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Oct. 1l, 1938. l VAN ACKEREN 2,132,522 COKIN@ REToRT OVEN „£3142 _ ä INVEN'roR J‘oJePH VAN Aexnnm, ¿n If v LïÃfToRNEY Oct. l1, 1938. .1. VAN AcKERl-:N 2,132,522 coxING RETORT QVEN Filed May 14, 195e l __3 7 sheets-sheet s lNvEN'roR v Jenaer-1 VAN Acnam ' _ BY ¿wir Oef. 11.-, 1938. J. VAN AcKEREN 2,132,522 coxINa RETÍORT ovmN Filed May 14, 1936 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 .5 , .6 Jour» INVENTORA vm cnam,Y E’Yfüwßzátw »4:4 ÄTToRNl-:Y l Oct. 11,1938. » .1. VAN ACKEREN 2,132,522 GOKING RETORT OVEN yFiled May 14, 1936 .amps-«umg 4.6 ` ui@ E‘ im; num.; MME’ë as' 7 Sheets-Sheet G 3k¿lJ225,-1 I Y, mwä ëßeü@ q'/ It1:;, 3 Tg3 »j ì /12' ,ilïs:-2’1E3m : lA l ¢œ\\ Y; ll @E a@ ` Ü fà@ Y@ QÍ'O.- gm ÃÍÍ È l Ifl’/lI,1r,'/I/]1lff,1: 'Il' l’ Il’l l . 1 ` ' ATTORNEY Patented oct. 11,1938 'UNITED STATES PATENT lorifice'. ' 4 2,132,522 como aa'rolt'r ovEN Joseph van Aclreren, Pittsburgh, Pa., asisignor to . Kappers Company, a corporation of Delaware Application May 14,- 1936, Serial No. 79,669 (Cl. 7202-443) heating step is necessary for their satisfactory This invention comprehends improvements of The progress of the lean _gas ,combustion general utility-ln the coking retort oven art; and reaction, even after preheating, is still compara comprehends more specifically improvements in> tively slow and the 4evolution of much heat' rela the means `for delivering the underñrin'g media tively tardy in developing after admixture with 6 5 into the combustion iiues of coking retort oven vthe combustion air. ' ‘ under?lring systems and more especially pertains In combination ovens which are designed a'nd to the means vfor controlling and regulating the' equipped to be heated optionally by either rich volumes of said underflring gases delivered from or -lean gas, the coke-oven designer is confronted ' 14 Claims. the regenerators into. the flame flues. The in 10 stant invention is- especially applicable to ‘cokìng with the problem of providing an underiiring sys tem which will equally effectively employ either a heating fiues having regenerators beneath, and highly combustible richA gas or a lean gas to heat the same ovens and coke the coal charge uni-` retort ovens provided with vertically disposed its advantages will be realized either in combina tion ovens or in ovens equipped only to be‘under formly. In consequence of the above-mentioned distinctions between‘the combustion of gases oi 15 15 fired with rich gas. A principal advantage pro high and low calorific value, it is apparent that .vided by my present improvement resides in its ' the rich gases have a tendencyto burn too rap furnishing means for bringing different commer idly in the lower zones ‘of the heating flues and cially used underñring gases into contact with give rise to temperatures at that point that are 20 higher than preferred. In the case of lean gas underñring, the contrary condition exists, i. e. the individual combustion characteristics, andconse slower evolution of itsheat content during com for promoting a more~ quently provides means _ bustion, tends to give rise to the phenomenon etli‘cient and uniform distribution of the heat lib the combustion air', in the underflring system, in a manner ‘recognizing 'the differences in their erated by the burning‘gases to the retort heating walls. vAs speciflc'examples of the type of coklng retort Áovens in whichv the present improvement finds special application, the well-known cross over cross-regenerative type ovens exemplified in the patent 'to Joseph Becker No. 1,904,191‘dated 30 Apri1l18, 1933, and his. prior Patent No. 1,374,546 dated April 12, 1921, are cited, and also his ap plication S/N. 2,564 filed January 19, 1935. , In commercial installations for theA carboniza tion of. coal, _the carbonization process is pro by burning either rich or lean fuel gases," 35 moted that is; gases of relatively high or low caloriñc __.valu'e respectively, in the 'combustion iiues of the coking structure. Rich gas,'_ such as is formed and evolved ‘during the carbonization process, may be returned inpart to the underiiring sys 40 tem and there burned to» further promote the ‘distillation _of the coal charge. A lean gas of 4vlower thermal content and produced extraneous ly of the carbonizationsystem,. as for example gases, is also used 45 producer and blast furnace ' The rate of flame propa for the same purpose. gation in rich gas is so rapid that numerous means and devices have been especially developed called “cool bottoms”. An additional complica tion to the uniform heating of an oven charge is provided by the fact that the pusher-side o'i an oven contains less coal than the 4coke-side, in ` consequence of which fact, more of the under iiring fuel gas must be burned on the coke side than onthe pusher side in order that the 'coking process will uniformly progress through the coal mass in any particular oven and all parts of said chargebe ready to be discharged from the oven simultaneously. 3 From these facts, it becomes obvious, there fore, that a standard or permanent setting of the gas control means is difñcult to establish and more especially soin a combination battery, and " that, consequently, gas iiow regulatory means are ¿o of> necessity provided within the battery struc; ture if a uniform coking of the ovenl charges is to be eiîected under all conditions of operation. Such ,means should be easily reached'and ad justed from the exterior of the battery v_and must 45 adequately provide for-the above-mentioned dis- ‘ similarities to the end that uniform coking condi tions are maintained at all points of the coking chamber walls. The regulatory devices vused for to the end. of retarding its burning 'rate and \ this purpose are vgenerally found at the bottoms 50 50 avoiding too localized anevolution of the heat of the flame flues and adjacent to or within the resulting from its combustion. `In the leaner ports through~ which the fuel gases and the air : gases, as for example `the above-mentioned, the for their combustion are discharged into the` flame propagates relatively slowly, so much so, flame ñues from the ducts and conduits provided that for ,theirv effective and efficient employment 55 in the underñring of a coke oven battery, a pre Within the battery structure for their` distribu- _55 2 2,132,522 _ tion intothe combustion i‘lues along the heating ~ing the lean gas and air ilowing from their re walls. ~ Among the objects of my present invention is the provision of an improved design for those ducts at the lower `'parts of the vertically extend ing heating `ilues of regenerative ovens through which the combustion air in the case of rich gas underflred ovens, and the combustion air and the lean gas in combination ovens, are intro ‘10 duced into the flame flues from the underlying- regenerators. The improved duct of my inven tion and the orifice through which it ports into the iiame flues is designed to supply to the up' burning flame ilues, a vertically rising and free 15 ly ilowing colunm of gases from adjacent regen erators