close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2132446

код для вставки
Oct. 11, .1938.
A. SCHWEIZER
2,132,446
SPEED GOVERNING APPARATUS FOR INJECTION INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
'
Filed Nov. 21, 1954
193.1
‘
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Oct. 11, 1938.
A. SCHWEIZER
2,132,446
SPEED GOVERNING APPARATUSEOR INJECTION INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
Filed Nov. 21, 1954
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Oct. 11, 1938.
A. SCHWEIZER
2,132,446
SPEED GOVERNING APPARATUS FOR INJECTION INTERNAL COMBUSTION‘ENGINES
‘
Filed Nov. 21, 1934
25 25
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
'
|\
231
/3
.9
NJ-
m
a
I”\. ”U,
M
mwll
PW
8
=/ @7
_
_
. wag
a
ha.
a
1 Oct._ 11, 1938.
r
I
A. SCHWEIZER‘
.
'
2,132,446
SPEED GOVERNING APPARATUS FOR INJECTION INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES
-' Filed Nov. 21, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
2,132,446
Patented Get. 11, 1938
PATENT OFFICE
" UNITED STATES
.
_
2,132,446
SPEED GOVERNING APPARATUS FOR IN
JECTION INTERNAL COMBUSTION EN
GINES
-
Alfred Schweizer, Stuttgart, Germany, assignor
to Robert Bosch Gesellschaft mit beschrank
ter Haftung, Stuttgart, Germany
Application November 21,‘ 1934, Serial No. 754,160
In Germany December 1, 1933
9 Claims.
The present invention relates to speed, gov
erning apparatus for injection internal combus
tion engines.
(Cl. 123-140)
Several examples of construction of the inven
'
In injection internal combustion engines hav
5 ingv a speed-governing apparatus which responds
to a di?erence, varying with the speed of the
engine, between two pneumatic pressures, the
pressure in?uenced by the speed may be regarded
as a mean value from the pressure strokes pro-v
10 duced by the separate piston strokes.
When the
engine is running slowly, the drawback becomes
evident in such governors that this pressure and
the effective fall in pressure ?uctuates to such an
extent about the mean value that the'governing
15 member in?uenced by the latter follows these
separate ?uctuations and makes governing
strokes that are undesirably large.
According to the invention, these undesirably
large governing strokes which occur at low en
gine speeds are damped. This can be attained
_ by means which permit, at least in the region of
the idle running position of the governing mem
ber, an in?uencing of the pressure conditions,
by way of a damping of the governing movement
25 which overcomes the dependence of the pneu
matic fall in pressure on the engine speed.
One possible method of in?uencing the pres
sure conditions in the manner previously de
scribed consists in a “throttling-preferably auto
30 matic—at the desired moment of the free passage
in at least one of the pipes carrying the pneumatic
governing medium. Such throttle valves cause
the ?uctuations in the magnitude of the pneu
matic pressures arising from the separate piston
35 strokes to be communicated so slowly to the gov
erning member, that before the ?uctuation in one
direction is fully completed, a reversal of the
direction of ?uctuation has begun. In this way
the governing member makes substantially smaller
40 strokes than when the passage through the pipes
is unhindered. Its movements are thus greatly
damped.
'
Another mode of damping the governing move
ment by in?uencing the pressure conditions ac
cording to the invention may also be attained by
the opening-preferably e?ected automatically
at the desired moment of a narrow connecting
pipe between the different pressures acting on the
two sides of the governing member. In this
case, the stronger of the two pressures isweak
ened, and the weaker one strengthened. So long
as the said pipe is open the displacing force act
ing on the governing member is reduced, so that
the governing‘strok-es of this member become
Ci 5 considerably smaller than when the pipe is closed.
tion are shown diagrammatically in the accom
panying drawings in which:
Figure 1 is an elevation of an injection internal
combustion engine having an injection pump and
vacuum governor.
'
~
Figure 2 is a partial section, on an enlarged
scale, through the injection pump, the governor,
of one of the examples of theinvention, and the
suction pipe of the engine.
,
_
10
‘ Figures 3-13 show various further examples of
construction on the scale of Figure 2.
