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Патент USA US2132533

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Oct. 1l, 1938.
F'lled Sept. 5, 1930
2 Sheets_sheet 'l
mM Om,
Oct. 1l, 1938.
Filed sept. s, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
Patented Oct. 11, 1938-
Heinrich Koppers, Essen, Germany, assigner, by
mesne assignments, to Koppers Company,
, Pittsburgh, Pa.,'a corporation of Delaware
Y Application September 3, 1936, vSerial No. 99,327
In Germany September 6, 1935
v2 Claims.
The invention yrelates to the production of ' Well deñned hydrocarbons, whilst the recoveryv of y
gases, suitable for the catalytical synthesis of bituminous matters of the fuel inthe usual form
hydrocarbons, for instance motor fuel, from of tar and distillation oils is reduced or wholly
carbon monoxide and hydrogen and especially
The process according to my` present' inven
5. to such a processfor producing said gases,which tion consists essentially in that preferably reac-`
work continuously, so that a continuous stream
tive‘ fuels, such as brown coal or lignite'coalL or
of useful gasesmay be obtained.
In the catalytical synthesis `of hydrocarbons, any other suitable bituminous fuel aretreated
for instance by the process of Professor .Dr.
10 Fischer and collaborators, ` a gas mixture is
treated which consists essentially of carbon
monoxide and hydrogen, preferably in a ratio
of 1:2, besides some unavoidable inerts. Such a
gas mixture is brought into contact with cata
lysts, such as finely divided cobalt or nickel com
pounds, at normal or slightly increased pressure,
whereby hydrocarbons are formed and water is
Inmy co-pending application, Arelating to the
20 “Continuous production of water gas”, executed
May 29th, 1936, Serial Number 84,398, filed June
10, 1936.> I disclosed anew and useful process
for the production of water-gas from reactive
fuels, for instance brown coal, lignite or other
25 bituminous, non-caking coals or fuel.
My former process provides for a continuous
stream of water-gas and steam, which in one
stage of the process ’is heated-up to a high tem
perature and in a second stage is brought into
30 contact with the carbonaceous material to be
treated, whereby the steam reacts with the car
bon, forming water-gas, i. e., amixture of carbon
monoxide and hydrogen with some inerts.
The principal object of my present invention
35 is to provide such improvements in my former
developed process, corresponding to my said co
pending application,I which permits a higher yield
of useful gases, suitable for the synthesis of hy
drocarbons, and containing a high percentage
in a cycle with a mixture of steam andwater
gas, said mixture being heated at one> stage of the 10
cycle to such a temperature, at which hydro
carbons will decompose and interact with steam,
and in a second stage the hot. gasmixture is
brought into contact with the fuelto be treated,
the gases thus produced being returned wholly -15
or partly to the heating stage of the process at a
temperature'above the dew point, with regard to
water and tarry matters, steam being added to
said gas, if necessary, before it enters the heating
Furthermore, my invention provides for >sub-f
stances removed from the circulating gases, such
as tarry matters, being in the form of mist and
dust, to be treated in such a manner, that hydro
carbons *contained in such residuals may' be 25
wholly or partly added to the _circulating gases
before they enter the heating stage of the
process. This feature of my present invention is
insofar advantageous, as it permits to use also
the hydrocarbon contents of the tarry matters, 30
removed from the gases for the production of
elementary hydrogen, useful
for producing
water-gas with a defined ratio of carbon mon
oxide and hydrogen.
Still further objects of my present invention 35
may be taken from the following description of
a preferred embodiment of my invention, which
Ifwill explain in particular on the lines of the
accompanying drawings.
ide to hydrogen in the gas mixture is 1:2 or
On the drawings, Fig. 1 shows a side view and 40
partly a vertical section through a plantv for the
nearly 1:2.
My present invention follows the principle of
continuous production of water-gas, and Fig. 2
shows the internal construction of the gas pro
converting as much hydrogen as possible con
ducer in more'detail.