feeding the same heating i'lues, and to provide means for regulating the volume of gases spective regenerators before they are introduced into the oven :dame ilues; and, as a further fea ture thereof, to provide said means with adjust able regulation which will permit not only regu lation of the volumes of gases introduced into the combustion ñues, but also Yto allow adjustment of the level, below the air and gas port, at which these underflring media are first allowed to come in contact as they flow from the regenerators 10v into the combustion ilues. A further object of my invention is to provide a common air and lean gas port, at the lower end of the combustion :dues of a coking retort battery, having such design and conformation- that the afore-delineated objectives will be efl'ectively and simply realized, and furthermore will be of '15 flowing from said orifices, which will neither' such disposition in respect of the gas conduits provide interruptions in the :flow-path of the dis leading from the two regenerators communi 20 charged gases nor engender, at the mouththere with each heating flue, that the volumes 20 of, turbulence, eddies or other distortions within rcating of the gas flowing from each regenerator will be the gas stream, which will tend >to divert the flow path of the discharged gases from a normally adjustable by means of a'single and easily ex vertically directed gas stream-path. The lean changeable flow-regulating device, supported gas and air conduit of my invention is con- ~within said port in such manner that its seat is i structed to deliver the un’derñring air to the adequately protected from the accumulation of iiame flues in the above-described manner, so as to provide within the heating flues of the ovens of a combination battery when they are operat ing as "coke” ovens, that is to say during those the underiìring gases,»and which at the tempera intervals underiiring is being effected with rich gas, vertically' directed and vertically rising air r streams or currents, adjacent the columns of rich gas issuing from the rich gas nozzles, so that the columns of air and rich gas, upon entering the heating ilues, will be free of any abnormal ten dency to deviate from a vertical flow-direction. The“ mixing oi' the combustible gases provided with such individual flow-paths progresses grad ually at their margins of contact and a tendency is thereby provided to somewhat retard the prog ress of combustion and to increase the interval required for that reaction to reach its end-point, such adventitious material as. may be present in tures existing within the ilues would tend to flux with the refractory material thereof causing it to “freeze” and consequently interfere with its facile 30 removal or exchange. The invention has for further objects such other improvements and such other operative advantages orvresults as may be found to obtain in' the processes or apparatus hereinafter de 35 scribed or claimed. - According to the present invention, I provide below the lower part` of each flame flue of a ccking retort battery, a single vertically disposed and cylindrically-shaped duct _that is substan 40 tially circular _in horizontal cross-sectional area and is communicably connected at its lower end or until a uniform commingling oi the gases with the conduits that distribute gases from those regeneratorswith which each flue of a ccking 45 within a heating flue is attained. The result is ‘ to produce a more gradual evolution „of heat retort structure is in communication, and which 45 along -the walls of a ccking» chamber than in those at its upper end ports into the lower part of the instances where the flow-paths of the underflring gases are such asltoproduce a more rapid diil'u 50 sion of the combustive gases in the lower part of the heating iiues. The end result is a lengthen ing of the flames in the up-burning flame flues. When underñring with producer or blast fur nace gases, it is highly desirable to promote an 65 eiIect in the heating ñues quite opposite that above-described. In consequence of the facts that immediately after their mixing, lean gases and air do not produce temperatures as high as can be effected with rich gas, and that the heat ing iiues terminate in their~ lower part at the same horizontal levels as the oven -soles, it be comes obvious that initially mixing the underñr ing air and lean gas at points too close to the bottoms of the heating flues, may give rise, in the 65 ccking chambers, to zones, having somewhat lower temperature levels than preferred, at points adjacent the air and gas ports. Such situation will eiïect the ccking of the upper part of an oven charge before the lower, with the result that the 704 -coking time `must be increased to fully carbon ize the lower portion of the oven charge and pre 4vent-that portion thereof being -under-coked heatingv ñues. Concentrically within each such cylindrically-shaped duct I support a cylindri cally-shaped _plug having a horizontal cross section similar to that of the conduit, but of lesser diameter. By diminishing or increasing the di ameter of this plug, the free space, in the ring shaped space remaining for the flow of gases from the regenerators, can be respectively in creased or diminished; ' In the accompanying drawings, forming a part of this specification and showing for purposes 55 of exemplification, a prefered form and manner in which the invention may be embodied and practised, but without limiting the claimed vin vention to such illustrative instance or instances: Figure 1 is a composite vertical section taken crosswise of a coke oven battery embodying fea tures above specified and equipped with the im provements of the present invention, the figure showing at the left a section through the battery heating'walls, and at the right, a section through 60 an adjacent ccking chamber, said sections being taken along the lines A~A and B-B of Figure 2 respectively. l „ Figure 2 is a composite vertical section taken 70 longitudinally of the coke oven battery in planes . indicated by the lines C-C and D-D of Fig A further object of my invention is, therefore, ure l; 75 to provide simple and practical means for mix . Figure 3 is an enlarged vertical sectional view 75 when pushed. '2,182,522 posed in the heati g walls thereof, and _whether of a portion of -the heating’wall- shown in Fig ure 1; . . or not they are intended to function as “coke” or v . “gas’f ovens. Figure 4 is an enlarged vertical sectional view crosswise’of a heating wall and showing the con struction of _a partof the structure along the line D-D of Figure 1 and illustrating the lean gas and air port of my invention and the arrange# ment of the conduits for flowing` gases from the regenerators to the flame fiues and their disposi-` » tion in; respect of the device for regulating the volumes of gas flowing through said ports; Figure 5'is a perspective of a-fragment of the v . » The coking retort oven battery comprises a plu i rality of horizontally elongated coking 'chambers I0 in alternate side-by-side disposition with heat ing walls