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Патент USA US2132522

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Oct. 1l, 1938.
J‘oJePH VAN Aexnnm,
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Oct. l1, 1938.
.1. VAN AcKERl-:N
Filed May 14, 195e
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Jenaer-1 VAN Acnam
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Oef. 11.-, 1938.
Filed May 14, 1936
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Oct. 11,1938.
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Patented oct. 11,1938
como aa'rolt'r ovEN
Joseph van Aclreren, Pittsburgh, Pa., asisignor to .
Kappers Company, a corporation of Delaware
Application May 14,- 1936,
Serial No. 79,669
(Cl. 7202-443)
heating step is necessary for their satisfactory
This invention comprehends improvements of
The progress of the lean _gas ,combustion
general utility-ln the coking retort oven art; and reaction, even after preheating, is still compara
comprehends more specifically improvements in> tively slow and the 4evolution of much heat' rela
the means `for delivering the underñrin'g media tively tardy in developing after admixture with 6
5 into the combustion iiues of coking retort oven vthe combustion air.
under?lring systems and more especially pertains
In combination ovens which are designed a'nd
to the means vfor controlling and regulating the' equipped to be heated optionally by either rich
volumes of said underflring gases delivered from or -lean gas, the coke-oven designer is confronted '
14 Claims.
the regenerators into. the flame flues. The in
10 stant invention is- especially applicable to ‘cokìng
with the problem of providing an underiiring sys
tem which will equally effectively employ either a
heating fiues having regenerators beneath, and
highly combustible richA gas or a lean gas to heat
the same ovens and coke the coal charge uni-`
retort ovens provided with vertically disposed
its advantages will be realized either in combina
tion ovens or in ovens equipped only to be‘under
formly. In consequence of the above-mentioned
distinctions between‘the combustion of gases oi 15
15 fired with rich gas. A principal advantage pro
high and low calorific value, it is apparent that
.vided by my present improvement resides in its '
the rich gases have a tendencyto burn too rap
furnishing means for bringing different commer
idly in the lower zones ‘of the heating flues and
cially used underñring gases into contact with
give rise to temperatures at that point that are 20
higher than preferred. In the case of lean gas
underñring, the contrary condition exists, i. e. the
individual combustion characteristics, andconse
slower evolution of itsheat content during com
quently provides means
bustion, tends to give rise to the phenomenon
etli‘cient and uniform distribution of the heat lib
the combustion air', in the underflring system, in
a manner ‘recognizing 'the differences in their
erated by the burning‘gases to the retort heating
walls. vAs speciflc'examples of the type of coklng
retort Áovens in whichv the present improvement
finds special application, the well-known cross
over cross-regenerative type ovens exemplified in
the patent 'to Joseph Becker No. 1,904,191‘dated
30 Apri1l18, 1933, and his. prior Patent No. 1,374,546
dated April 12, 1921, are cited, and also his ap
plication S/N. 2,564 filed January 19, 1935. ,
In commercial installations for theA carboniza
tion of. coal, _the carbonization process is pro
by burning either rich or lean fuel gases,"
35 moted
that is; gases of relatively high or low caloriñc
__.valu'e respectively, in the 'combustion iiues of the
coking structure. Rich gas,'_ such as is formed
and evolved ‘during the carbonization process,
may be returned inpart to the underiiring sys
40 tem and there burned to» further promote the
‘distillation _of the coal charge. A lean gas of
4vlower thermal content and produced extraneous
ly of the carbonizationsystem,. as for example
gases, is also used
45 producer and blast furnace
' The rate of flame propa
for the same purpose.
gation in rich gas is so rapid that numerous
means and devices have been especially developed
called “cool bottoms”. An additional complica
tion to the uniform heating of an oven charge is
provided by the fact that the pusher-side o'i an
oven contains less coal than the 4coke-side, in `
consequence of which fact, more of the under
iiring fuel gas must be burned on the coke side
than onthe pusher side in order that the 'coking
process will uniformly progress through the coal
mass in any particular oven and all parts of said
chargebe ready to be discharged from the oven
From these facts, it becomes obvious, there
fore, that a standard or permanent setting of the
gas control means is difñcult to establish and
more especially soin a combination battery, and "
that, consequently, gas iiow regulatory means are ¿o
of> necessity provided within the battery struc;
ture if a uniform coking of the ovenl charges is
to be eiîected under all conditions of operation.
Such ,means should be easily reached'and ad
justed from the exterior of the battery v_and must 45
adequately provide for-the above-mentioned dis- ‘
similarities to the end that uniform coking condi
tions are maintained at all points of the coking
chamber walls. The regulatory devices vused for
to the end. of retarding its burning 'rate and \ this purpose are vgenerally found at the bottoms 50
50 avoiding too localized anevolution of the heat of the flame flues and adjacent to or within the
resulting from its combustion. `In the leaner ports through~ which the fuel gases and the air :
gases, as for example `the above-mentioned, the for their combustion are discharged into the`
flame propagates relatively slowly, so much so, flame ñues from the ducts and conduits provided
that for ,theirv effective and efficient employment
55 in the underñring of a coke oven battery, a pre
Within the battery structure for their` distribu- _55
tion intothe combustion i‘lues along the heating ~ing the lean gas and air ilowing from their re
Among the objects of my present invention is
the provision of an improved design for those
ducts at the lower `'parts of the vertically extend
ing heating `ilues of regenerative ovens through
which the combustion air in the case of rich gas
underflred ovens, and the combustion air and
the lean gas in combination ovens, are intro
‘10 duced into the flame flues from the underlying-
regenerators. The improved duct of my inven
tion and the orifice through which it ports into
the iiame flues is designed to supply to the up'
burning flame ilues, a vertically rising and free
15 ly ilowing colunm of gases from adjacent regen
erators feeding the same heating i'lues, and to
provide means for regulating the volume of gases
spective regenerators before they are introduced
into the oven :dame ilues; and, as a further fea
ture thereof, to provide said means with adjust
able regulation which will permit not only regu
lation of the volumes of gases introduced into the
combustion ñues, but also Yto allow adjustment
of the level, below the air and gas port, at which
these underflring media are first allowed to come
in contact as they flow from the regenerators 10v
into the combustion ilues.