40 of hydrogen, so that the ratioy of carbon monox
45 tained in the fuel to be treated, for instance bitu
minous substances, into elementary hydrogen, so
that as much carbon of the fuel as possible may
be consumed for the production of carbon mon
oxides, and therefore a high efficiency of the
50 process, regarding the fuel consumption, may
be obtained. In other words, according to my
invention I transform the fuel including its bitu
minous matters, as far as possible into carbon
monoxide and elementary hydrogen, these two
substances being the basis for the production of
' ‘
In the plant as shown in the drawings, a gas
vproducer l serves for receivingthe' fuel to be
gasiñed. Preferably a so-called easily reactive
fuel shall be used, for instance brown coal, lig
nite, bituminousnon-caking coal, wood, shells of
coconuts or any other suitable fuel containing 50
carbon. In gas producer l, the fuel is `brought
into contact with a highly heated mixture con
sisting of water-gas and steam. The hot gas
steam-mixture thus transfers heat'to the fuel
and warms it up to such a high temperature, that
by thereaction of the steam with carbon, hydro
to the gas exhauster or fan 26.
gen and carbon monoxide, i. e., water-gas, are
hauster 26 is suitably directly coupled with the
This gas ex
described in my aforesaid co-pendíng applica
gas exhauster, so that both gas exhausters can
be driven by one motor 21.
The temperatures of the gases passing the out
tion, executed May 29th, 1936, Serial Number
lets, arranged in the upper part of the gas pro
The design of the plant may be the same as
ducer, may be above 100°, preferably 120--140D C.,
The gas producer I consists of two rectangular i. e., well above the dew point for water and
shafts'or chambers 2, Which are constructed'of f’ light oils. The temperature of all other appara
10 refractory brickwork. In‘the ceiling` ofthe Vgas _tus provided ‘for- in the gas cycle maybe as high
producer are arranged suitable fuel feeders 3.,y as the gasftemperature in the said outlets, so
The contrivance 3 may be essentially >c'jfsimilar' i that no condensation of steam or oils may occur.
design as the well-knownV charging Vcontrivances
__The tar/ or other .constituents from the gas
for gas producers.
3 .Í ,. e»
-precipitating'in the -tar removal arrangement 24
Inside the gas producer I therelare provided `can be rdrawn off -through the closable pipeline
a row of bridges 4, made of4 refractòry mai 2'8. The pipeline 28V leads to a settling tank 29,
terial. In Fig. l of the drawingsfthese bridges `4_ - ï in -whichïta'ruis separated from viscous matters.
have been shown in dashed lines. '-I'he bridgesY ' The "liquid ltar is removed from the tank 29
4 have the shape of cutters at the topf» a
longitudinal channels or aV group of same of the
bridges A4 run into wall channels 4b, which are
arranged in Vtheeneîor in both sidewalls of the
ga's-producer,_ From the wall channels ’4b there
lead VseveralV >channels 5, or >only one channel to
theoutside. The channel 5 is connected with a
pipeline 6, lined with refractory materials. As
may ïbe'seen Vfrom the‘drawings, the pipeline 6
extends ,-over Ythe whole "length of the gas proi
ducer VI. TheV pipeline 6`leads to a vertical com
bustion 'shaftf'lL made of refractory material. .
The _connection Vof the Vpipeline '6 with the shaft
35 'I canbe interrupted by a valve 8 or another suit
able closing agent, which is able to withstand
high temperaturesf YAtthe upper end at point 9
the shaft l'I Vis Yin vconnection >with the upper >end
ef a >tower-like gas vheater I0', designed vessentially
ducted >through‘pipeline `32 to the dome-like roof
ofthe gas heater'lû. Here the vapours’ or'gases
are mixed withihighly heated steamand reaction 25
gases, and hydrocarbons are thus transformed
into hydrogen, carbon-monoxide and, asY the case
may be, some elementary carbon in‘ñnely divided
state. ‘The residuals from the settling tank 29
-and from theV distilling apparatus 3I are charged 30
into the fuel feeder V3 and are' thusagain treated
in the gas heater,V whereby further carbon com
` '
A pipeline 33 leads'from> the' gas exhauster 26
to theV lower end of the Ygas heater I0, and inter 35
posed in the line is a gas valve 34. The lower end
-ofthe gas'heater I0 is also connected with the
waste gas flue 35, by means of _a pipelineÄSS, gov
erned bythe -shut-'01T valve'31,'which ñue leads to a
wall projection I2@ is provided abovethe bridges
chimney not Vshown onî’the- drawings.