The lower part I of the engine carries four
cylinders 2 and an injection pump 3, which is
driven from‘the engine shaft 4 by gearing 5. 15
The fuel is-supplied to the injection pump, in the
direction of the arrow, by a pipe 6, from a con
tainer (not shown). From the injection pump
four pressure pipes 1 lead to the nozzles in the
cylinders 2. The charge of air is drawn in 20
through the common suction pipe 8. In the suc
tion pipe a throttle-valve 9 is provided, which is
operated from a pedal 91) through a lever 9a con
nected to it. From the suction pipe 8 a vacuum
pipe l5 leads to the governor 3a of the pump 3. 25
The governor 3a (see Figures 2, 3 and 6) con- '
tains a chamber in which a piston 24 is longi
tudinally movable. 1' In the case of Figure 2, the
vacuum is supplied to the part of the chamber
situated to the left of the piston 24, and, as it 30'
increases, moves the piston 24 to the left against
the action of a return spring 21, said spring com
prising means for applying a relatively constant
pressure on one side of said control member or
piston 24. The piston 24 is fastened by a nut 28 35
to the end of a toothed rackbar 23, which pro
jects from the pump into the governing chamber.’
The governing of the amount of fuel delivered
for spraying is effected by the movement of the
rackbar 23. In Figure 2 the conditions are select 40
ed as follows:--If the rackbar is moved to the
left, the eifective quantity delivered is reduced to
all the pumps. uniformly. On the movement of
the rackbar to the right the amount delivered
for spraying to all the pumps is increased. The 45
rackbar 23 meshes with a pinion 22. Each of
the pump pistons l6, driven by a cam shaft i8
'
coupled to the ‘engine, is connected in such a way
with such a pinion that it must follow the rotary
movements of the pinion without this latter hav 50
ing to participate in thestrokes of the piston.
By av simultaneous and similar angular move
ment of the pistons the position of the oblique
controlling edge 2| provided on each of them is
so adjusted relative to the suction and return
2
2, 132,446
?ow passage 20, that the effective stroke of the
pump pistons ceases earlier or later according to
the adjusted position of the oblique controlling
edges, and the fuel forced by the piston in the re
maining part of each pressure stroke of the pump,
?ows back through the passage 20 into the suc
tion chamber l9 in the pump casing 3 connected
with the fuel supply pipe 6.
10
This governing apparatus works asfollowsz
A vacuum obtaining in the suction pipe during
the running of the engine extends through the
pipe I 5 to the governing chamber 3a. If now, for
example, owing to the engine being relieved of
load, its speed increases whilst the adjustment of
gaging behind the pinion 22) that, as before,
when the vacuum increases the amount of fuel
sprayed at each stroke of the pump is reduced.
The damping of the governing movements dur-v
ing the lower speeds is effected, in the example
according to Fig. 3, as in Fig. 2, by the contrac
tion of the pipe which leads to the atmosphere.
In this case however the throttling is produced
in dependence on the position of the member, the
throttle-valve 9, which serves for adjusting the 10
speed. The available cross-section for the con
nection of the left-hand part of the chamber
with the atmosphere is composed of the narrow
15 the throttle-valve remains the same, the vacuum opening 25 and the larger opening 32 provided
in the chamber 33. The chamber 33 is connected 15
in the suction pipe 8 exceeds the vacuum pre _in its turn to the pipe 34, which comes from the
viously existing.
'
The increased vacuum then draws the piston,
together with the governing rod 23 to the left,
20 whereby the amount of fuel injected at each pis
ton stroke is reduced. The speed and thus also
the vacuum in the suction pipe will thereupon
drop. The piston 24 has a tendency to set itself
in the position corresponding to this vacuum. A
25 de?nite mean speed corresponds in this case-—
assuming the position of the throttle-valve re
mains the same—to a de?nite position of the pis
ton 24. The voluntary alteration of the speed
is effected by adjustment of throttle-valve 9.
30
In the example according to Figure 2, the gov
erning movement of the piston 24 is clamped by
the unthrottled connection between one part of
the chamber and the atmosphere being throttled
at low speeds by contractions in the cross section
35 which are automatically produced.