I2 therefor, and a plurality of side-by side cross-regenerators I3, Il, beneath and ex tending substantially parallel with the plurality or coking chambers and heating walls. There generators are disposed -in pairs along'the length Wise dimension of the battery, the pairs of co operating regenerators being isolated by the oven , v section shown in enlarged section in Figure 4; supporting walls I5, and the individual regener Figure 6 is an enlargedmerspective of` a portion of the section lshown in vFigure 5 with the plug, for regulating the volume of gases flowing into the ñues, removed to Aillustrate'the construction' of the means for supporting the gas flow regu-. ators of said co-operating pairs are separated by 15 vthe capital walls I6. ¿In the capitals of the walls I6, theconduits I1, I8, are provided for flowing, into the flame lflues I9, such of the underñring media as are introduced intoV the sole-channels 20, 2l, from flow-boxes provided therefor (and lating plug in operating position; the line VII-VII of Figure 1, showing the out Ilets from the vertical ñues into the yhorizontal flow duct means; _ a - preferred temperature ` ' .. Y before they vsucceed- to l the» flame fiues through the conduits I1, I8. 25 These conduits converge as lthey extend upward, Figure 8 is a horizontal sectional view taken on the line VIII-'VIII of Figure 1, showing grad luated control of the air and gas inlets into the vertical flues. 20 not shown), said gases being distributed, by the >sole-channel ducts 22, over the checker-bricks of the regenerative spacesfor pre-heating them to Figure 7 is a horizontal sectional view taken o'n and meet at a po t below the bottom of their respective flame ues, so that the ‘gases flowing . from the"respective regenerators are providedy Figures 9 and 1Y0 illustrate the different forms with an opportunity to commingle before enter-' 30 ing the flame iiues through the ducts 23. The heating walls of the battery comprise ver Figure 11- is a plan view of Figure 9 and shows « tical heating flues I9 wherein the combustive un .the aperture in the top thereof for accommo dating a device for extracting the plug from the ' derfiring media' are burned, and the so liberated heat is absorbed jby the refractory materials of 35 ` heating wall. Figures 12 and 13 show a port plug provided the oven chamber‘ heating walls I2 and conducted the plug, used to vary the area of the free space in the gas port of my invention, may assume; ‘ with lateral projections or to the coal charge previously introduced into the fins which permit ad adjacent oven through the charging holes 24. The ends of the coking chambers are closed dur-. ' ing the coking period by the doors 275, which func 40, are commingled; , i Figure 14 is a. plan view of Figures 12 and 13. tion not only to retain the‘ charged coal mass Figure 15 is a perspective similar to Figure 6 within the oven but also act to prevent the escape, showing in operating position the modification of into the atmosphere, of the volatilized distilla tion products.` The gases, tar, etc.,-evölved, dur the port regulating device of my invention illus Àtrated in Figures 12, 13 and 14, and demcnstrat- _ ing the carbonization process, are drawn through 45 ing the increase in _height of the division" wall the ascension pipeZG by an exhausterand assem between regenerator conduits thereby effected. bled in a collecting main (not shown), from which Figure 16 is a sectionalong the line bXV'I---XVZII they are flowed to' various preferred treating steps Justing the level at which gases flowing through the same port" and from adjacent -regenerators, for the segregation and recovery of valuable com- ' of Figure 4. ~ , y ' Like reference numerals indicate like parts in the several views. A . 1 ` In the embodiment illustrated in the drawings. the invention is incorporatedv in a combination coke oven battery, that is,` a battery having pro vision for being f'lred alternatively with yan ex traneously derived relatively lean gas, such as as producer gas or with a relatively rich gas such as coke oven gas. For convenience, the present de scription will be confined to the present illus trated embodiment of the invention in> such a 60 combination“ oven battery; features of the- in vention may be applied to other structure, for example, to ordinary so-called “coke-ovens” fired with coke oven gas, or ordinary sofcalled “gas ovens” fired with producer gas; hence, the inven 65 tion is not confined in its scope to the combination oven or the specific use and specific embodiment herein described as an illustrative example. The present improvements are useful with var ponents. 70 ent embodiment, illustrated for purposes of ex position, is the welt-known Becker cross-over type of oven battery, these improvements lend them l selves to useful embodiment in a wide range of , coke oven types and more especially in that class 75 of ovens having their heating fiues vertically dis _ y » 50 - separated from each other by the walls 21, and ious types of coke ovens, and although» the pres l . The heating fiúes I9 of the heating walls are the fiues comprising each heating wall are divided into sets of flues that are isolated from each other, for underflring' gas flow purposes, by the parti 55 tion walls 35. In mutually adjacent heating walls, the heating iiues are arranged into corre sponding groups, and the individual flues of any one such wall group are disposed to communicate at their upper ends with a horizontal bus chan nel v28 provided with an individual cross-over 29, centrally disposed of said bus channel, for car rying the products of’ combustion that assemble therein upward and< over the top of the adja centl oven and downward into la corresponding set 65 of fiues in the opposite heating wall. The sim ilar and' similarly positioned sets of heating flues in adjacent heatingV walls are interconnected in .this manner by cross-overs extending over the tops of alternate coking retort ovens' along the 70 _ battery. . All the heating flues of any one heatingV wall, crosswise of the battery, burn simultaneously and the combustive media, introduced into the lower part of ah up-burning set _of flame fines, rise therethrough to enter'the horizontal-‘channel 28 75 . 