At the lower >end of the shaft -I Vthere are 'con
nected'pipelines`38 and 39, each of which includes
4 in the Ygas producer, the cavity I2b of the vpro
a 'shut-off'valve V4I). î`T’he pipeline 38 leads to an
jection being connected with a wall-channel I2C,
which is connected by channels I2 with dust sep
arators I3.‘ The gases contain often large quanti
arrangement 4I andthe pipeline 39 runs to an
arrangement`4`2.' ’The arrangements“ and 42
ties of dust, which have to be removed before
the gas can be further treated. The dust pre
cipitating ín the dust separators I3 >is discharged
air in the, blast-furnace process. vAn- annular
40 like the well-known ACowpers used for heating
through pipeline 30 to a distilling apparatus 3|,
Inside the bridges 4 there aren provided _longi-V for instance a pipe-still arrangement. The dis
tudirial channels, nwl'iichfare in connection with tillin‘g4 vapours jand gases, developedv when dis
the producer interior throughï parts" 4a. All the tilling the tar in the arrangement 3|, are con'
at the bottom of the separating chambers. A
pipeline ’I4 leads from the dust separators to
the steam boiler I5, or to anotherY suitable heat
exchanger, in *which the hot gases Vgive off ’their
are .recuperators YThey serve for Apreheating the
air and if 'necessary also fuel gas for'combustion
in shaftY 1. In the inside of the recuperators 4I
andv 42Y ‘there Aare provided a number of vertical
tubes 43,Y which are’traversed by the medium to 50
beV preheated.
"The Ycontriva`nce42 is Yequipped with gas-air
burners, '44,'whichv are supplied with fuel-gas and
heat. From the contrivance I5Y the'c'ooled gases ' air, .bythe pipeline 45 and 46.
' YThe hot` combustion gases leaving the burner 55
55 pass through the pipeline I’B to a scrubber I T,
in which the gases are treated with hot and/or 44 flow'along vthe 'outside of the pipes 43 of the
cold Water and are .thus freed from the last
contriva’ncesf 42, and apart of their heat is
traces of dust and other impurities. The con
transferred through the pipeline 43 and thus to
trivance I'I is in connection with a‘gas exhauster the medium (fuel gas) nowing through these
60 or‘fan I8, by means of the pipeline I9. From the
pipesV to 'conduit 39. From the upper end of the 60
exhauster I8 the puriñed and cooled gas can be recuperator- 42 the hot combustion gases flow
drawn <olf through the pipeline 20 forV further through the connecting line 41 to the upper end
In the ceiling of the gas producer, Van >opening
lof theY recuperator 4I, which Similarly 'to the
recuperator >42 is fitted inside 'with tubes 43.
65 5I” is arranged für, through which the gases
The hot combustion gases transfer the restA of
formedn in the upper part _of the gas producer can
escape. A pipeline 2I is connected to saidV gas
outlets, whichpipeline leads to a Vdust-separator
'2.2. `From the dust separator 22 a pipeline 23
70 leads to a tar .removal arrangementY 24, for in
stanceV »to an electrostatic tar precipitator. The
pipeline 231and ¿the dust separator 22 are prefer
ably lined' with Van heat insulating material, so
that the gases .cannot Ybe cooled -down there.
75 From the tar precipitator 24 a pipeline 25 leads
the useful heat, etc., air flowing through the con
trivance 4I to’conduit 38, and finally flow through
the rpipeline 48 ’to the channel 35. The recuper
at`or 742 is supplied with fuel gas through the pipe
line 49 and theV recuperator 4I is supplied with 70
air through the >pipeline 50.