When the
engine is running under load the said chamber
part is connected by two openings with the outer
air, namely, on the one hand by the narrow open
ing 25 in the bottom of the chamber, and also by
40
the substantially larger opening 29. The latter
is capable of being closed by a valve 28, which
has a pin (28a and 281) respectively) on both sides.
Of these pins, the former is guided in a ring 290.
which is held by two ribs at the centre of the
45 opening 29, and the other in a yoke 30 provided
on the casing 3a.
'
'
A spring 3| tends to close the valve on its seat.
So long, however, as the piston 24 is in the right
hand half of the chamber, and thus touches the
50 pin 28a, the valve is raised from its seat. Only
when the engine is under a lower load (for exam
ple,running idle when standing) does the pis
left-hand governing chamber. The opening 32
is closed by a valve 35 by means of a spring 36.
An extension rod 90 provided on the foot lever
rod is moved to the left on the opening of the 20
throttle-valve, and thereby presses against the
valve plunger 31, and so opens the valve against
the force of its closing spring 36. On the closing
of the throttle 9, the parts 90 and 31 come out of
contact, whereby the valve 35 closes and the 25
cross-section for connecting the governor cham
ber with the atmosphere is reduced to the cross
section of the small opening 25. By this means
the desired damping of the governor movement is
e?ected.
30
The example according to Figs. 4 and 5 also
shows the possibility of damping the governor
movement by contraction of the cross-sections in
the pipe leading from the governing chamber to
the atmosphere in dependence on the position of 35
the throttle-valve. In this case, however, varia
tion in the damping e?'ect is gradual, in contrast
to the already described constructions. This is
attained by a disc 40, revolubly arranged on the
casing 30. in front of the opening 25, which in 40
this case is a large one. This disc has a slot ll
concentric with the pivotal axis and the width of
which measured in a radial direction constantly
increases over its length. The disc is coupled to
the foot-pedal 9b, and thus also to the throttle
valve 9, by an arm 40a and the rod 90. When 45
the throttle-valve is closed, the narrowest part '
of the slot 4| lies before the opening 25. As the
opening of the throttle-valve 9 increases, an in
creasingly wider part of the slot 4| comes before
the opening 25. The damping of the governing 50.
movements is thus greatest when the throttle
ton 24 move so far to the left that it passes out of ' valve is closed.
contact with the pin 28a.
The valve 28 there
55 upon closes ‘and the cross section of the connec
tion of the casing 30. to atmosphere consisting
hitherto of the sum of the cross sections of the
two openings 25 and 29, is reduced to that of the
narrow opening 25. This vcontraction of the cross
60 section of the pipe prevents the air which is pres
ent in the right hand half of the chamber from
escaping quickly enough during the strong move
ments of the governing member produced by the
suction strokes of the separate engine pistons
65 occurring when the engine is running idle, and
also subsequently it cannot ?ow in again quickly
enough, so that the governing movement is
strongly damped.
In the examples according to Figs. 13-13, the
70 vacuum in the suction pipe is supplied to the
right-hand part of the chamber, in contrast to
the construction shown in Fig. 2, whilst the left
hand chamber is connected with the atmosphere.
The injection pump in this case is, of course, so
'in constructed and arranged (the rackbar 23 en
Figs. 6 and 7 show another form of construc
tion of the invention, in which the damping of
the governing movement is brought about by the
pipe l5 leading from the suction pipe ‘to the gov
ernor being connected with the atmosphere, on a
correspondingposition of the throttle, by a small
opening 38a, and-thereby the changing vacuum
producing the great fluctuations in governing is 60
weakened by introducing extra air. For this pur
pose, a chamber 38, having a small opening 33a
is intercalated in the pipe I5. In front of this
opening a slide 39 is movable to and fro in a slot
38b. This slide is so connected by a rod 90 with
the throttle-valve movement, that when the
throttle-valve 9 is opened, the slide 39 closes the
opening 38, and when the valve 9 is closed, opens
it by an opening 39a provided in it.
