisting of monoglyc ' .3% and 1.5% more combined glycerin than re
erides and diglycerides of higher fatty acids, quired for formation of triglyceride of all the
‘
_
the proportion of the various glycerides being fatty acid present.
such as to make the excess of combined glycerin
19. The shortening claimed in claim 11 in
80 over that required for triglyceride formation not
substantially dry form.
60
less than .3% of the weight of the whole shorten
20. The shortening claimed in claim 16 in sub
ing, said synthetic glycerides constituting at stantially dry form.
'
least about 4% of the total glyceride mixture. _
21. A plastic shortening agent consisting essen
'7. The process claimed in claim 6 in which tially of a soft hydrogenated triglyceride oil base,
65 the glycerides of the group consisting of mono
a smaller amount of hard triglyceride fat, and 65
glycerides and diglycerides are derived from ed
a predominantly unsaturated synthetic fat con
‘ ible fat previously subjected to steam deodoriza
taining higher fatty acids in combination with
tion in the triglyceride form.
an excess of glycerin over that required for tri
8. The process claimed in claim 6 in which the glyceride formation, said excess of combined glyc
70 glycerides of the group consisting of mono
erin being not less than about .3% of the tota 70
glycerides and diglycerides are derived from par
weight of shortening.
tially hydrogenated and steam deodorized tri
glyceride fatty oils.
22. A process for improving edible plastic tri-=
glyceride fat for use in baking which comprises
adding to and mixing with the fat at separately
formed synthetic fat of the group consisting of 76
9. The process claimed in claim 6 in which the
excess of combined glycerin over that required
>
2,132,393
6
monoglycerides and diglycerides of predominant
ly unsaturated higher fatty acids, said synthetic
fat being without substantial stiffening action
on and constituting from about 4% to about
14% of the total glyceride mixture.
23. A process for producing substantially dry
plastic shortening which comprises blending de
odorizing fat consisting of solid and liquid tri
glycerides together with predominantly unsatu
10 rated, separately formed fatty glycerides of the
group consisting of monoglycerides and diglyc
erides of higher fatty acids, the proportion of
the various glycerides being such as to make the
excess of combined glycerin over that required
16 for triglyceride formation not less than .3% of
the weight of the whole shortening.
24. A process for improving, for use in baking,
edible triglyceride fat having prior to such im
provement the composition of a fat convertible
20 to plastic consistency at ordinary temperature
by chilling the molten fat‘ and mixing, which
comprises forming therein, by reaction of glycer
in with the triglyceride fat, synthetic fat of the
group consisting of monoglycerides and diglycer
ides, said synthetic fat constituting at least 2%
of the total glyceride mixture.
25. A process for improving, for use in baking,
edible triglyceride fat having prior to such im
provement the composition of a fat convertible
30 to plastic consistency at ordinary temperature by
chilling the molten fat and mixing, which com
prises adding to and mixing with the triglyceride
fat a synthetic fat of the group consisting of
monoglycerides and diglycerides of predominant
ly unsaturated higher fatty acids, said synthetic
fat being without substantial stiffening action
on and constituting at least about 4% of the total
glyceride mixture.
26. A process for improving, for use in sub
40 stantially dry form in baking, edible triglyceride‘
prepared with the shortening and containing
more sugar than ?our.
29. An edible plastic shortening for use in
sweetened edible products baked from a flour
base comprising a major proportion of fat con
sisting of solid and liquid triglycerides and at
least 2% synthetic fat belonging to the group con
sisting of monoglycerides and diglycerides of pre
dominantly unsaturated higher fatty acids, said
synthetic fat being without substantial stiiTening 10
effect on the shortening and having an excess of
combined glycerin over that required for tri
glyceride formation equal to at least .3% of the
weight of fatty glycerides in the shortening.
30. A substantially dry edible plastic shorten 15
ing for use in sweetened edible products baked
from a ?our base comprising a major proportion
of fat consisting of solid and liquid triglycerides
and at least 2% synthetic fat belonging to the
group consisting of monoglycerides and diglycer 20
ides of predominantly unsaturated higher fatty
acids, said synthetic fat being without substan
tial stiffening effect on the shortening.
31. A process for improving edible plastic tri
glyceride fat for use in substantially dry form
in baking which comprises adding to and mixing
with the fat a separately formed synthetic fat
of the group consisting of monoglycerides and
diglycerides of predominantly unsaturated higher
fatty acids, said synthetic fat being without sub
stantial sti?ening action on and constituting at
least 2% of the total glyceride mixture.
32. The process of improving, for use as a sub
stantially dry shortening, previously re?ned and
deodorized edible fat having a substantially lard
like consistency in the range of ordinary room
temperatures and consisting essentially of tri
glycerides of predominantly unsaturated higher
fatty acids, which comprises mixing glycerin with
the molten fat and heating to a su?icient extent
fat having prior to such improvement the com
position of a fat convertible to plastic consistency
at ordinary temperature by chilling the molten
fat and mixing, which comprises embodying
45 therein synthetic fat of the group consisting of
to increase the combined glycerin content of the
fat being without substantial stiffening action on
and constituting at least 2% of the total glyceride
monoglycerides and diglycerides of higher fatty
mixture.
34. A plastic shortening for use in baked goods
manufacture, for the purpose described, compris
ing, in intimate admixture with triglyceride fat,
at least about 4% synthetic fat belonging to the
group consisting of monoglycerides and diglyc
erides of predominantly unsaturated higher fatty 55
acids, said synthetic fat being without substantial
stiffening effect on the shortening.
35. The process of manufacturing shortening
monoglycerides and diglycerides of predominant
ly unsaturated higher fatty acids, said synthetic
2'7. A process for producing substantially dry
plastic shortening which comprises blending de
odorized plastic triglyceride fat together with
predominantly unsaturated plastic glyceride fat
55 of the group consisting of monoglycerides and
diglycerides of higher fatty acids, the proportion
of the various glycerides being such as to make
the excess of combined glycerin over that re
quired for triglyceride formation not less than
60 .3% of the weight of the whole shortening.
28. A dry shortening for use in sweet baked
goods, plastic at the temperature of forming the
bakery mix, consisting of an intimate mixture
of higher fatty acid triglycerides ‘and synthetic
65 fat belonging to the group consisting of mono
glycerides and diglycerides of predominantly un
saturated higher fatty acids, said synthetic fat
exerting no substantial stiffening action on the
shortening, the quantity of synthetic fat em
ployed being not less than 2% of the weight of
the whole shortening and being su?icient, as
compared with the same quantity of fat wholly of
the triglyceride type, to materially reduce the
76 normal shrinkage at the end of baking of cakes
70
fat in amount not less than .3% of the total
weight of the resulting glycerides.
33. A substantially dry plastic shortening com
prising an intimate mixture of triglyceride fat 45
and at least 2% of a softer fat of liquid to plastic
consistency belonging to the group consisting of
ac ds.
which comprises mixing into a plastic mass solid
and liquid fat including synthetic glycerides of 60
the group consisting of monoglycerides and di
glyceridesof higher fatty acids, said synthetic
glycerides being derived from predominantly un
saturated higher fatty acids and being present
in amount not less than about 4% of the total 65
fat mixture.
36. A process for improving edible plastic tri
glyceride fat for use in baking which comprises
embodying therein synthetic fat of the group
consisting of monoglycerides and diglycerides oi 70
predominantly unsaturated higher fatty acids,
said synthetic fat being without substantial stiff
ening action on and constituting at least 2%
of the total glyceride mixture and containing ex
cess combined glycerin over that required for 75
2,182,893
triglyceride formation in‘ amount not less than
.3% of the weight of the whole shortening.
37. A process for producing plastic shortening
which comprises blending deodorized fat con
sisting of solid and liquid triglycerides together
with predominantly unsaturated fatty glycerides
I 7
consisting of monoglycerides and diglycerides of
predominantly unsaturated higher fatty 'acids,
said synthetic fat being without substantial stiff
ening action on the shortening and constitutingv
a su?lcient proportion, not less than 2%, of the 5
total glyceride mixture to effect substantial in
of the group consisting of monoglycerides and, crease in the volume of cakes prepared with the
diglycerides of higher fatty acids, the proportion shortening and from a batter containing much
of the various 'giycerides being such as to make
10 the excess of combined glycerin over that required
more sugar than ?our.
40. A plastic shortening comprising higher
for triglyceride formation not less than 7.3% of fatty acid triglycerides and aseparately formed 10
the weight of the whole shortening.
_ mixture consisting essentially of predominantly
38. An vedible plastic shortening, for ~use in unsaturated higher fatty acid monoglycerides
sweetened edible products baked from a ?our base and diglycerides, said mixture being without sub
15 comprising a major proportion of fat consisting stantial sti?ening action on the shortening and
of solid and liquid triglycerides and from about ' constituting a su?icient proportion, not less than
4% to about 14% synthetic fat belonging to the
group consisting of monoglycerides and diglycer
ides ofpredominantly unsaturated higher fatty
acids, said synthetic fat being without substan
tial sti?ening effect on the shortening.
'
39. A process for improving edible plastic tri
glyceride fat for use in baking which comprises
embodying therein synthetic .fat of the group.
is
2%, of the total glycerlde mixture to effect sub
stantial increase in the volume of cakes prepared
with the shortening and from a batter contain
ing much more sugar than ?our.
.
‘HERBERT s. COITH.
ALBERT s. RICHARDSON.
‘ vnanma M. vo'mw.
20
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