2,182,522 . and ñowover to a'corresponding horizontal chan nel and set of flame ñues in the opposite heating wall communicably connected therewith by cross `over 25, and atsuch times as the flow of gases'is _reversed in the regenerative system, the up-burn ing set of flues becomes the down-flowing set and vice versa. - and the exterior regenerators I 3, i3 ofthe group are disposed to carry heating gas when the bat tery is underflred with lean gas, but are disposed to preheat air when the underilring is eii'ected with rich gas. At such times as the ovens are operating as “gas” ovens, the regenerators Il, I4 are adapted for preheating air and during each _ -'F‘or the purposes of convenience and exposi period of the regenerative heating cycle when the tion, I have embodied the features of my present 10 invention in a coking retortv battery structure y iiow of gas in the interconnected heating iiues is having a heating iiue disposition similar to that reversed and the burning flame iiues -become the disclosed in the co-pending application S/N. down-iiowing ñues and those regenerators that 2,564 of Joseph Becker iiled January 19, 1935. were formerly heating the combustive media are In that disclosure, the heating ñues in each heat 15 ing wall are disposed in groups of four heating ilues each, except- at each end of each wall where the end groups are in pairs, the several heating flues in _each group being separated from each other by the verticalpartitions 21 transverse o1' 20 the'heating wall, the partitions within each group stopping somewhat short of the top oi.’ the heat ing wall to provide the horizontal bus channels 28. The gas iiow from _or to the heating ilues trav erses directly the cross-over conduit 29' posi tioned above the middle partition 21 of its group, and the tops of the alternate heating ilue par tition wallsoi' each heating wall are ñared, at 30, beneath the adjacent cross-over- for each iiue group to promote equality of gas flow to or from 30 the heating iiues- of the same group irrespective of their distance from said cross-over. 'I'he gas ilow regulating means situated at the lower part of the flame fiues, for regulating the preferred volume iiow oi' combustion media to the ilues, are accessible through the inspection holes 36 extend ing to the top of-the battery. It will be observed that no sliding brick are provided at the top of the flame ilues for regulating the ñow of gases into the cross-overs. In this embodiment of the invention, such regulation is eil'ected at the bot tom oi.' the nues so that no impedance to gas ñow is created within the ñues, and the pres sure at -which the combustive gases are main tained therein is signiñcantly reduced, with the result that the pressure diil'erential between the ilues and the coking `chambers is small, and the î opportunities i'or transfer of gases ythere-between materially reduced. as also set forth in the Becker application S/N. 2,564 supra. At suchtimes as the battery is operated as a “coke" oven and the heating gas used is of the higher caloriñc values. such as is produced by the coal distillation process and' for its satisfac tory combustion does not need regenerative pre-` heating, it is introduced into the horizontal chan now carrying away combustion products and vice ‘ versa, an air regenerator is ¿always _interposed / between a gas regenerator and those regenerators flowing the combustion products to the waste heat tunnel and the stack, thereby obviating the pos sibility of heating gas leaking into the down ilowing regenerators and fluxing the checker bricks. The regenerators are so disposed for un derñring with lean gas that, at any given time, the alternate ovens of those ovens having no cross-over ducts passing over the tops thereof, are all being heated by combustion products iiow ing in the same direction through both of their adjacent heating walls; and in alternate groups of regenerators, each group of which comprises the four regenerators located beneath intercon nected heating walls, the similar and similarly po sitioned regenerators are operating to carry the same kind of gases whilevthe intermediate groups of regenerators are being supplied with gases in the reverse regenerator sequence, that is to say, in each group of regenerators the disposition oi.' - gases is respectively, at any instant, the mir'ror image of that in corresponding regenerators of adjacent groups thereof. - " The regenerators are in two series lengthwise of the battery, one series for the pusher-side half of the battery, the cross regenerators of the one series abutting end for end, along the llengthwise 40 middle o! the battery, with the,corresponding cross-regenerators of the other. series and being separated therefrom by the mediany longitudinal partition wall 31. ' A As herein-above mentioned, each heating ilue of the heating walls of the battery is communi-v cably connected by an individual conduit with each of a pair o1' regenerators lying directly be neath each' wall. `According to my present in vention, the pair of conduits I1, I8 for each iiue are sc_disposed as to converge as they aproach the bottom of the iiues from the tops of the re generators, and to meet in va common duct 23 at their upper end_s. This duct is substantially cy lindrical in shape, and its walls are substantially' vidual ñues oi' 'the sets of'iiues comprising the vertically disposed. The division wall 38,' which heating lwalls through vertical conduits '32, indi »separates the two adjacent conduits I1,” il'i'or vidual for each-nue, the same being provided with - each flue, terminatesV at a point below the duct nozzles 3l whose oriilces are graduated from one 23, so that the gases flowing from the' respective conduits are provided with opportunity to com side of the batteryto-the other so that the varia tions in the static pressure of the gas at diiïerent mingle before entering said duct to flow into the points along said channels and the. chang/es in heating flue. The iinial of the division wall 38 lthe density of the gas eiIected as it flows through is formed at its center to provide a socket 39 whose upper edges lie in a horizontal surface. For reg the hotÍ region in which such channels are located, ulating the volume o! gases entering-the heating 65 may be compensated for to the end that the pre1 iiue associated with each duct 23, I provide the . ferred quantities of gas will-be delivered to each cylindrically shaped plug 40 provided at one end nels 3`I located in the capitals of the regenerator division walls I., and is distributed to the indi nue from that channel. , with a lug 4I 'I‘he regenerators are disposed to operate »in Aceived by the formed to conform to and be re- 1` socket 39, wherein it is," removably -’ 70 groups of four, each pair of which communicates for gas flow with those' heating> ilues immediately supported in a vertical ,position .by th'e horizontal above, and which are interconnected by common - surface surrounding said socket. >'An increase or.. cross-over conduits. The two middle regenerators decrease in the cross-sectional area of'the plug 75 I4, i4 in each such group are air regenerators, 40 respectively decreases or increases the area oi' the annularl free space between the wall of the 70 5 . _ 2,132,522 _ ' vergence of said `conduits'and at a point< adjacent l duct’and 'the plug to correspondingly reduce or1 the finial of the division wall’ 38, shown in Fig .. improve the facility lwith which gases canbe drawn fromthe regenerators through the duct ’23 by the sta'ck draft impressed on the iiues. .«In consequence of the'facts that the surfaces of duct 23 and plug 4I) are- substantially parallel and ver tically disposed and that no obstacle intersects the stream of :gases afterit leaves the edge of" the port, gases issuing from the port of the duct are directed into the heatinglo of my invention,flue space in a’verticallydirected path and' with out being provided-with an inner turbulence or abnormal tendency to divert from stream-line flow, To the end of -prom’oting the establishing of, this- condition Within the gas stream, it’will be 15 -observed that the upper end of the plug. I8 pene trates but relatively short distance into the duct >23, ‘so that any turbulence or eddies that may be ures 4 and 5, sov that the combustion reaction is thereinitiated. Referring to these ñgures it will - be noted that this point is at lappreciable distance below the bottomof the flame flues and that con sequently the preheated’ combustive media have actually begun to evolve heat somewhat before l the flues. entering In consequence ofthe pre viously mentioned fact that gases of relatively low 10 caloriiic value burn more slowly than the gases of higher caloriñc value, it is apparentthat this feature of `'my improvement, i.,e. a simplev and effective means for inaugurating the combustion process at a -point significantly below the floor levell of the -colring chambers makes it possible to obtain higher temperatures, at such levels, than are -produced when lean gas and air are ñrst` mixed >at points nearerf‘or. at the bottom of the caused by gases flowing into the void in the annu heating ilu'es, and the tendency, occasionally ob 20 by the presence ofv`> said served in oven batteries equipped for either lean lar gas column created 20 plug, will be overcome and corrected within the g or rich gas vunderfiring, to have so-called- “cool duct itself before the gases are discharged there bottoms” when they are heated with the former,_ from into the heating/flue. The result is, there is thereby diminished. The plug 40 used to re fore, that gas quantities may be regulated and strict the flow of gas from the regenerators may 25 discharged from thel duct-.port of my invention,A be varied in diameter to alter the cross-section of l25 as a vertically rising column, free of abnormal the annular free space, between said plug and tendency to deviate therefrom as it enters the `adjacent duct walls, so that the rate of fiowof the heating flue. At such times as the batteryis heating media into the flame iiues is capable of 30 l ï being heated with gases of higher caloriñc value', regulation. this improvement is'of important significance, An added feature of my present invention is 30 since asr hereinabove mentioned,v such gases have that it provides a unique means of raising or llow a tendency to liberate >their heat content more ering, in the battery structure, the level“ at which rapidly than preferred. When heating the bat the conduits I1, I8 first converge, and-therefore _ tery with such gases all regenerators are operat permits' adjustment of that point, below the bot 35 ing on air, so that air flows through both conduits tom of the heating flues, at which the preheated 35 I'I, I8 into the duct 23 and the flame flues, and the air and lean gas are initially allowed to mingle, heating gas is distributed from thegas channel and so providesmeans for altering the tempera 3| through the nozzles 34. As a result of the fact ~tures maintained at the bottom of the iiues, when preheatedheating gas Ais used for underfiring. that the gas flow regulating means of my inven tion tends to cause the combustion air to rise _Figures `/12, 13, 14 show a. duct plug means for 40 through the heating flue as a vertically rising col » simply effecting this objective. As will be therein noted, the plug of my invention may be provided umn, it servesto inhibit an initial intimate mix ing _of the said air with the fuel gas issuing from with diametrically opposed fin-like projections 42, the adjacent gas/nozzle and, consequently, re which ‘are fashioned in such manner as to rest on the curved portion 43 of «the flnial of the tard the combustion rate. The tendency to con division wall 38, so that when- the plug is seated fine the combustion reaction to the lateral mar in the socket 39 the laterally extending fins have gins of the individual gaseous columns is there the effect of increasing the height of the wall by promoted, and a lengthening of the flame pro 45 50 vided sosthat the inclination of .j fuel gases of higher calorinc value to overheat the lower parts of the ilues is reduced. , ‘ . As hereinbeforementioned, the fuel lgases of section 38, thereby raising the level at which the air and heating gas are first allowed to come The general effect of this feature is to reduce, as the height of the fins is increased, Alower heating value, as for example producer and ' the-interval during which combustion is allowed ' blast furnace gases, have a relatively .slow rate vtoprogress before the combustive gases are intro 55 of flame propagationl and their- successful com- ' duced into the heating flues. The result is a tend- . 55 bust'ion and use in a structure of this type requires ency to decrease thetemperatures at the bottom a preheating- step prior to introduction into the of said ñues by reducing the temperature of the heating fines: When, therefore, >the battery is gases entering them. As clearly shown in Figure 4, the bottoms of heated with such lean gases, onel of the regen erators beneath each heating flue is reserved for ' the heating ñues are raised above the oven soles. preheating fuel gas' and the other'for preheating . 'I'his feature has the effect of increasing the heat`the combustion destined air-both gases being ing wall area available for absorbing the larger distributed -to the regenerators in the above-de scribed and ‘well- known manner. As shown in Figures 2 and'5, the preheated air and lean gas 65 flow from their respective regenerators respec tively `through'conduits I1, I8 and enter the .there with communicating flame flues through duct 23». When underfiring with lean gas, it is appreciated that in general, it _is' the practice to discontinue ' the introduction-of ~rich gas into the flame nues noted that the bricks M are beveled at a point near the heating walls to facilitate conducting heat to the bottoms of the ovens more especially during such times as- the carbonization reaction 70 is promoted by burning gases of lower caloriflc value. r; - . ' The port plugs of my invention may be made of channel 3|. The air .and lean any satisfactorily refractory material, as for ex cut off‘íronif~the sillimanite A1(A10)_ S104 or the 1ike,« 75 gas flowed through the conduits I1, I8 in «pre ample, silica, _ _ heated condition, begin -to commingle at the con- . ' and consequently the supply of -that medium is .75 quantities of heat initially evolved by the com bustion of rich gas and an improved distribution of such heat therebyl provided. It will be further 6 2,132,522 but I prefer lto use sillimahite since itfcan be charge simultaneously~~ The theoretical increase ' of gas requirement from flue to flue is of such minor magnitude that for practical purposes it suilices to graduate the ports of my _invention group-wise rather than individually, with the ex ception of the end ii'ues at the respective ends,- of cast or molded into objects that conform to pre scribed measurements within 115 inch. Further more, sillimanite plugs have the added advantage that they may be removed from the heating nues at high temperatures and suddenly chilled with out danger of fracture. - - the An added advantage of my invention results 10 plug and the seat and socket supporting it in posi tion in the structure, is always protected from the accumulation of adventitious materials of the gas, which at the high temperatures obtaining in the battery structure, may unite with the refrac cated that its circumference is slightly, raised above other points- of that surface, so that the 30 contact between the plug and its supporting seat _ _ l I’ ~15 tory materials of the brick work and cause theplugs to freeze in the sockets. With my improve- ~ ment, these gas flow regulatory means are always easily removed for exchange. For those instances where thediameter ofthe plug required for any 20 duct is less than the diameter of its supporting seat, as shown in Figure 9, I bevel its lower part so that the _retaining socket and supporting seat are always completely covered and protected, against deposition of entrained substances of the 25 heating gases. To assure adequate protection of theA juncture between the plug -and its supporting seat 50, the surface 49 of the plug is so fabri ovens. _ ~ The following'table, gives a preferred gradua tion of the vcombined air and leangas ports, as shown diagrammatically 1n Figure 8. 10 from the fact that the juncture, between the duct _ Port No. _ l Net area Alrìgîtof Diam- Without eter of with u plug plug in « ‘ __g of port - Square 101 ____________ __ 102--- 15 place Square inches Inches v 2s. a9 No plug _ inches 2s. 39 ________ __ 25. 89 2% ' 103 to 106 incl_____ 21. 51 2% ‘ 107 t0 110 inc1____-_ 21. 51 2% 21. 51 17.08 . 16.09 20 , 17. 96. 111 t0 114 inc].____ 19. 64 2% 115 t0 118 inc1__-__ 19. 64 2% ' 119 to 122 vincl_..__ 19. 64 2% 14.` 73 IZì to 126 íncl_____ 19. 64 25/8 14. 22 15. 21 ' 127 ___________ __'__ 19. 64 2 16. 49 12s ____________ ___~_ 25. 89 »2% _ 21. 46 y In this above 'given 'table it wi11 be also noted that the riet areas of the ports leading to the endr will always be established at the outer edge there flues of each heating wallfrom the regenerators of and adventitious material be prevented from ' are of relatively greater areathan those adjacent, penetrating into the juncture. l _ To facilitate removal of the plug from the bat 35 tery structure, I provide an oblong shaped hole 45 in the top of the plug and extend it lengthwise thereof to meet a transversely extending hole 46. At their intersection is the notch 41 which ex tends parallel with 46. A rod having a corre and that such port in the> end flue on the coke side is larger than that for> the end ñue of thel pusher-side; this is to compensate for the greater radiation from :the end ilues of the heating walls- 3 and doors, and for the larger quarrtity'o'f coal ' at the. battery coke-side. . » _ j As hereinbefore mentioned, the volumes of gas 40 spondingly shaped cross member at its end is ñowing intothe heating iiues of the structure erninserted in 45 and in a manner to "engage notch bodying my_herein disclosed invention are regu-` 40 4-1. The plug'may be removed from its seat by the ~ lated 4at the bottoms of the heating flues, so that rod and removed from the battery structure no throttling or dampering of such gases occurs through the inspection hole 36. after they have been flowed into ilues. _To >this 45 A further advantage provided by my inventionA - end, the passages 48, through'which the-products ` is that the gas-flow regulating plugs are rela _tively smaller in cross-section than devices gen erally used for similar purpose, with> the result that the inspection holes, at the top of the bat 'so tery and through Awhich said plugs are withdrawn from the structure, may be, correspondingly re duced in cross-section a‘nd radiation losses there from correspondingly diminished. In the structure incorporating my present im provement, all throttling or regulation of the flow of underiiring media to the heating ñues is ef fected up-stream of the burning ñame ilues and the circuit of the gases around the heating cham bers is so designed'that no impedance or restric 60 tion to gas flow is created either in the flues or their communicatingV connections. To this end the heating "*Hues I 9,““the individual horizontal channels 28, the cross-over conduits 29 'and the outlets~48 for each pair of a flue group employing of combustion flow from the vertical heating nues into the horizontal channels 28, are about four times the cross-sectional area` of the free-way in 45 ‘ the air and lean gas ports at the bottom ofthe ñues, and consequently have substantially no tendency to check the gases flowingtherethrough... As a result of the fact that the gas requirements 50 along an oven heating wall- increase respectively from the pusher-side to the coke-side, it is obvious that'the 'passages 48 on .the latter side l' must provide unrestricted flow to larger quantities j of tgases than on the former, and that that effec- _ tive cross-sectional passageway area which- will conform to my requirements on the coke-side of the battery will be in excess of that which will-be ample for said 'passages on. the pusher-side. -In 60 the interest, therefore, of contributing as much solidity as possible to the masonry» ofthe Ibattery structureand avoiding conduit ‘and passage ca. 65 the same cross-over are suñìciently large that ' pacities in- excess of those necessary to provide the _ back pressure is substantially eliminated, when desired conditions ' for gas flow, I group-Wise gases introduced into the flues through the noz zles 34 and the air and lean gas ports 23, are burned. 70 75 _ graduate the passages- 48 and cross-overs 29 from one end ofn the ovens tothe other. As s'hown in Figure 7, the passages 48 are graduated, as fol-~ lows: the dimension “W” for all such passages is Due to the tapering of. the coal charge from the pusher-side to the coke-side of the battery, the 17", excepting those passages _adjacent the oven 70 amount of gas burned in the various ñue groups- «ends which are 2324"; the dimension .“V” in- ' must be progressively increased from'the formerv creases progressively and group-wise from the pusher-end to the _coke-end as indicated in 4said . to the latter named side in interest of com jñgure; vfor the pusher end grou'p of la ,fluev pair ' pletlng the coking process the in all parts of the the. dimension “V”' of said passage is '7l/2", and / 2,182,522 ‘ terminate below the port _mouth of the conduit .other groups comprising four heating ilues suc 1 and have between the-‘port mouth and the' upper cessively increase in _width as follows, r11/2", 7%", terminus of the throat an expansion `chamber of '_ 811,", 81/2", 9", 91/„»’-’, and the cokerend‘iìue group of two iiues is 91/2" wide. The cross-over nues29 (Figure 1) are all about 9" in the'dimension larger cross-area _than the cross-area of the - "A” but in the other direction “B” are graduated 'from the pusher-side to the coke-side in the fol turbulence and _distortion of gas thatmay- flowthrough the regulated portion of the conduits, and said conduits being free of regulating -means aboi'e theupper terminus of 'the aforesaidA regulating lowing manner; 11%", 11%", 111/2", 11%”, 121/2", 13156”, ‘14", 14n' 10 . ' _ The invention as hereinabove set forth or ex throat, to leave an unrestricted duct portion above the regulating means 'for rectification of.' empliñed, .by illustrative> instances, maybe vari ously embodied and practised within the 'scope of means.l ' _ _ _ .__ . `4:. -In 'a coking retort- oven battery having' a series of side-by-side coking retort ovens'with ' ` intermediate heating walls in'- which.__ heating » nues are. vertically disposed, and. regenerators I claim: 1. In a coking retort oven battery having a. ' beneath'the heating walls, and conduits '_íor'now 15 series of side-by-side coking retort ovens with in ing gases between the regeneratorsandthe in the claims hereinafter made. termediate heating walls in which heating fiues are vertically disposed, and regenerators beneath the heating walls, and conduits for ilowing gases 20 from the regenerators into the heating flues -of the heating walls, and ports at the upper -ends of said conduits for discharging' heating gases into said heating ilues, iìow restricting volume _ dividual heating. ilues of the‘heating walls, duct means comprising an axially disposed corepro viding a _ring-like duct inhorizont'al cross-.sec tion 4extending continuously all aroundv the core _and adapted` to regulatefthe volume of. gases ,allowed-_ between the -regenerator conduits- and the heating lflues.4 regulating means in__said ports to restrict the 'flow cross-area for regulating'the volumes of gases _ means terminating at their'upper parts a suili _ . _ 5. In a vcoking retort oven >battery having va series of- side-by-side coking retort ovens with _ flowing from the regenerators .and through said ports, said How-restricting volume regulating _ »_ zo' intermediate heating walls invwhich heating flues . are vertically disposed, `and regenerators beneath the heating walls, `and conduits Ior- flowingA vgases between the regenerators into theï _indi-'_ 30 vidual heating nues of the heating walls, duct the port-mouths so4 as Ato' have the‘throat that is formed by the Vvolume r'eg ulating-means terminate below the port mouth 'means comprising a ring-like duct .continuous therein of the regulatory means may be rectified between positioned plug-like core-element of cient distance below of the conduit and have between the port mouthl in-horizontal cross-section with. anr inner core and the upper terminus of the throat an expan ~adapted to regulate' the volume of _ sion chamber of larger cross-area than the cross `fromv lthe regenerator conduits into the heat area of the throat, so that turbulence and distor ing flues, each said duct being iormedïas the in tions of the gas streams created by the .presence terspace between the conduit walls and a there by a larger unrestricted portion of the ports above lesser cross-section _than the adjacent conduity said means before said gases _issue from the , mouths of the ports and the gases thus enter the Walls. 6.' In a coking retort oven battery'having` a _ 40 heating flues without abnormal tendency to cli-"_ »series of side-by-side cokingretort ovens _with` vert from a stream-line path. . inte'rmediate‘heating walls in whichlheating Aues 2. In a coking retort' oven battery having a l _are vertically disposed] and .regeneratorsIbe-L series of »side-by-side coking retort ovens with in _ communication which heating flues .neath the'heating walls, and ways for flowing gasesbetween the regenerators and the heating nues, duct means comprising -a the heating walls, and conduits for flowing gases ring-like' duct continuous in horizontal ïcross from the regenerators into the individual heating section with an inner core within said 'com-5 ilues of the heating walls, and ducts with iixed- munication ways adapted to regulatethe-ga's flow walls individual to- the heating ilues, _said ducts 50 communicably connecting regenerator conduits between said heating iiues' and regenerator‘ com munication ways, 'each suchduct being formed and the heating iiues, means for regulating gas _ the walls of the- com ' ilowA from the regenerators through said ducts, as the interspace between munication ways and a therebetween -rern'ov said means comprising a core positioned at least ably supported plug-like core-element of lesser .55 in partwithin the ducts and out of contact with cross-section than the adjacent'. walls- of said_ ` termediate heating Walls in 45 are vertically disposed, and regenerators beneath v55 . the ñxéd wallsthereof so as to form with the fixed walls'a continuous channel extending continuously alàäround the core between the coreand the ñxed w . - . « ' 3. In a coking retort oven battery having a 60 series of side-by-side coking retort ovens with communication Ways. '7. In _a coking retortoven battery having a. se,ries of ~side-by-side cokingy retort ovens with in-. termediate heating- walls in which lheating iiues are vertically disposed, and regenerators lbe the heating walls _so arranged thatat intermediate heating walls in which heating flues ' neath least two regenerators are communicabiycon», are vertically disposed, and regenerators beneath nected with-each of saldheating flues by means. the heating walls, and conduits for flowing gases of conduits extending'upwards_therefrom to con.- l from the regenerators into the 'heating flues of verge ina` common duct that enters the lower 65. the heating walls individually, now-restricting part off the heating flues, -and division wai1sebe- . volume regulating-'means restricting the -ñow_ tween. those regenerators communicatlnglwith 'cross-area for regulating the ilow of gases from the`regenerators to the individual heating flues, said flow-restricting volume regulating-means being removably supported inside said conduits and terminating at their upper parts a suilicient distance below 'the upper margins of Athe port mouths ot- the conduit so as to. have the Vthroat that is formed by` the volume regulating-means _ identical heating flues, said- walls _eachtermi-v 4 nating in a n_nial at the'convergence of .said con ,70 duits, means in the common duct adapted vto ad .just-the’ gas ilow between the regenerators `and ‘the individual heating nues, said_ means each ' comprising, aplug-like member adapted’to be removably supported ‘on the finial of _the regen 75 ‘ 8 2,132,522 erator division wall and extend axially into the common duct of the regenerator conduits to form the core of 44a vcontinuous ring-like inter-> space duct within the _lower partof the common duct, substantially as specified. said ports to form ring-like ducts, and laterally, projecting fins on said means adapted to coin cide with the ñnials of the conduit division walls to increase the height thereof, so that the mixing point of the preheated fuel gas and air may be brought nearer the bottom of the heating nues; 8. In a coking retort oven battery, in com-, bination: a series -of side-by-side coking retort ovens with intermediate heating walls contain ` substantially as specified. 11. In a coking _retort oven battery of the ing vertically disposed heating fiues; cross-re generators, beneath the heating flues, so ar combination type, in combination: elongated 'coking chambers alternately disposed of heating 10 walls containing vertically disposed heating flues; ranged that at_v_least two regenerators are com municably connected with each heating flue by means of individual conduits that extend up .- wards- from said regenerators and converge in a l comrnon duct that enters the lower'part of the heating ñues; division walls, between said con duits, that terminate in a fìnial beneath the lower part of the heating fines; supporting means on each such ñnial for receiving an elongated 20 plug-like member; and plug-like members of regenerators beneath the heating walls com municably connected with the heating :dues of the heating walls, said regenerators 'being' dis posed in two series, the one for preheating fuel 15 gases of low calorific values and the other for preheating combustion air; means for flowing ad mixed preheated gas and air from the regener ators into the heating fiues, said means com lesser cross-sectional area than the common prising, bifurcated conduits that extend from 20 ducts of the regenerator- conduits, and adapted common ports at the bottom of the heating ñues for supportby the ñnials of the conduit division to regenerators for preheating fuel gas and air; walls and to extend upwards into said ducts and division walls, between the gas and the air re generators and their respective conduits, that 25 terminate in advance of the mouths of said ducts to form the core of lower continuous ring-like extend fr‘om the bottoms of the regenerators up 25 interspaces in the lower part of the common wards to the points of the conduit bifurcation; ducts between the walls of the ducts and said ‘ and means for adjusting the gas flow intothe in plug-like members, so that heating gases may dividual heating flues and increasing the height of the division walls between the preheated gas 30 be flowed therethroughl from the regenerators and air conduits,A said means comprising an elon 30 and the heating flues. 9. In a coking retort oven battery having a se ries of side-by-side coking retort ovens with in gated plug-like device of lesser horizontal cross section than the common preheated gas and air ports of the heating flues and adapted to be re movably supported on the flnial of the division Walls of the conduits and to extend into said 35 termediate heating walls inA which heating fiues are vertically disposed, and regenerators beneath the heating walls, and ducts for ñowing heating gases between the regenerators and the heating. ports to form ring-like ducts, and laterally pro jecting fins on said means adapted to coincide fines, elongatedplug-like devices of lesser cross sectional areas than the ducts centrally disposed with the finials of the division walls to increase therein and terminating at their upper partsl the height thereof, so that the mixing point of the preheated fuel gas and air may be brought below the outlets of ducts so as to form in _each nearer the bottom of the heating flues; substan of the ducts a lower continuous channel extend tially as specified. l .» ing continuously all around the plug-like device and an »upper unrestricted channel immediately 12.- In a coking retort oven battery as in claim _ over the'centrally disposed plug-like device. 9, and`in which the plug-like devices are fabri ing walls, said conduits rising upwards from their respectiveëregeneratcrs to unite and enter the lower port of their respective heating ñues heating walls, said regenerators being disposed in 55 cated of sillimanite, A1(A1O)Si04, for adjusting 45 10. In a coking retort oven battery havingya se _ries of side-by-side coking retort ovens with in - the gas ñow into the individual heating iiues and termediate heating walls ' containing vertically for increasing the height of the division walls be tween the preheated gas and air conduits. disposed heating fiues, and two series of regen 13. In a coking retortoven battery of the com erators beneath _the heating walls, the one being adapted to preheat combustion air and the other bination type, in combination: elongated coking 50 chambers alternateiy disposed of heating walls disposed to preheat fuel gases of low calorific val containing vertically disposed heating nues; re ue, and individual conduits for ñowing the pre heated combustion medium from each series of generators beneath the heating walls communi cably connected with the heating fiues of the 55 regenerators into each heating ñue of the heat through a common port so that combustion of the preheated media may be initiated before they enter the heating flues, and division walls be tween the preheated air and lean gas conduits terminating at the point of union of said con duits in a iinial having supporting means adapt ed`to support a gas iiowV adjusting-device, the improvementin means for regulating the flow of gases from ‘the regenerators and for adjusting that interval the combustion process progresses " before the heating gases from the regenerators 70 enter the heating iiues, said means comprising, an elongated plug-like device of lesser horizon tal cross-section than the preheated'common air and gas ports of the heating fluesfand adapted `_ to' be removably supported on the finìal of the division walls of the conduits and to extend into two series, the one for preheating fuel gases of low calorific values and the other for preheating combustion air; means for flowing admixed pre heated gas and air from the regenerators into the heating flues, said means comprising, duct means 60 having an upper duct communicating with a lower duct continuous in horizontal cross~section with a central core «adapted to regulate the volume of gases flowedbetween the regenerators and the heating flues, and bifurcated conduits that ex tend from the-lower duct to the regenerators for preheating gas and air. 14. In a coking retort oven battery of the com bination type, in combination: elongated coking chambers alternately disposed of heating walls 70 containing vertically disposed heating flues; re generators beneath the heating walls communi cably connected with the heating nues of the heating walls, said regenerators being disposed in two series. the one for preheating fue] gases of 75 2,182,521 . 9 than‘the ducts and axially disposedtherein to ` low caloriflc values and the other for preheatins form in each dwct a. continuous channel with a combustion air; »means for ñowing admixed pre heated gas and air from the regenerators into the heating flues, said means comprising, ducts central core, the channel extending continuously that are adapted to ílow gases between the re generators and the heating ñ ; and elongated plug-like devices of lesser cross-sectional areas ali around the plus-like device as the core be tween the latter and the duct wall. Josera vm sommi.