In the examples hitherto described, the damp
ing of the governing movement has been effected
in dependence on the position of mechanical con
trolling members. In the following examples of
construction such additional controlling members ’
2,182,446
3
are avoided. The damping of the governing one on each side of said control, member, means
movement is obtained in these cases by the for applying a relatively constant pressure on one
branching of the pipe l5 between the suction pipe side of said control member, means connecting
8 and the governor 3a, the branching being so one of ,said chambers to the atmosphere, means
selected that this pipe is connected, when the connecting the other of said chambers to the
throttle-valve is closed, by its one branch to the intake manifold on the engine side of the throttle
vacuum and by its other branch to the open air. valve, whereby the pressure variations in the
The particular pressure conditions in the vicinity intake manifold will function to displace said
of the throttle-valve are thereby utilized. When control member by differential pressure acting
thereon and to adjust the fuel injection means,
the throttle-valve is open, the same vacuum ob
tains all about the valve. The branch pipes thus and means responsive to the position of the
convey the same pressure. It is only as closure throttle valve in the'intake manifold correspond
of the valve proceeds that a difference in the ing to the idling speed of the engine to vary the
instantaneous value of the differential pressure
pressures before and behind the valve is pro
] and functioning to reduce the value of said dif
uum prevails behind it-in the direction of the ferential pressure and dampen its action in dis
placing said control member in a direction reduc
suction current and in front of it a pressure cor
15 duced, namely, when the valve is closed a vac
responding approximately to the atmospheric
pressure. The pipe I 5 is therefore so branched
20 or enlarged in, all the examples shown in Figs.
,> 8-13, that it is in communication with the space
in front of the throttle-valve even when the
throttle-valve is closed. In this way, as in the
example according to Figs. 5—7, the action of the
25 vacuum causing the strong governing movements
is weakened when the throttle-valve is closed, by
introducing extra air and thus a damping of the
15
ing the fuel supply to idling quantities.
,2. The combination, with an internal combus
tion engine of/the injection type having an air 20
intake manifold and a throttle valve therein, of
adjustable fuel injection means, a displaceable
control member connected to said fuel injection
means for controlling the fuel supply to said en
gine, means housing said control member and 25
de?ning with the two sides thereof two chambers, ‘
one on each side of said control member, means
for applying a relatively constant force to one side
of said control member, means connecting one of
branches l5a and I5!) and introduced into the said chambers to the atmosphere, means "con 30
suction pipe 8 directly before and behind the ~ necting the other of said chambers to the intake
closed throttle-valve 9 on the same side of the manifold on the engine side of the throttle valve
suction pipe. In Fig. 9, the branches l5a and l5b whereby the pressure variations in the intake
also open directly before and behind the closed manifold will function to displace said control
throttle-valve into the suction pipe, but at two member by differential force acting thereon to 35
diametrically opposite points on the same. In adjust the fuel injection means, and means re
governing movement is obtained.
In Fig. 8, the pipe l5 vis branched into two
Fig'. 10, the pipe I 5 has an enlargement I50, which‘ sponsive to the position of the throttle valve in
is ‘so introduced into the suction pipe 8 that it - the intake manifold corresponding to the idling
speed of the ‘engine and operable only at engine
opens into the space before as well as the space
idling speed to vary the instantaneous value of
40 behind the throttle-valve.
Figs. ‘11-13 show similar arrangements, which the differential force and functioning to reduce
differ from those just described only by one or '1 the value of said differential force and dampen its
action ‘in displacing said control member in a
more Venturi tubes lllbeing built into the suc- '
tion pipe 8 so as to reinforce the vacuum at great direction reducing the fuel supply to idling quan
_ I current speeds. The branches I 5a and I 5b open,
in this case, similarly as in Figs. 8-10, into the
suction pipe 8 at the narrowest point in the Ven
turi tube or tubes II). In this case, the throttle
valve 9 can be situated either, as in Fig. 11,‘ at
the narrowest point of the Venturi tube l0,
and the branches I51: and I5!) open directly be
fore and behind it (Fig. 11), or the throttle may
also be arranged between two Venturi tubes ‘Ill
(Fig. 12) the branches l5a and I5!) then each
CI in opening into one‘ of these Venturi tubes. The
introduction of these branches at two diametri
cally opposite points into a Venturi tube, corre
sponding to the construction in Fig. 9, is simpli
?ed where a Venturi tube is employed. In order
to avoid separate pipe connections to the oppo
site points of entrance, according to Fig. 13, the
Venturi tube I0 is provided with an external an
nular groove Ina, which at two diametrically op
posite positions has connecting pipes lllb leading
' to the interior of the Venturi tube and into which
groove the unbranched pipe l5 directly opens.