The' method of operating the plant as shown,
is about the followingI--Iti is assumed, that all
partsof the gas‘producing plant are heated up
to the'wo'rking: temperature, the gas valve 4I) at 75
theV fuel isV not sufficient for the water-gas re
action.< 4¿Asïsoon-as ‘the .temperature of the gas
heater ID has fallen below the point at which the
the foot~of the shaft A1`may beA opened. Pre
heatedwaifr and fuel -gas then flow from 38 to 39
into the shaft lat the lbottom. The gas valve 8 is
closed int-his rworking period, likewise the valve
water-'gas »reaction 'graduallyr takes place, rthe
34. The valve 31 ofthe gas heater I 0 is, however,
valves 8 and'34 areclovsed and the gas heater 5
yafter opening the yvalves 40 and 31 is again
open.V The media introducedinto the shaft 1 are
heated-up.` -The'rea'fter'the former cycle of the
furnaces isfstarte'd,`so thatvWater-gas is again
formed; Instead' of connectingv the gas producer
|~»_with one _gas’heater only, as shown on the 10
drawings, it is also _possible and advantageous to
connect thevgasïprodfucer alternatively with 2 or
burnt there( » The ho-t gases‘ .'pass through the
oonnecting‘line 9 into the gas heater I0 and they»
give their heat to'the'refractorychecker-work
10 5|-, which similarly to a> ` known Cowper stove
is surrounded by a refractory brick lining 52.'
As soon »as the refractory checkerwork 5| of
the gas heater I0 has been brought to the desired » several gas heaters. -ÃïIn'fthis case a continuous
temperature, at which hydrocarbons decompose, stream of water-gas can be permanently taken
15 for instance up to 1250° C., the gas valves 40 and from the gas producer as always one of `the gas 15
31 are closed and the valves 8 and 34 are opened. heaters, having a high temperature, is connected
By means of the blower 26 through the pipeline with the gas producer.
33 a mixture of water-gas and steamis now in- ~ `
troduced from below into the gas heater I0. The
20 gas-steam mixture is warmed-up at' the hot
checkerwork of the gas heater, for instance to
a temperature of about 1150-1200° C. . 'I‘he mix
ture then flows through the connection 9 into
the shaft 1, passes downwards and then goes
25 through the opened pipeline 6 into the channels
5 and into the longitudinal channels to the ports
4a of the bridges 4. From these ports 4a the hot
steam-gas mixture flows into the fuel charge of
the gas producer chamber 2. The hot gas-steam
30 mixture gives olf its heat to the fuel, whereby by
the conversion of the steam with carbon there is
formed water-gas.
The temperature inside the
fuel charge of the gas producer | may be about
1000-1100° C., just above the bridges 4. A part
35 of the formed water-gas is now removed through
the cavity |2b and the channels I2C, provided in
the annular wall projection above bridges 4 of the
gas producer I, to the channel I2. This part of
the gas then fiows through the dust separator I3
4-0 and pipe I4 to the steam boiler I5. From there
the gas passes to the scrubber I1. The purified
and cooled gas can finally be discharged through
The hydrocarbons contained in the circulating
gas which is introduced into the gas heaters are
»converted by the interaction with steam in the 20
gas heater or in the lower part of the gas pro
ducer, where exists a high temperature, into hy
drogen ‘and carbon-monoxides. Consequently,
the useful water-gas flowing through the chan
nels of the bridges 4 from the gas producer I 25
contains practically no hydrocarbons and con
sists exclusively of hydrogen and carbon mon
~ The residue left over from the gasification of
vthe fuel passes through the spaces between the 30
bridges 4 of the gasification chambers 2 and then
flows into the discharging shafts 53.
I have now described my present invention on
the >lines of a preferred embodiment thereof, but
my invention is not limited in all its aspects to 35
the mode of carrying it out as above described
and shown, since the invention may be variously
embodied within the scope of the following
in suspension, are separated, whereas the vapour
I claimz-é
1. In a method for> producing water-gas con
taining carbon monoxide and hydrogen in ratio
suitable for catalytical reaction, such as the syn
thesis of hydrocarbons, from bituminousfuel of
the character of brown coal, lignite, bituminous 45
coal and the like, comprising: flowing through
and thereby reacting with a bed of the fuel, a
heated mixture of steam and water-gas which
has been previously heated in a separate heating
stage of a cycle to a temperature at which hydro
carbons will decompose and interact with steam;
withdrawing part of the gas thus produced from
the cycle at a point in the fuel bed where the fuel
is substantially free of hydrocarbons; returning
the other part of said gases in cycle to said heat 55
ing stage at a temperature above the dew point
of tar and water, after passing through another
part of the fuel bed where hydrocarbons are
present and flow off with the gas in admixture
therewith; removing tarry constituents in sus
pension from the latter gas portion while leaving
like constituents especially hydrocarbon and
the vapor-like hydrocarbons therein, after the
the pipeline 20 as useful 1:2 gas.
The remaining gas formed in the lower part
45 of the lgasification chambers 2 or which has been
introduced there into the chambers, rises upwards
through the fuel. It warms up the fuel which is
' thereby distilled.
The mixture of water-gas,
distilling gas and steam is drawn off through the
50 pipelines 2| at the ceiling of the gas producer,
at a temperature of about 120° C. The openings
of the pipelines 2| are situated above the top
layer of the fuel, so that the gases and vapours
from the gas producer are essentially drawn off
55 at the temperature inherent to the top layer of
the fuel charge.
The gases and vapours then flow through the
pipelines 2|, the dust separator 22 and the tar
precipitator 24. In these contrivances, the dust
60 and tarry constituents contained in the gas only
The gas has
gas leaves the fuel bed but before it re-enters the
therefore a temperature which essentially is
65 above the dew point for water-gas.
The gas still hot and charged with steam and
hydrocarbons is then delivered by means of the
blower 26 through the pipeline 33 into the gas
heating stage; the step comprising distilling the
water-steam are left in the gas.
heater. Here it is again heated-up so as to flow
70 afresh into the gas producer I, and to effect here
the water-gas reaction. .Under certain circum
stances, it is moreover advisable to add a certain
quantity of steam to the gas before entering the
gas heater l0, as through pipe 33', if the. quan
75 tity of water formed during the distillation of
so removed tar, and conducting the vapors of 65
distillation therefrom back into the aforesaid
heating stage into contact with the gas therein.
2. In a method for producing water-gas con
taining carbon monoxide and hydrogen in ratiol
s-uitable for catalytical reaction, such as the syn 70
thesis of hydrocarbons, from bituminous fuel of
the character of brown coal, lignite, bituminous
coal and the like, comprising: flowing through
and thereby reacting with a bed of the fuel, a
heated mixture of steam and water-gas which has 75
stage of a cycle to a temperature at which hydro
likehydrocarbons therein, after the gas leaves
the fuel bed but before it re-enters the heating
carbons will decompose and interact with steam;
withdrawing part of the gas thus produced from
from other material removed therewith in the
been previously 'heated in _a rseparate vheating
stage; the -steps comprising separating liquid tar
the cycle at a point in the fuel bed where the fuel
is substantially free of hydrocarbons; returning
the other part of `said gases in cycle to said heat
aforesaid tar removal step, dìstilling the liquid
ing stage at a temperature above the dew point of
ing stage, into contact with the gas therein, and
tar and water, after passing through another part
the residue, from the liquid tar separating step
10 of the fuel bed where hydrocarbons are present
and flow off with the gas in admixture therewith;
removing tarry constituents in suspension from
the latter gas portion while leaving the vapor
tar, and conducting the vapors of distillation from
the distillation stepback into the aforesaid heat
and the nquid tar dimming step, back into the iu
fuel bed.
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