A further object of my invention is to provide
a common air and lean gas port, at the lower end
of the combustion :dues of a coking retort battery,
having such design and conformation- that the
afore-delineated objectives will be efl'ectively
and simply realized, and furthermore will be of
flowing from said orifices, which will neither' such disposition in respect of the gas conduits
provide interruptions in the :flow-path of the dis
leading from the two regenerators communi
20 charged gases nor engender, at the mouththere
with each heating flue, that the volumes 20
of, turbulence, eddies or other distortions within rcating
of the gas flowing from each regenerator will be
the gas stream, which will tend >to divert the flow
path of the discharged gases from a normally adjustable by means of a'single and easily ex
vertically directed gas stream-path. The lean changeable flow-regulating device, supported
gas and air conduit of my invention is con-
~within said port in such manner that its seat is i
structed to deliver the un’derñring air to the
adequately protected from the accumulation of
iiame flues in the above-described manner, so as
to provide within the heating flues of the ovens
of a combination battery when they are operat
ing as "coke” ovens, that is to say during those
the underiìring gases,»and which at the tempera
intervals underiiring is being effected with rich
gas, vertically' directed and vertically rising air
r streams or currents, adjacent the columns of rich
gas issuing from the rich gas nozzles, so that the
columns of air and rich gas, upon entering the
heating ilues, will be free of any abnormal ten
dency to deviate from a vertical flow-direction.
The“ mixing oi' the combustible gases provided
with such individual flow-paths progresses grad
ually at their margins of contact and a tendency
is thereby provided to somewhat retard the prog
ress of combustion and to increase the interval
required for that reaction to reach its end-point,
such adventitious material as. may be present in
tures existing within the ilues would tend to flux
with the refractory material thereof causing it to
“freeze” and consequently interfere with its facile 30
removal or exchange.
The invention has for further objects such
other improvements and such other operative
advantages orvresults as may be found to obtain
in' the processes or apparatus hereinafter de 35
scribed or claimed.
- According to the present invention, I provide
below the lower part` of each flame flue of a
ccking retort battery, a single vertically disposed
and cylindrically-shaped duct _that is substan 40
tially circular _in horizontal cross-sectional area
and is communicably connected at its lower end
or until a uniform commingling oi the gases with the conduits that distribute gases from those
regeneratorswith which each flue of a ccking
45 within a heating flue is attained. The result is ‘
to produce a more gradual evolution „of heat retort structure is in communication, and which 45
along -the walls of a ccking» chamber than in those at its upper end ports into the lower part of the
instances where the flow-paths of the underflring
gases are such asltoproduce a more rapid diil'u
50 sion of the combustive gases in the lower part of
the heating iiues. The end result is a lengthen
ing of the flames in the up-burning flame flues.
When underñring with producer or blast fur
nace gases, it is highly desirable to promote an
65 eiIect in the heating ñues quite opposite that
above-described. In consequence of the facts
that immediately after their mixing, lean gases
and air do not produce temperatures as high as
can be effected with rich gas, and that the heat
ing iiues terminate in their~ lower part at the
same horizontal levels as the oven -soles, it be
comes obvious that initially mixing the underñr
ing air and lean gas at points too close to the
bottoms of the heating flues, may give rise, in the
ccking chambers, to zones, having somewhat
lower temperature levels than preferred, at points
adjacent the air and gas ports. Such situation
will eiïect the ccking of the upper part of an oven
charge before the lower, with the result that the
704 -coking time `must be increased to fully carbon
ize the lower portion of the oven charge and pre
4vent-that portion thereof being -under-coked
heatingv ñues. Concentrically within each such
cylindrically-shaped duct I support a cylindri
cally-shaped _plug having a horizontal cross
section similar to that of the conduit, but of lesser
diameter. By diminishing or increasing the di
ameter of this plug, the free space, in the ring
shaped space remaining for the flow of gases
from the regenerators, can be respectively in
creased or diminished;
In the accompanying drawings, forming a part
of this specification and showing for purposes
of exemplification, a prefered form and manner
in which the invention may be embodied and
practised, but without limiting the claimed vin
vention to such illustrative instance or instances:
Figure 1 is a composite vertical section taken
crosswise of a coke oven battery embodying fea
tures above specified and equipped with the im
provements of the present invention, the figure
showing at the left a section through the battery
heating'walls, and at the right, a section through
an adjacent ccking chamber, said sections being
taken along the lines A~A and B-B of Figure
2 respectively.
Figure 2 is a composite vertical section taken
longitudinally of the coke oven battery in planes
indicated by the lines C-C and D-D of Fig
A further object of my invention is, therefore, ure
75 to provide simple and practical means for mix
. Figure 3 is an enlarged vertical sectional view 75
when pushed.
posed in the heati g walls thereof, and _whether
of a portion of -the heating’wall- shown in Fig
ure 1;
or not they are intended to function as “coke” or v
“gas’f ovens.
Figure 4 is an enlarged vertical sectional view
crosswise’of a heating wall and showing the con
struction of _a partof the structure along the line
D-D of Figure 1 and illustrating the lean gas
and air port of my invention and the arrange#
ment of the conduits for flowing` gases from the
regenerators to the flame fiues and their disposi-`
» tion in; respect of the device for regulating the
volumes of gas flowing through said ports;
Figure 5'is a perspective of a-fragment of the
The coking retort oven battery comprises a plu
rality of horizontally elongated coking 'chambers
I0 in alternate side-by-side disposition with heat
ing walls I2 therefor, and a plurality of side-by
side cross-regenerators I3, Il, beneath and ex
tending substantially parallel with the plurality
or coking chambers and heating walls. There
generators are disposed -in pairs along'the length
Wise dimension of the battery, the pairs of co
operating regenerators being isolated by the oven , v
section shown in enlarged section in Figure 4;
supporting walls I5, and the individual regener
Figure 6 is an enlargedmerspective of` a portion
of the section lshown in vFigure 5 with the plug,
for regulating the volume of gases flowing into
the ñues, removed to Aillustrate'the construction'
of the means for supporting the gas flow regu-.
ators of said co-operating pairs are separated by 15
vthe capital walls I6. ¿In the capitals of the walls
I6, theconduits I1, I8, are provided for flowing,
into the flame lflues I9, such of the underñring
media as are introduced intoV the sole-channels
20, 2l, from flow-boxes provided therefor (and
lating plug in operating position;
the line VII-VII of Figure 1, showing the out
Ilets from the vertical ñues into the yhorizontal
flow duct means;
_ a - preferred temperature
before they vsucceed- to l
the» flame fiues through the conduits I1, I8. 25
These conduits converge as lthey extend upward,
Figure 8 is a horizontal sectional view taken
on the line VIII-'VIII of Figure 1, showing grad
luated control of the air and gas inlets into the
vertical flues.
not shown), said gases being distributed, by the
>sole-channel ducts 22, over the checker-bricks of
the regenerative spacesfor pre-heating them to
Figure 7 is a horizontal sectional view taken o'n
and meet at a po t below the bottom of their
respective flame ues, so that the ‘gases flowing
from the"respective regenerators are providedy
Figures 9 and 1Y0 illustrate the different forms
with an opportunity to commingle before enter-' 30
ing the flame iiues through the ducts 23.
The heating walls of the battery comprise ver
Figure 11- is a plan view of Figure 9 and shows «
tical heating flues I9 wherein the combustive un
.the aperture in the top thereof for accommo
dating a device for extracting the plug from the ' derfiring media' are burned, and the so liberated
heat is absorbed jby the refractory materials of 35
` heating wall.
Figures 12 and 13 show a port plug provided the oven chamber‘ heating walls I2 and conducted
the plug, used to vary the area of the free space
in the gas port of my invention, may assume;
‘ with lateral projections or
to the coal charge previously introduced into the
fins which permit ad
adjacent oven through the charging holes 24.
The ends of the coking chambers are closed dur-.
' ing the coking period by the doors 275, which func 40,
are commingled;
Figure 14 is a. plan view of Figures 12 and 13. tion not only to retain the‘ charged coal mass
Figure 15 is a perspective similar to Figure 6 within the oven but also act to prevent the escape,
showing in operating position the modification of into the atmosphere, of the volatilized distilla
tion products.` The gases, tar, etc.,-evölved, dur
the port regulating device of my invention illus
Àtrated in Figures 12, 13 and 14, and demcnstrat- _ ing the carbonization process, are drawn through 45
ing the increase in _height of the division" wall the ascension pipeZG by an exhausterand assem
between regenerator conduits thereby effected. bled in a collecting main (not shown), from which
Figure 16 is a sectionalong the line bXV'I---XVZII they are flowed to' various preferred treating steps
Justing the level at which gases flowing through
the same port" and from adjacent -regenerators,
for the segregation and recovery of valuable com- '
of Figure 4.
Like reference numerals indicate like parts in
the several views.
In the embodiment illustrated in the drawings.
the invention is incorporatedv in a combination
coke oven battery, that is,` a battery having pro
vision for being f'lred alternatively with yan ex
traneously derived relatively lean gas, such as
as producer gas or with a relatively rich gas such as
coke oven gas. For convenience, the present de
scription will be confined to the present illus
trated embodiment of the invention in> such a
60 combination“ oven battery; features of the- in
vention may be applied to other structure, for
example, to ordinary so-called “coke-ovens” fired
with coke oven gas, or ordinary sofcalled “gas
ovens” fired with producer gas; hence, the inven
65 tion is not confined in its scope to the combination
oven or the specific use and specific embodiment
herein described as an illustrative example.
The present improvements are useful with var
70 ent embodiment, illustrated for purposes of ex
position, is the welt-known Becker cross-over type
of oven battery, these improvements lend them
l selves to useful embodiment in a wide range of ,
coke oven types and more especially in that class
75 of ovens having their heating fiues vertically dis
- separated from each other by the walls 21, and
ious types of coke ovens, and although» the pres
The heating fiúes I9 of the heating walls are
the fiues comprising each heating wall are divided
into sets of flues that are isolated from each other,
for underflring' gas flow purposes, by the parti 55
tion walls 35. In mutually adjacent heating
walls, the heating iiues are arranged into corre
sponding groups, and the individual flues of any
one such wall group are disposed to communicate
at their upper ends with a horizontal bus chan
nel v28 provided with an individual cross-over 29,
centrally disposed of said bus channel, for car
rying the products of’ combustion that assemble
therein upward and< over the top of the adja
centl oven and downward into la corresponding set 65
of fiues in the opposite heating wall. The sim
ilar and' similarly positioned sets of heating flues
in adjacent heatingV walls are interconnected in
.this manner by cross-overs extending over the
tops of alternate coking retort ovens' along the 70
_ battery.
All the heating flues of any one heatingV wall,
crosswise of the battery, burn simultaneously and
the combustive media, introduced into the lower
part of ah up-burning set _of flame fines, rise
therethrough to enter'the horizontal-‘channel 28 75
. and ñowover to a'corresponding horizontal chan
nel and set of flame ñues in the opposite heating
wall communicably connected therewith by cross
`over 25, and atsuch times as the flow of gases'is
_reversed in the regenerative system, the up-burn
ing set of flues becomes the down-flowing set and
vice versa.
and the exterior regenerators I 3, i3 ofthe group
are disposed to carry heating gas when the bat
tery is underflred with lean gas, but are disposed
to preheat air when the underilring is eii'ected
with rich gas.
At such times as the ovens are
operating as “gas” ovens, the regenerators Il, I4
are adapted for preheating air and during each _
-'F‘or the purposes of convenience and exposi
of the regenerative heating cycle when the
tion, I have embodied the features of my present
10 invention in a coking retortv battery structure y iiow of gas in the interconnected heating iiues is
having a heating iiue disposition similar to that reversed and the burning flame iiues -become the
disclosed in the co-pending application S/N. down-iiowing ñues and those regenerators that
2,564 of Joseph Becker iiled January 19, 1935. were formerly heating the combustive media are
In that disclosure, the heating ñues in each heat
15 ing wall are disposed in groups of four heating
ilues each, except- at each end of each wall where
the end groups are in pairs, the several heating
flues in _each group being separated from each
other by the verticalpartitions 21 transverse o1'
20 the'heating wall, the partitions within each group
stopping somewhat short of the top oi.’ the heat
ing wall to provide the horizontal bus channels 28.
The gas iiow from _or to the heating ilues trav
erses directly the cross-over conduit 29' posi
tioned above the middle partition 21 of its group,
and the tops of the alternate heating ilue par
tition wallsoi' each heating wall are ñared, at
30, beneath the adjacent cross-over- for each iiue
group to promote equality of gas flow to or from
30 the heating iiues- of the same group irrespective
of their distance from said cross-over. 'I'he gas
ilow regulating means situated at the lower part
of the flame fiues, for regulating the preferred
volume iiow oi' combustion media to the ilues, are
accessible through the inspection holes 36 extend
ing to the top of-the battery. It will be observed
that no sliding brick are provided at the top of
the flame ilues for regulating the ñow of gases
into the cross-overs. In this embodiment of the
invention, such regulation is eil'ected at the bot
tom oi.' the nues so that no impedance to gas
ñow is created within the ñues, and the pres
sure at -which the combustive gases are main
tained therein is signiñcantly reduced, with the
result that the pressure diil'erential between the
ilues and the coking `chambers is small, and the
î opportunities i'or transfer of gases ythere-between
materially reduced. as also set forth in the Becker
application S/N. 2,564 supra.
At suchtimes as the battery is operated as a
“coke" oven and the heating gas used is of the
higher caloriñc values. such as is produced by
the coal distillation process and' for its satisfac
tory combustion does not need regenerative pre-`
heating, it is introduced into the horizontal chan
now carrying away combustion products and vice ‘
versa, an air regenerator is ¿always _interposed /
between a gas regenerator and those regenerators
flowing the combustion products to the waste heat
tunnel and the stack, thereby obviating the pos
sibility of heating gas leaking into the down
ilowing regenerators and fluxing the checker
bricks. The regenerators are so disposed for un
derñring with lean gas that, at any given time,
the alternate ovens of those ovens having no
cross-over ducts passing over the tops thereof,
are all being heated by combustion products iiow
ing in the same direction through both of their
adjacent heating walls; and in alternate groups
of regenerators, each group of which comprises
the four regenerators located beneath intercon
nected heating walls, the similar and similarly po
sitioned regenerators are operating to carry the
same kind of gases whilevthe intermediate groups
of regenerators are being supplied with gases in
the reverse regenerator sequence, that is to say,
in each group of regenerators the disposition oi.' -
gases is respectively, at any instant, the mir'ror
image of that in corresponding regenerators of
adjacent groups thereof.
The regenerators are in two series lengthwise of
the battery, one series for the pusher-side half
of the battery, the cross regenerators of the one
series abutting end for end, along the llengthwise 40
middle o! the battery, with the,corresponding
cross-regenerators of the other. series and being
separated therefrom by the mediany longitudinal
partition wall 31.
As herein-above mentioned, each heating ilue
of the heating walls of the battery is communi-v
cably connected by an individual conduit with
each of a pair o1' regenerators lying directly be
neath each' wall. `According to my present in
vention, the pair of conduits I1, I8 for each iiue
are sc_disposed as to converge as they aproach
the bottom of the iiues from the tops of the re
generators, and to meet in va common duct 23 at
their upper end_s. This duct is substantially cy
lindrical in shape, and its walls are substantially'
vidual ñues oi' 'the sets of'iiues comprising the vertically disposed. The division wall 38,' which
heating lwalls through vertical conduits '32, indi »separates the two adjacent conduits I1,” il'i'or
vidual for each-nue, the same being provided with - each flue, terminatesV at a point below the duct
nozzles 3l whose oriilces are graduated from one 23, so that the gases flowing from the' respective
conduits are provided with opportunity to com
side of the batteryto-the other so that the varia
tions in the static pressure of the gas at diiïerent mingle before entering said duct to flow into the
points along said channels and the. chang/es in heating flue. The iinial of the division wall 38
lthe density of the gas eiIected as it flows through is formed at its center to provide a socket 39 whose
upper edges lie in a horizontal surface. For reg
the hotÍ region in which such channels are located, ulating
the volume o! gases entering-the heating 65
may be compensated for to the end that the pre1
iiue associated with each duct 23, I provide the
. ferred quantities of gas will-be delivered to each cylindrically shaped plug 40 provided at one end
nels 3`I located in the capitals of the regenerator
division walls I., and is distributed to the indi
nue from that channel.
with a lug 4I
'I‘he regenerators are disposed to operate »in Aceived by the formed to conform to and be re- 1`
socket 39, wherein it is," removably -’ 70
groups of four, each pair of which communicates
for gas flow with those' heating> ilues immediately supported in a vertical ,position .by th'e horizontal
above, and which are interconnected by common - surface surrounding said socket. >'An increase or..
cross-over conduits. The two middle regenerators decrease in the cross-sectional area of'the plug
75 I4, i4 in each such group are air regenerators, 40 respectively decreases or increases the area oi'
the annularl free space between the wall of the
5 .
_ 2,132,522
' vergence of said `conduits'and at a point< adjacent
l duct’and 'the plug to correspondingly reduce or1 the finial of the division wall’ 38, shown in Fig
improve the facility lwith which gases canbe
drawn fromthe regenerators through the duct
’23 by the sta'ck draft impressed on the iiues. .«In
consequence of the'facts that the surfaces of duct
23 and plug 4I) are- substantially parallel and ver
tically disposed and that no obstacle intersects
the stream of :gases afterit leaves the edge of"
the port, gases issuing from the port of the duct
are directed into the heatinglo of my invention,flue space in a’verticallydirected path and' with
out being provided-with an inner turbulence or
abnormal tendency to divert from stream-line
flow, To the end of -prom’oting the establishing of,
this- condition Within the gas stream, it’will be
15 -observed that the upper end of the plug. I8 pene
trates but relatively short distance into the duct
>23, ‘so that any turbulence or eddies that may be
ures 4 and 5, sov that the combustion reaction is
thereinitiated. Referring to these ñgures it will
- be noted that this point is at lappreciable distance
below the bottomof the flame flues and that con
sequently the preheated’ combustive media have
actually begun to evolve heat somewhat before
l the flues.
In consequence ofthe pre
viously mentioned fact that gases of relatively low 10
caloriiic value burn more slowly than the gases
of higher caloriñc value, it is apparentthat this
feature of `'my improvement, i.,e. a simplev and
effective means for inaugurating the combustion
process at a -point significantly below the floor
levell of the -colring chambers makes it possible
to obtain higher temperatures, at such levels, than
are -produced when lean gas and air are ñrst`
mixed >at points nearerf‘or. at the bottom of the
caused by gases flowing into the void in the annu
heating ilu'es, and the tendency, occasionally ob 20
by the presence ofv`> said served in oven batteries equipped for either lean
plug, will be overcome and corrected within the g or rich gas vunderfiring, to have so-called- “cool
duct itself before the gases are discharged there
bottoms” when they are heated with the former,_
from into the heating/flue. The result is, there
is thereby diminished. The plug 40 used to re
fore, that gas quantities may be regulated and strict the flow of gas from the regenerators may 25
discharged from thel duct-.port of my invention,A be varied in diameter to alter the cross-section of
l25 as a vertically rising column, free of abnormal the annular free space, between said plug and
tendency to deviate therefrom as it enters the `adjacent duct walls, so that the rate of fiowof the
heating flue. At such times as the batteryis heating media into the flame iiues is capable of
l ï being heated with gases of higher caloriñc value', regulation.
An added feature of my present invention is
since asr hereinabove mentioned,v such gases have that it provides a unique means of raising or llow
a tendency to liberate >their heat content more ering, in the battery structure, the level“ at which
rapidly than preferred. When heating the bat
the conduits I1, I8 first converge, and-therefore _
tery with such gases all regenerators are operat
permits' adjustment of that point, below the bot 35
ing on air, so that air flows through both conduits tom of the heating flues, at which the preheated
35 I'I, I8 into the duct 23 and the flame flues, and the air and lean gas are initially allowed to mingle,
heating gas is distributed from thegas channel and so providesmeans for altering the tempera
3| through the nozzles 34. As a result of the fact ~tures maintained at the bottom of the iiues, when
preheatedheating gas Ais used for underfiring.
that the gas flow regulating means of my inven
tion tends to cause the combustion air to rise _Figures `/12, 13, 14 show a. duct plug means for
40 through the heating flue as a vertically rising col » simply effecting this objective. As will be therein
noted, the plug of my invention may be provided
umn, it servesto inhibit an initial intimate mix
ing _of the said air with the fuel gas issuing from with diametrically opposed fin-like projections 42,
the adjacent gas/nozzle and, consequently, re which ‘are fashioned in such manner as to rest
on the curved portion 43 of «the flnial of the
tard the combustion rate. The tendency to con
division wall 38, so that when- the plug is seated
fine the combustion reaction to the lateral mar
in the socket 39 the laterally extending fins have
gins of the individual gaseous columns is there
the effect of increasing the height of the wall
by promoted, and a lengthening of the flame pro
vided sosthat the inclination of .j fuel gases of
higher calorinc value to overheat the lower parts
of the ilues is reduced.
‘ .
As hereinbeforementioned, the fuel lgases of
section 38, thereby raising the level at which
the air and heating gas are first allowed to come
The general effect of this feature is
to reduce, as the height of the fins is increased,
Alower heating value, as for example producer and ' the-interval during which combustion is allowed '
blast furnace gases, have a relatively .slow rate vtoprogress before the combustive gases are intro 55
of flame propagationl and their- successful com- ' duced into the heating flues. The result is a tend- .
55 bust'ion and use in a structure of this type requires ency to decrease thetemperatures at the bottom
a preheating- step prior to introduction into the of said ñues by reducing the temperature of the
heating fines: When, therefore, >the battery is gases entering them.
As clearly shown in Figure 4, the bottoms of
heated with such lean gases, onel of the regen
erators beneath each heating flue is reserved for ' the heating ñues are raised above the oven soles.
preheating fuel gas' and the other'for preheating . 'I'his feature has the effect of increasing the heat`the combustion destined air-both gases being ing wall area available for absorbing the larger
distributed -to the regenerators in the above-de
scribed and ‘well- known manner. As shown in
Figures 2 and'5, the preheated air and lean gas
65 flow from their respective regenerators respec
tively `through'conduits I1, I8 and enter the .there
with communicating flame flues through duct 23».
When underfiring with lean gas, it is appreciated
that in general, it _is' the practice to discontinue '
the introduction-of ~rich gas into the flame nues
noted that the bricks M are beveled at a point
near the heating walls to facilitate conducting
heat to the bottoms of the ovens more especially
during such times as- the carbonization reaction 70
is promoted by burning gases of lower caloriflc
The port plugs of my invention may be made of
channel 3|. The air .and lean any satisfactorily refractory material, as for ex
cut off‘íronif~the
A1(A10)_ S104 or the 1ike,« 75
gas flowed through the conduits I1, I8 in «pre
ample, silica,
_ _
heated condition, begin -to commingle at the con- .
' and consequently the supply of -that medium is
quantities of heat initially evolved by the com
bustion of rich gas and an improved distribution
of such heat therebyl provided. It will be further
but I prefer lto use sillimahite since itfcan be
charge simultaneously~~ The theoretical increase '
of gas requirement from flue to flue is of such
minor magnitude that for practical purposes it
suilices to graduate the ports of my _invention
group-wise rather than individually, with the ex
ception of the end ii'ues at the respective ends,- of
cast or molded into objects that conform to pre
scribed measurements within 115 inch. Further
more, sillimanite plugs have the added advantage
that they may be removed from the heating nues
at high temperatures and suddenly chilled with
out danger of fracture.
- -
An added advantage of my invention results
10 plug and the seat and socket supporting it in posi
tion in the structure, is always protected from
the accumulation of adventitious materials of the
gas, which at the high temperatures obtaining in
the battery structure, may unite with the refrac
cated that its circumference is slightly, raised
above other points- of that surface, so that the
30 contact between the plug and its supporting seat
l I’
~15 tory materials of the brick work and cause theplugs to freeze in the sockets. With my improve- ~
ment, these gas flow regulatory means are always
easily removed for exchange. For those instances
where thediameter ofthe plug required for any
20 duct is less than the diameter of its supporting
seat, as shown in Figure 9, I bevel its lower part
so that the _retaining socket and supporting seat
are always completely covered and protected,
against deposition of entrained substances of the
25 heating gases. To assure adequate protection of
theA juncture between the plug -and its supporting
seat 50, the surface 49 of the plug is so fabri
The following'table, gives a preferred gradua
tion of the vcombined air and leangas ports, as
shown diagrammatically 1n Figure 8.
from the fact that the juncture, between the duct
_ Port No.
Net area
eter of
plug in
of port
101 ____________ __
v 2s. a9
No plug
2s. 39
________ __
25. 89
103 to 106 incl_____
21. 51
2% ‘
107 t0 110 inc1____-_
21. 51
21. 51
. 16.09
, 17. 96.
111 t0 114 inc].____
19. 64
115 t0 118 inc1__-__
19. 64
' 119 to 122 vincl_..__
19. 64
14.` 73
IZì to 126 íncl_____
19. 64
14. 22
15. 21
' 127 ___________ __'__
19. 64
16. 49
12s ____________ ___~_
25. 89
»2% _
21. 46
In this above 'given 'table it wi11 be also noted
that the riet areas of the ports leading to the endr
will always be established at the outer edge there
flues of each heating wallfrom the regenerators
of and adventitious material be prevented from ' are of relatively greater areathan those adjacent,
penetrating into the juncture. l
To facilitate removal of the plug from the bat
35 tery structure, I provide an oblong shaped hole 45
in the top of the plug and extend it lengthwise
thereof to meet a transversely extending hole 46.
At their intersection is the notch 41 which ex
tends parallel with 46. A rod having a corre
and that such port in the> end flue on the coke
side is larger than that for> the end ñue of thel
pusher-side; this is to compensate for the greater
radiation from :the end ilues of the heating walls- 3
and doors, and for the larger quarrtity'o'f coal '
at the. battery coke-side.
As hereinbefore mentioned, the volumes of gas
40 spondingly shaped cross member at its end is
ñowing intothe heating iiues of the structure erninserted in 45 and in a manner to "engage notch bodying my_herein disclosed invention are regu-` 40
4-1. The plug'may be removed from its seat by the ~ lated 4at the bottoms of the heating flues, so that
rod and removed from the battery structure no throttling or dampering of such gases occurs
through the inspection hole 36.
after they have been flowed into ilues. _To >this
A further advantage provided by my inventionA - end, the passages 48, through'which the-products
` is that the gas-flow regulating plugs are rela
_tively smaller in cross-section than devices gen
erally used for similar purpose, with> the result
that the inspection holes, at the top of the bat
'so tery and through Awhich said plugs are withdrawn
from the structure, may be, correspondingly re
duced in cross-section a‘nd radiation losses there
from correspondingly diminished.
In the structure incorporating my present im
provement, all throttling or regulation of the flow
of underiiring media to the heating ñues is ef
fected up-stream of the burning ñame ilues and
the circuit of the gases around the heating cham
bers is so designed'that no impedance or restric
60 tion to gas flow is created either in the flues or
their communicatingV connections. To this end
the heating "*Hues I 9,““the individual horizontal
channels 28, the cross-over conduits 29 'and the
outlets~48 for each pair of a flue group employing
of combustion flow from the vertical heating nues
into the horizontal channels 28, are about four
times the cross-sectional area` of the free-way in
45 ‘
the air and lean gas ports at the bottom ofthe
ñues, and consequently have substantially no
tendency to check the gases flowingtherethrough...
As a result of the fact that the gas requirements
along an oven heating wall- increase respectively
from the pusher-side to the coke-side, it is
obvious that'the 'passages 48 on .the latter side l'
must provide unrestricted flow to larger quantities j
of tgases than on the former, and that that effec- _
tive cross-sectional passageway area which- will
conform to my requirements on the coke-side of
the battery will be in excess of that which will-be
ample for said 'passages on. the pusher-side. -In 60
the interest, therefore, of contributing as much
solidity as possible to the masonry» ofthe Ibattery
structureand avoiding conduit ‘and passage ca.
65 the same cross-over are suñìciently large that ' pacities in- excess of those necessary to provide the _
back pressure is substantially eliminated, when desired conditions ' for gas flow, I group-Wise
gases introduced into the flues through the noz
zles 34 and the air and lean gas ports 23, are
graduate the passages- 48 and cross-overs 29 from
one end ofn the ovens tothe other. As s'hown in
Figure 7, the passages 48 are graduated, as fol-~
lows: the dimension “W” for all such passages is
Due to the tapering of. the coal charge from the
pusher-side to the coke-side of the battery, the 17", excepting those passages _adjacent the oven 70
amount of gas burned in the various ñue groups- «ends which are 2324"; the dimension .“V” in- '
must be progressively increased from'the formerv creases progressively and group-wise from the
pusher-end to the _coke-end as indicated in 4said
to the latter named side in
interest of com
jñgure; vfor the pusher end grou'p of la ,fluev pair
pletlng the coking process the
in all parts of the
the. dimension “V”' of said passage is '7l/2", and /
‘ terminate below the port _mouth of the conduit
.other groups comprising four heating ilues suc 1 and have between the-‘port mouth and the' upper
cessively increase in _width as follows, r11/2", 7%", terminus of the throat an expansion `chamber of '_
811,", 81/2", 9", 91/„»’-’, and the cokerend‘iìue group
of two iiues is 91/2" wide. The cross-over nues29 (Figure 1) are all about 9" in the'dimension
larger cross-area _than the cross-area of the -
"A” but in the other direction “B” are graduated
'from the pusher-side to the coke-side in the fol
turbulence and _distortion of gas thatmay- flowthrough the regulated portion of the conduits, and
said conduits being free of regulating -means aboi'e
theupper terminus of 'the aforesaidA regulating
lowing manner; 11%", 11%", 111/2", 11%”,
121/2", 13156”, ‘14", 14n'
The invention as hereinabove set forth or ex
throat, to leave an unrestricted duct portion
above the regulating means 'for rectification of.'
empliñed, .by illustrative> instances, maybe vari
ously embodied and practised within the 'scope of
`4:. -In 'a coking retort- oven battery having' a
series of side-by-side coking retort ovens'with
intermediate heating walls in'- which.__ heating »
nues are. vertically disposed, and. regenerators
I claim:
1. In a coking retort oven battery having a. ' beneath'the heating walls, and conduits '_íor'now
15 series of side-by-side coking retort ovens with in
ing gases between the regeneratorsandthe in
the claims hereinafter made.
termediate heating walls in which heating fiues
are vertically disposed, and regenerators beneath
the heating walls, and conduits for ilowing gases
20 from the regenerators into the heating flues -of
the heating walls, and ports at the upper -ends
of said conduits for discharging' heating gases
into said heating ilues, iìow restricting volume _
dividual heating. ilues of the‘heating walls, duct
means comprising an axially disposed corepro
viding a _ring-like duct inhorizont'al cross-.sec
tion 4extending continuously all aroundv the core
_and adapted` to regulatefthe volume of. gases
,allowed-_ between the -regenerator conduits- and the
heating lflues.4
regulating means in__said ports to restrict the 'flow
cross-area for regulating'the volumes of gases
means terminating at their'upper parts a suili
5. In a vcoking retort oven >battery having va
series of- side-by-side coking retort ovens with
_ flowing from the regenerators .and through said
ports, said How-restricting volume regulating
_ »_
intermediate heating walls invwhich heating flues
. are vertically disposed, `and regenerators beneath
the heating walls, `and conduits Ior- flowingA
vgases between the regenerators into theï _indi-'_ 30
vidual heating nues of the heating walls, duct
the port-mouths so4 as Ato'
have the‘throat that is formed by the Vvolume r'eg
ulating-means terminate below the port mouth
'means comprising a ring-like duct .continuous
therein of the regulatory means may be rectified
between positioned plug-like core-element of
cient distance below
of the conduit and have between the port mouthl in-horizontal cross-section with. anr inner core
and the upper terminus of the throat an expan ~adapted to regulate' the volume of _
sion chamber of larger cross-area than the cross
`fromv lthe regenerator conduits into the heat
area of the throat, so that turbulence and distor
ing flues, each said duct being iormedïas the in
tions of the gas streams created by the .presence terspace between the conduit walls and a there
by a larger unrestricted portion of the ports above lesser cross-section _than the adjacent conduity
said means before said gases _issue from the
mouths of the ports and the gases thus enter the Walls.
6.' In a coking retort oven battery'having` a _
40 heating flues without abnormal tendency to cli-"_
»series of side-by-side cokingretort ovens _with`
vert from a stream-line path.
inte'rmediate‘heating walls in whichlheating Aues
2. In a coking retort' oven battery having a l _are
vertically disposed] and .regeneratorsIbe-L
series of »side-by-side coking retort ovens with in
_ communication
which heating flues .neath the'heating walls, and
ways for flowing gasesbetween the regenerators
and the heating nues, duct means comprising -a
the heating walls, and conduits for flowing gases ring-like' duct continuous in horizontal ïcross
from the regenerators into the individual heating section with an inner core within said 'com-5
ilues of the heating walls, and ducts with iixed- munication ways adapted to regulatethe-ga's flow
walls individual to- the heating ilues, _said ducts
50 communicably connecting regenerator conduits between said heating iiues' and regenerator‘ com
munication ways, 'each suchduct being formed
and the heating iiues, means for regulating gas
the walls of the- com
ilowA from the regenerators through said ducts, as the interspace between
therebetween -rern'ov
said means comprising a core positioned at least ably supported plug-like core-element
of lesser .55
in partwithin the ducts and out of contact with cross-section than the adjacent'. walls- of said_
` termediate heating Walls in
45 are vertically disposed, and regenerators beneath
v55 . the ñxéd wallsthereof so as to form with the fixed
walls'a continuous channel extending continuously
alàäround the core between the coreand the ñxed
3. In a coking retort oven battery having a
60 series of side-by-side coking retort ovens with
communication Ways.
'7. In _a coking retortoven battery having a. se,ries of ~side-by-side cokingy retort ovens with in-.
termediate heating- walls in which lheating iiues
are vertically disposed, and regenerators lbe
the heating walls _so arranged thatat
intermediate heating walls in which heating flues ' neath
least two regenerators are communicabiycon»,
are vertically disposed, and regenerators beneath nected with-each of saldheating flues by means.
the heating walls, and conduits for flowing gases of conduits extending'upwards_therefrom to con.- l
from the regenerators into the 'heating flues of verge ina` common duct that enters the lower
65. the heating walls individually, now-restricting
part off the heating flues, -and division wai1sebe- .
volume regulating-'means restricting the -ñow_ tween. those regenerators communicatlnglwith
'cross-area for regulating the ilow of gases from
the`regenerators to the individual heating flues,
said flow-restricting volume regulating-means
being removably supported inside said conduits
and terminating at their upper parts a suilicient
distance below 'the upper margins of Athe port
mouths ot- the conduit so as to. have the Vthroat
that is formed by` the volume regulating-means
_ identical heating flues, said- walls _eachtermi-v 4
nating in a n_nial at the'convergence of .said con ,70
duits, means in the common duct adapted vto ad
.just-the’ gas ilow between the regenerators `and
‘the individual heating nues, said_ means each '
comprising, aplug-like member adapted’to be
removably supported ‘on the finial of _the regen 75
erator division wall and extend axially into the
common duct of the regenerator conduits to
form the core of 44a vcontinuous ring-like inter->
space duct within the _lower partof the common
duct, substantially as specified.
said ports to form ring-like ducts, and laterally,
projecting fins on said means adapted to coin
cide with the ñnials of the conduit division walls
to increase the height thereof, so that the mixing
point of the preheated fuel gas and air may be
brought nearer the bottom of the heating nues;
8. In a coking retort oven battery, in com-,
bination: a series -of side-by-side coking retort
ovens with intermediate heating walls contain
` substantially as specified.
11. In a coking _retort oven battery of the
ing vertically disposed heating fiues; cross-re
generators, beneath the heating flues, so ar
combination type, in combination: elongated
'coking chambers alternately disposed of heating 10
walls containing vertically disposed heating flues;
ranged that at_v_least two regenerators are com
municably connected with each heating flue by
means of individual conduits that extend up
.- wards- from said regenerators and converge in a l
comrnon duct that enters the lower'part of the
heating ñues; division walls, between said con
duits, that terminate in a fìnial beneath the
lower part of the heating fines; supporting means
on each such ñnial for receiving an elongated
20 plug-like member; and plug-like members of
regenerators beneath the heating walls com
municably connected with the heating :dues of
the heating walls, said regenerators 'being' dis
posed in two series, the one for preheating fuel 15
gases of low calorific values and the other for
preheating combustion air; means for flowing ad
mixed preheated gas and air from the regener
ators into the heating fiues, said means com
lesser cross-sectional area than the common prising, bifurcated conduits that extend from 20
ducts of the regenerator- conduits, and adapted common ports at the bottom of the heating ñues
for supportby the ñnials of the conduit division to regenerators for preheating fuel gas and air;
walls and to extend upwards into said ducts and division walls, between the gas and the air re
generators and their respective conduits, that
25 terminate in advance of the mouths of said ducts
to form the core of lower continuous ring-like extend fr‘om the bottoms of the regenerators up 25
interspaces in the lower part of the common wards to the points of the conduit bifurcation;
ducts between the walls of the ducts and said ‘ and means for adjusting the gas flow intothe in
plug-like members, so that heating gases may dividual heating flues and increasing the height
of the division walls between the preheated gas
30 be flowed therethroughl from the regenerators
and air conduits,A said means comprising an elon 30
and the heating flues.
9. In a coking retort oven battery having a se
ries of side-by-side coking retort ovens with in
gated plug-like device of lesser horizontal cross
section than the common preheated gas and air
ports of the heating flues and adapted to be re
movably supported on the flnial of the division
Walls of the conduits and to extend into said 35
termediate heating walls inA which heating fiues
are vertically disposed, and regenerators beneath
the heating walls, and ducts for ñowing heating
gases between the regenerators and the heating. ports to form ring-like ducts, and laterally pro
jecting fins on said means adapted to coincide
fines, elongatedplug-like devices of lesser cross
sectional areas than the ducts centrally disposed with the finials of the division walls to increase
therein and terminating at their upper partsl the height thereof, so that the mixing point of
the preheated fuel gas and air may be brought
below the outlets of ducts so as to form in _each
the bottom of the heating flues; substan
of the ducts a lower continuous channel extend
tially as specified.
ing continuously all around the plug-like device
and an »upper unrestricted channel immediately
12.- In a coking retort oven battery as in claim
_ over the'centrally disposed plug-like device.
9, and`in which the plug-like devices are fabri
ing walls, said conduits rising upwards from their
respectiveëregeneratcrs to unite and enter the
lower port of their respective heating ñues
heating walls, said regenerators being disposed in 55
cated of sillimanite, A1(A1O)Si04, for adjusting 45
10. In a coking retort oven battery havingya se
_ries of side-by-side coking retort ovens with in - the gas ñow into the individual heating iiues and
termediate heating walls ' containing vertically for increasing the height of the division walls be
tween the preheated gas and air conduits.
disposed heating fiues, and two series of regen
13. In a coking retortoven battery of the com
erators beneath _the heating walls, the one being
adapted to preheat combustion air and the other bination type, in combination: elongated coking 50
chambers alternateiy disposed of heating walls
disposed to preheat fuel gases of low calorific val
containing vertically disposed heating nues; re
ue, and individual conduits for ñowing the pre
heated combustion medium from each series of generators beneath the heating walls communi
cably connected with the heating fiues of the
55 regenerators into each heating ñue of the heat
through a common port so that combustion of
the preheated media may be initiated before they
enter the heating flues, and division walls be
tween the preheated air and lean gas conduits
terminating at the point of union of said con
duits in a iinial having supporting means adapt
ed`to support a gas iiowV adjusting-device, the
improvementin means for regulating the flow of
gases from ‘the regenerators and for adjusting
that interval the combustion process progresses
" before the heating gases from the regenerators
70 enter the heating iiues, said means comprising,
an elongated plug-like device of lesser horizon
tal cross-section than the preheated'common air
and gas ports of the heating fluesfand adapted `_
to' be removably supported on the finìal of the
division walls of the conduits and to extend into
two series, the one for preheating fuel gases of
low calorific values and the other for preheating
combustion air; means for flowing admixed pre
heated gas and air from the regenerators into the
heating flues, said means comprising, duct means 60
having an upper duct communicating with a lower
duct continuous in horizontal cross~section with a
central core «adapted to regulate the volume of
gases flowedbetween the regenerators and the
heating flues, and bifurcated conduits that ex
tend from the-lower duct to the regenerators for
preheating gas and air.
14. In a coking retort oven battery of the com
bination type, in combination: elongated coking
chambers alternately disposed of heating walls 70
containing vertically disposed heating flues; re
generators beneath the heating walls communi
cably connected with the heating nues of the
heating walls, said regenerators being disposed in
two series. the one for preheating fue] gases of 75
than‘the ducts and axially disposedtherein to
` low caloriflc values and the other for preheatins
form in each dwct a. continuous channel with a
combustion air; »means for ñowing admixed pre
heated gas and air from the regenerators into
the heating flues, said means comprising, ducts
central core, the channel extending continuously
that are adapted to ílow gases between the re
generators and the heating ñ ; and elongated
plug-like devices of lesser cross-sectional areas
ali around the plus-like device as the core be
tween the latter and the duct wall.
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