I declare that what I claim is:
l. The combination with an internal combus
one on each‘ side of said control member, means
for applying a relatively constant pressure on one 55
side of, said control member, means connecting‘
one of said chambers to the atmosphere, means
connecting the other of said chambers to the
intake manifold on the engine side of the throttle
valve, whereby the pressure variations in them
to
takemanifold will function to displace said con
trol member by differential pressure acting there
on and to adjust the fuel injection means, and
additional means directly connected to and oper
able by said throttle valve for connecting one of 65
said chambers to the atmosphere, said additional
means operable, when said throttle valve is in the
position for idling speed of the engine, to vary
the instantaneous value of the differential pres
sure and functioning to reduce the value of said 70
differential pressure and dampen its action in
displacing said control member in a direction
reducing the fuel supply to idling quantities.
means for controlling the fuel supply to said en
4. The combination with an internal combus
gine, means housing said, control member and.
de?ning with the two sides thereof two chambers, tion engine of the injection'type having an air .
tion engine of the injection type having an air
70 intake manifold and a throttle valve therein, of
adjustable fuel injection means, a displaceable
control member connected to said fuel injection
75
45
titles.
3. The combination with an intern'alcombus
tion engine of the injection type having an air
intake manifold and a throttle valve therein, of
adjustable fuel injection means, a displaceable
control member connected to said fuel injection 50
means for controlling the fuel supply to said
engine, means housing said control member and
de?ning with the two sides thereof two chambers,
4
2,132,446
intake manifold and a throttle valve therein, of
adjustable fuel injection means, a displaceable
control member connected to said fuel injection
means for controlling the fuel supply to said
engine, means housing said control member and
de?ning with the two sides thereof two chambers,
one on each side of said control member, means
for applying a relatively constant pressure on one
side of said control member, means connecting
10 one of said chambers to the atmosphere, means
connecting the other of said chambers to the
intake manifold on the engine side of the throttle
valve, whereby the pressure variations in the
intake manifold will function to displace said
control member by differential pressure acting
thereon and to adjust the fuel injection means,
and additional means, controlled by and depend
ent upon the position of said throttle valve, for
connecting said atmospheric pressure chamber to
20 the atmosphere, said additional means operable,
when said throttle valve is in the position for
idling speed of the engine, to vary the instan
taneous value of the differential pressure and
' functioning to reduce the value of said differen
tial pressure and dampen its action in displacing
said control member in a direction reducing the
fuel supply to idling quantities.
_
5. The combination with an internal combuse
tion engine of the injection type having an air
30 intake manifold and a throttle valve therein, of
adjustable fuel injection means, a displaceable
control member connected to said fuel injection
means for controlling the fuel supply to said en
gine, means housing said control member and
, de?ning with the two sides thereof two chambers,
one on each side of said control member, means
for applying a relatively constant pressure on one
side of said control member, means connecting
one of said chambers to the atmosphere, means
connecting the other of said chambers to the
intake manifold on the engine side of the throt
tle valve to create a reduced pressure therein,
whereby the pressure variations in the intake
manifold will function to displace said control
member by differential pressure acting thereon
and to adjust the fuel injection means, and addi
tional means directly connected to and operable
by said throttle valve for connecting said re
duced-pressure chamber to the atmosphere, said
50 additional means operable, when said throttle
valve is in the position for idling speed of the
engine, to vary the instantaneous value of the
differential pressure and functioning to reduce
the value of said differential pressure and dampen
55 its action in displacing said control member in a
direction reducing the fuel supply to idling quan
tities.
'
6. The combination with an internal combus
tion engine of the injection type having an air
60 intake manifold and a throttle valve therein, of
adjustable fuel injection means, a displaceable
control member connected to said fuel injection
means for controlling the fuel supply to said en-=
gine, means housing said control member and
65 de?ning with the two sides thereof two chambers,
one on each side of said control member, means
for applying a relatively constant pressure on
one side of said control member, means connect
ing one of said chambers to the atmosphere,
70 means connecting the other of said chambers‘ to
the intake manifold on the engine side of the
throttle valve, whereby the pressure variations
in the intake manifold will function to displace
said control member by differential pressure act
75 ing thereon and to adjust the fuel injection
means, and means responsive to the position of
the throttle valve in the intake manifold corre
sponding to the idling speed of the engine to
vary the degree of communication of at least
one of the connections to the housing for said
control member to vary the instantaneous value
of the differential pressure and functioning to re
duce the value of said differential pressure and
dampen its action in displacing said control mem
ber in a direction reducing the fuel supply to 10
idling quantities.
7. The combination with an internal combus
tion engine of the injection type having an air
intake manifold and a throttle valve therein, of
adjustable fuel injection means, a displaceable 15
control member connected to said fuel injec
tion means for controlling the fuel supply to said
engine, means housing said control member and
defining with the two sides thereof two chambers,
one on each side of said control member, means 20
for applying a relatively constant pressure on
one side of said control member, means connect“
ing one of said chambers to the atmosphere,
means connecting the other of said chambers to
the intake manifold at points located on the en
gine side and the opposite side of the throttle
valve when in its closed position whereby the
pressure variations in the intake manifold will
function to displace said control member by dif
25
ferential pressure acting thereon to adjust the 3G)
fuel injection means, said last-mentioned con
necting means being controlled by said throttle
valve to vary the instantaneous value of the
differential pressure and functioning when the
throttle valve is in the position for idling speed 35
of the engine to reduce the value of said dif
ferential pressure and dampen its action in dis
placing said control member in a direction re»
ducing the fuel supply to idling quantities.
8. The combination with an internal combus 40
tion engine of the injection type having an air
intake manifold and ‘a throttle valve therein, of
choke tube means in said intake manifold and
surrounding said throttle valve,,said choke tube
means being provided with lateral openings com
municating respectively with the engine side and
the opposite side of the throttle valve when in
its closed position, adjustable fuel injection
means, a displaceable control member connected
to said fuel injection means for controlling the
fuel supply to said engine, means housing said 50
control member and de?ning with the two sides
thereof two chambers, one on each side of said
control member, means for applying a relatively
constant pressureon one side of said control 55
member, means connecting one of said chambers
to the atmosphere, and a branched duct con
necting the other of said chambers to the open
ings in said choke tube means in said intake
manifold, whereby the pressure variations in the 60
intake manifold will function to displace said
control member by differential pressure acting
thereon to adjust the fuel injection means, said
openings being controlled by said throttle valve
to vary‘the instantaneous value of the differen 65
tial pressure and functioning when the throttle
valve is in the position for idling speed of the
engine to reduce the value of said differential
pressure and dampen its action in displacing said
control member in a direction reducing the fuel
supply to idling quantities. ‘
l
9. Speed governing apparatus for internal com
bustion engines having a fuel injection pump and
an air-suction intake pipe and a throttle valve
therein, comprising a displaceable control mem 75
2,132,446
her, a housing enclosing said control member,
means eifecting movement of said control mem
5
tion, means applying a resisting force to said
control member in opposition to the effect of said
differential fluid pressure, and a valve connected
to said housing on said opposite 'side of said con
said means comprising a permanently open con
nection from said housing to atmosphere on one ' trol member adapted to be controlled by said
throttle valve as it moves into its position corre
side of said control member and a like connec
her in one direction by differential fluid pressure,
tion from said housing on the opposite side of said
,10
control member to said air intake pipe at a point
therein on the engine side of said throttle valve,
means connecting said control member to said
pump and operative to reduce the rate of delivery
of said pump in accordance with the displace
ment of said control member in said one direc
sponding to idle running of the engine, in order
to connect said housing on said opposite side of
said control member with atmosphere and thus to
check further'movernent of said control member 10
toward a position of reduced fuel supply which
would result in stalling of the engine.
ALFRED SCHWEIZER.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
920 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа