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Патент USA US2132534

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Oct. 11,1938.
.A. A. KUCHER‘
' 2,132,534
REFRIGERATION
Original Filed May 1, 1933
4 Sheets-Sheet l
Oct. 11, 1938.‘
A. A. KUCHER
2,132,534
REFRIGERATION
'
Original Filed May 1, 1933
4 4 Shgets-Sheet 2
46
ful 6.
19
22
18
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45
3mm
Oct. 11,1938.
.
’
v ‘I _A. A. KUCH-ER
-
'
- -
2,132,534
REFRIGERATION
_
Original Filed May 1, 1933
4 Sheets-Sheet 3 '
l
.
15
I
11
14
15
-/16
‘
"
13¢»-
'
'
‘ ‘
Oct. 11, 1938. '
.
A. A. KUCHER'
-
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2},13?;_534 “
REFRI GERATI ON
Original Filed .May 1, 1955"
67/96 -
'
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
2,132,534 .
Patented Oct.‘ ll,‘
PATENT OFFICE” .
2.132.534
' _ UNITED ‘ STATES
REFRIGERATION ‘
Andrew A. Kucher, Daytom'Ohio, assignor, by’
mesne assignments, to General Motors Corpo
ration, a corporation of Delaware
Application May 1, 1933, Serial No. 668,771
Renewed October 23, 1937 .
14 Claims.
(Cl. 62-426)
may be mounted at the bottom of the cabinet
underneath and insulated from the food preserv
ing space ii. The condenser I4 is mounted at
the rear of the cabinet as shown in Fig. 3,‘ and
the evaporator i5 is mounted Within the cabinet 6
This invention relates to refrigeration.
An object of the invention is to provide an
improved arrangement of the parts of a refrig
crating system to simplify the operation thereof
5 and at the same time enhance the‘ efficiency of
p
the system.
- and is adapted to insulate the freezing space I!
' from the food preserving space H.
Another object of this invention is to coordi
The system isso coordinated with the cabinet,
nate a refrigerating system with the cabinet to
be refrigerated thereby in such a manner that. that it is adapted to maintain the proper tem 10
in the food preserving space, preferably
10 the food preserving space of the cabinet is em ' peratures
above 32° F., and the proper freezing tempera
ciently maintained at food preserving tempera
tures in the freezing space H, preferably far
tures by a system of relatively small refrigerat
below 32° F.
ing capacity and in such a manner that the re
frigerating capacity of the system can be concen
15 trated. temporarily to freeze substances in the
‘ freezing space of the cabinet
' .
Further objects and advantages of the present
invention will be apparent from the following
description, reference being had to the accom-
20 panying drawings, wherein a preferred form of
the present invention is clearly shown.
In the drawings:-
'
'
-
. The evaporator is so constructed, that it directs
or concentrates preferentially the freezing power 13
of the system into the freezing space, so‘ that liq
uids or articles may be frozen in arelatively short
time and before the cabinet and its contents are
likely to warm up above the permissible upper
‘
limit of’ food'preserving temperatures. To this
end, the evaporator is provided with one or more
_
freezing shelves It and ill, and if desired,- the
bottom l8 of the evaporator itself may be so
shaped that it forms a shelf upon which ice cube
trays or the like may be placed. These shelves 25
25 refrigerating system‘embodying features of my each have a reservoir for maintaining a quantity
Fig. 1. is a. view partly diagrammatic and partly
cross-sectional, and partly in perspective,- of a
invention;
‘ Fig. 2 is a front elevation of a refrigerating
cabinet including a system as shown in Fig. l
and embodying features .of my invention;
3 is a view transverse to Fig. 2;
.30 Fig.
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view showing a cer
tain phase of operation 'of the refrigerating sys
tem;
»
‘
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 4, but-showing
'35 a different phase of the operation of the refrig
erating system;
Fig. 6 is a vertical cross-sectional view of an
evaporator embodying features of my invention;
Fig. ‘7 is a horizontal cross-sectional view of
40 the evaporatorfshown in Fig. 6;
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
Fig.
8 is a top plan view of the evaporator;
9 is a side elevation of the evaporator‘;
10 is an end view of the evaporator; and
11 is a cross-sectional view of theh'efrig
45 erant restrictor or expander.
An apparatus embodying features of my in
vention includes in general a cabinet to having
afood preserving. space H and a freezing space
l2. Associated with this cabinet is a refrigerat
50 ing system of the type shown in Fig. 1. This‘
system includes a motor-compressor unit 13,‘ a
condenser l4 and an evaporator 15 in closed re
frigerant circulation relationship. The system
may be associated with the cabinet in anyv suit
35 able manner. Thus the motor-compressor unit
of liquid refrigerant therein, which refrigerant
is available for quick freezing when articles to
be frozen are introduced into the freezing space.
'In one form, these shelves are made by securing 30
together two metal sheets, the lower one of which
is corrugated, to provide a sinuous reservoir ‘it
on the lower side of the shelf.
The reservoir it '
is provided with means to maintain a quantity
of liquid refrigerant in the reservoir and this
means may take the form of a dam or upstand
ing pipe 26, the overflow edge of which is above
the bottom of the reservoir it. The reservoir it
on shelf‘ it over?ows into the reservoir 2B of the
shelf ill which is also formed with'a sinuous res 40
ervoir terminating at the over?ow discharge
pipe 22 having an upstanding intake similar to
that of pipe 2ll,land the pipe 22 discharges into
the bottom of the evaporator at 23. The bottom
of the evaporator itself forms a refrigerant res 45
ervoir it’ which has substantially the same ac
tion as reservoirs l9 and 2!. These shelves may
be made in any suitable manner and preferably‘
the sheets forming the shelves are welded to
gether at the places where they contact with each 50
other.
'
I
-
'
A refrigerant expanding device is positioned
between the condenser i4 and the evaporator, so
that it introduces liquid refrigerant ?rst into the
freezing shelves. To this end, the pipe“ from 55
2
2,132,534
the condenser I3 passes through‘ an inter
level of liquid refrigerant in the passageways
changer 25 in the gaseous space of the evapora
tor and then discharges into the refrigerant ex
pander or ?ow restrictor 26 which in turn dis
‘40a rises and falls to provide more or less refrig
eration for the food preserving space H as re
?ce, for example of the type shown in Fig. 11.
‘ temperatures, the liquid refrigerant does not tend
quired. by the heat leak into the cabinet. By
charges the expanded refrigerant through the > so placing the expander 26 in a relatively cold
pipe 21 into the shelf IS. The expander 26 is part of the refrigerator, and particularly by pro- '
preferably in the form of a ?xed elongated ori
tecting it against the wide variations of outside
In Fig. 11, the expander is provided with an ' to gasify while passing through the ori?ce 33.
10 inlet 30 which is connected to the interior por
tion of a cylindrical screen 3L; Refrigerant '
passing through the screen enters one or more
to the same extent which it would if this re 10
strictor were placed outside of the cabinet and
passageways 32 leading to the helical groove
ture. It is desirable to permit a relatively large
quantity of refrigerant to pass through the ex
pander during warm days, and since the total 15
33 formed on the inner cylindrical member 34.
15 This groove is covered by the outer cylindrical
member 35 which is preferably placed over the
member 34 by shrinking it~ thereon, the member
35 being heated sufficiently to provide a loose ?t
over the member 34 during the telescoping opera
tion, but which shrinks to a tight ?t when the
temperatures of the two members have been
equalized. A sleeve 36 is placed on the interior
of member 34, and during the manufacture of
the expander, this sleeve may be moved axially
25 to cover or uncover one or more of the pas
sages 32 which are placed at intervals at one
end of the member 34, so that the effective length
of the groove 33 may be varied‘ to the desired
extent. After the desired length of groove has
30 been obtained, the sleeve 34 may be soldered in
position. This calibrating operation may be per
formed before the inlet cap member 38 is-as
sembled in the device, the calibration being per
formed by creating a vacuum at the discharge
35 outlet 39 and determining the flow occurring
through the elongated ori?ce or groove 33, and
calibrating it by moving the sleeve 36 to the de
sired position before the cap 38 is inserted and
soldered to the cylindrical member 35.
The food preserving space H is refrigerated by
40
the food storage cooling portion of the evaporator.
Preferably this food storage cooling portion of
the evaporator is so formed as to insulate the
freezing space l2 from the food preserving space
45 H and to prevent or limit the. interflow of air
between these two spaces. This portion of the
evaporator is preferably made in the form of a
relatively ?at refrigerating chamber 40 formed
by welding together two metal sheets 4| and‘ 42,'
50 the outer one of which is corrugated to form ver
where subjected to wide variations in tempera
mass of refrigerant in the form of liquid passes
more easily than refrigerant in gaseous condi
tion, the position of the restrictor in the cabinet
is made to minimize the formation of gaseous
refrigerant in the restrictor on hot days.
20
The condenser is so corelated with the refrig
erating system, that it tends to create higher
head pressures when abnormal refrigeration de
mands are made on the system, such as when
freezing trays with unfrozen liquids are intro
' duced onto any of the shelves l6, l1 and I8.
this end, the amount of refrigerant in the system
is so corelated with the volumetric capacity of the
system that during normal operation the liquid
the lower receiver 50. The condenser i4 is so
shaped, that if a large quantity of refrigerant
should be evaporated from the evaporator and
be transmitted through'the compressor, the con-'
densed refrigerant will rise in the portion of the ,35
condenser lying between the receiver 50 and the
upper receiver 5|. This elevation of the liquid
refrigerant level in the condenser blankets its
effective condensing area and thus reduces the
condensing capacity of the condenser. This in 40
turn creates higher head pressures in the pipe
24' and therefore forces more liquid refrigerant
intp the evaporator. This increased flow of re
frigerant in the system increases the refrigerat
ing capacity of the entire system and particu
larly in the freezing shelves, so that any sub
stance inserted to be frozen is subjected to this
enhanced refrigerating effect. The size of the
upper receiver 5| is so made that it prevents the
rise of liquid refrigerant above this receiver and '
thus prevents the blanketing of too much con
densing area to produce harmful effects in the
or header 23 at the lower part of the evaporator '
The foregoing action of the system is diagram
matically indicated in Figs. 4 and 5. In Fig. 4
the level of liquid refrigerant in the condenser is
indicated at 52. This level, with slight varia
tions,v is the normal level and when the system
is operating without heavy demands such as when‘
substantially throughout the entire
length of the evaporator, the passageways con
necting and terminating at this header. At the
upper portion of the evaporator two headers 44
and 45 are provided, these headers being con
60 nected by means of a pipe 46. The header 45,
together with a portion of the pipe 24 form' the
interchanger 25 for pre-cooling the unexpanded
refrigerant ?owing from the condenser H to
the expander 26.~ The evaporated refrigerant
30'
refrigerant in the condenser l4 stands at or near
tical passageways 40a in the evaporator,’ and the
intermediate portions 43 of which may be welded
together in a well-known manner. The portion
55 extends
25
To
system.
,
there is no substance to be frozen, or when the 60
substances which have been inserted have been
properly frozen. Fig. 5 indicates the condition
of the system when substances to be frozen such
as trays 53, 54 and/or 55 are inserted with water
Under such conditions, a heavy 65
65 flows through the header 45 through the pipe 41 - to be frozen.
to the motor-compressor unit i3.
.
The construction is such that expanded refrig
erant passing through the pipe 21, which re
frigerant is partly liquid and partly gaseous, de
70 posits the liquid refrigerant in the reservoirs 19,
2| and I8’, and the liquid refrigerant rises to a
certain extent in the passageways 40a for cool
ing the food preserving space. Depending‘ on the
temperature conditions outside the cabinet, which
75 create varying head pressures in the pipe 24, the
evaporating action is immediately set up in the
reservoirs l9. 2| and/or l8 which forwards a
large quantity of evaporated refrigerant to the
compressor and in turn to the condenser, and this
action ?lls up the condenser to a point 56, vary
70
ing in level under varying conditions, thus
blanketing the effective condensing area of the
condenser to increase the pressure as heretofore
described.
.
The length and cross-sectional area of the re
75
3
2,182,534
strictor elongated ori?ce 33 may be made or
‘calibrated as described in my copending applica
tion Serial No. 599,239 so that'the motor-com-.
pressor
unit
l3‘ vmay
operate ” continuously
throughout the entire normal room temperature
range‘and yet maintain food‘preserving tem
peratures in the food compartment I l and freez
ing temperatures in the freezing compartment
l2. However, it is not necessary to the practice
10 of many features of the invention herein de
scribed and claimed that the elongated ori?ce
should be'calibrated to the extent described in
the said copending application; and it is with
in the purview of this invention that the calibra
15 tion be carried only to the extent that the motor
compressor unit l3 operates continuouslyonly
at the higher normal room temperatures, and
intermittently at the lower room temperatures.
In fact, many advantages of this invention are
attained even when the size or calibration of the
elongated ori?ce is such that the unit l3-oper
ates intermittently at all normal room tempera
tures.
Accordingly a thermostatic control 60 may be
25 provided for starting and stopping the motor
compressor unit l3, and this control may be so
set that, depending on the calibration of the
restrictor, the unit 13 operates intermittently only
when room temperatures drop below those nor
30 mally maintained in a household, such as when
they drop below, say 50° to 65° F. The control
60, on the other hand, may be so set that the
motor-compressor unit becomes intermittent
when the room temperatures drop below a much
higher limit, such as 70°, 80°, or in fact, if the
35 restrictor
calibrations warrant or require it, the
control setting may make the unit I3 intermittent
throughout the entire normal room temperature
range.
The thermostatic control 60 may be in the
form of a thermostatic snap switch 6| having a
thermostatic bulb 62 placed in aposition on the
evaporator such that it is responsive to the tem
perature of the food compartment ll. Thus, if
liquid refrigerant therein, a refrigerant expansion
device discharging refrigerant into one of said
reservoirs, a food storage cooling refrigerant _
evaporating chamber into which the refrigerant
from one of said reservoirs ?ows, the refrigerant
?owing in series through said expansion device,
through each of said reservoirs in turn and.
through said chamber, evaporated refrigerant
discharge means for said chamber, and the con
duits for conveying refrigerant from said reser
voirs communicating therewith above the bot
toms thereof to trap a quantity of liquid refriger
. ant therein.
10 ..
1
2. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a plu
rality of substantially’ ?at freezing shelves each
having a reservoir for maintaining a quantity of
liquid refrigerant therein, a refrigerant expan
sion device discharging refrigerant into one of
said reservoirs, a food storage cooling refrigerant
evaporating chamber shielding said shelves from
circulation of air, and into which the refrigerant
from one of said reservoirs over?ow, the refriger
ant ?owing in series ?rst through said expansion
device then through each of said reservoirs in
turn and then through said chamber, evaporated
refrigerant discharge means for said chamber,
and the conduits for conveying refrigerant from
said reservoirs communicating therewith above
the bottoms thereof to trap a quantity of liquid
refrigerant therein.
’
3. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a plu
rality of substantially ?at freezing shelves each
having a reservoir for maintaining a quantity of
liquid refrigerant therein, a refrigerant expan
sion device discharging refrigerant into one of
said reservoirs, a food storage cooling refrigerant
evaporating chamber surrounding said shelves
and shielding said shelves from the circulation of
air, and into which the refrigerant fromone of
said reservoirs over?ow, the ‘refrigerant ?owing
in series'?rst through said expansion device then 40
through each of said reservoirs in turn and then
through said chamber, evaporated refrigerant
discharge means for said chamber, and the con-‘
the food compartment from falling below 32° F.,
duits for conveying refrigerant from said reser
voirs communicating therewith above the bot
toms thereof to trap a quantity of liquid refrig
or any lower temperature limit to which the
erant therein.
the bulb 62 is placed substantially as shown in
45 the drawings, it will prevent the temperature of
switch is calibrated.
The switch 6|, in response
to food compartment temperatures, opens and
closes the circuit 63 leading to the starting relay
or control box 64 which in turn controls the cur
rent ?owing to the windings of the motor in unit
I3. . Controls of the type indicated at 64' auto
matically control the ?owof current to the mo
tor so that the proper‘windings are energized dur
ing the starting period and the proper windings
' are energized during the normalrunning period
after the motor has started.
Thus, if the motor
is of the split phase type, the control 64 ener
60 gizes both the running or main winding and the
phase or starting winding when the switch 6|
closes and thereafter opens the circuit to the
starting or phase winding after the motor .has
started. The type of control indicated‘at 64 is
now well known and is therefore not further
described.
7
While the form of embodiment of the inven
tion as herein disclosed, constitutes a preferred
form, it is to be understood that other forms
70 might be adopted, all coming within the scope
of the claims which follow.
What is claimed is as follows:
45
-
4. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a
freezing shelf having a ‘reservoir for maintaining
a quantity of liquid refrigerant therein, a re 50
frigerant expansion device discharging refriger
ant into said reservoir, 2. food storage cooling re
frigerant evaporating chamber into which the re
frigerant from said reservoir ?ows, the refriger
ant ?owing in series through said expansion de 55
vice, ‘through said reservoir and through said
chamber, a heat exchanger through which high
pressure refrigerant liquid ?ows to said expan
sion device and evaporated refrigerant discharge
means for said chamber connected to said heat
exchanger and the conduit for conveying the re
frigerant from said reservoir. communicating
therewith above the bottom thereof to trap a
quantity of liquid refrigerant therein.
5. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a 65
freezing shelf having a reservoir for maintaining
a quantity of liquid refrigerant therein, a re
frigerant expansion device discharging refriger
ant into said reservoir, 9. food storage cooling re
frigerant evaporating chamber shielding said 70
shelf from circulation of air, and into, which said
reservoir over?ows, the refrigerant ?owing in
1. A refrigerating apparatus comprisinga plu- ' series ?rst through said expansion device then
rality of substantially ?at freezing shelves each through said reservoir and then through said
chamber, a heat exchanger through which high 75
76 having a reservoir for maintaining a quantity of
4
2,182,584
pressure refrigerant liquid ?ows to said expansion
'device and evaporated refrigerant discharge
means for said chamber connected to said heat
exchanger and the conduit for conveying the re
frigerant from said reservoir communicating
therewith above the bottom thereof to trap a
each having a reservoir for maintaining a quan
tity of liquid refrigerant therein, a refrigerant
expansion device discharging refrigerant into
said reservoirs, a food storage cooling refrigerant
evaporating chamber shielding said shelves from
quantity of liquid refrigerant therein.
circulation of air, and into which said reservoirs
overflow, a pipe depending from one of said
6. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a
freezing shelf having a reservoir for maintaining
shelves to the next succeeding shelf, another pipe
10 a quantity of liquid refrigerant therein, a re
frigerant expansion device discharging refriger
ant into said reservoir, a food storage cooling re
frigerant evaporating chamber surrounding said
shelf and shielding said shelf from the circula
15 tion of air, and into which said reservoir over
flows,‘ the refrigerant flowing in series ?rst
through said expansion device then through said
reservoir and then through said chamber, a heat
exchanger through which high pressure refriger
go ant liquid flows to said expansion device and
evaporated refrigerant discharge means for said
chamber ‘connected to said heat exchanger and
the conduit for conveying the refrigerant from
said reservoir communicating therewith above
25 the bottom thereof to trap a quantity of liquid
refrigerant therein.
'7. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a sub
stantially ?at freezing shelf having a reservoir‘
for maintaining a quantity of liquid refrigerant
30 therein, a refrigerant expansion device discharg
ing refrigerant into said reservoir, a food storage
cooling refrigerant evaporating chamber shield
ing said shelf from circulation of air, a refriger
ant ?ow pipe depending from said shelf into said
35 chamber and having its inlet extending into said
reservoir above the bottom thereof, the refriger
extending from one of said shelves to said cham
ber, the inlets of said pipes extending above the
bottoms of said shelves the refrigerant ?owing
in series ?rst through said expansion device then
through each of said reservoirs and pipes in turn,
and then through said chamber, and evaporated
refrigerant discharge means for said chamber. 15
11. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a
plurality of substantially ?at freezing shelves
each having a reservoir for maintaining a quan
tity of liquid refrigerant therein, a refrigerant
expansion device discharging, refrigerant into 20
said reservoirs, a food storage cooling refrigerant
evaporating chamber surrounding said shelves
and shielding said shelves from the circulation
of air, and into which said reservoirs over?ow,
a pipe depending from one of said shelves to the 25
next succeeding shelf, another pipe extending
from one of said shelves to said chamber, the in
lets of said ‘pipes extending above the bottoms of
said shelves, the refrigerant ?owing in series
?rst through said expansion device then through 30
each of said reservoirs and pipes in turn and
then through said chamber, and evaporated re
frigerant discharge means for said-chamber.
12. An evaporator for a refrigerating system
comprising a freezing shelf for receiving'and sup
porting a receptacle adapted to contain a sub
ant ?owing in series ?rst through said expansion ’ stance to be congealed or frozen, said shelf hav
device then through said reservoir then over the ing a reservoir thermally associated therewith
\ edge of the inlet of said pipe, thence through said
and adapted to receive liquid refrigerant, means
pipe into said chamber, and evaporated refriger
for conveying refrigerant to said shelf, an air 40
ant discharge means for said chamber.
cooling refrigerant evaporating chamber shield
8. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a sub
ing said shelf from circulating air, a conduit ex
stantially ?at freezing shelf having a reservoir tending from said shelf to said chamber for con
for maintaining a quantity of liquid refrigerant veying refrigerant from the reservoir into said
therein, a refrigerant expansion device discharg
chamber, means providing an outlet for refriger
ing refrigerant into said reservoir, a food storage ant evaporated in said chamber, and said conduit
cooling refrigerant evaporating chamber sur
communicating with said reservoir above the bot
rounding said shelf and shielding said shelf from tom thereof for trapping a quantity of liquid re
circulation of air, a refrigerant flow pipe depend
frigerant in said freezing shelf.
ing from said shelf into said chamber and having
13. An evaporator for a refrigerating system
.60 its inlet extending into said reservoir above the comprising
a plurality of superimposed freezing 50
bottom thereof, the refrigerant ?owing in series shelves for receiving and supporting receptacles
?rst through said expansion device then through
adapted to contain a substance to be congealed or
said reservoir then over the edge of the inlet of
frozen, said shelves having a reservoir thermally
associated therewith and adapted to receive liquid
refrigerant, means for conveying refrigerant to 55
said shelves, a substantially U-shaped air cooling
said pipe, thence through said pipe into said
st. chamber,
and evaporated refrigerant ~discharge
means for said chamber.
9. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a plu
rality of substantially ?at freezing shelves each
having a reservoir for maintaining a quantity of
liquid refrigerant therein, a refrigerant expansion
device discharging refrigerant into said reser
“voirs, a food storage cooling refrigerant evapo
rating chamber into which the refrigerant from
said reservoirs ?ows, a pipe depending from one
of said shelves to the next succeeding shelf, an
other pipe extending from one of said shelves to
said chamber, the inlets of said pipes extending
above the bottoms of said shelves, the refrigerant
7o ?owing in series through said expansion device,
through each of said reservoirs and pipes in turn,
and through said chamber, and evaporated re
frigerant discharge means for said chamber.
10. A refrigerating apparatus comprising a
I. plurality of substantially flat freezing shelves
refrigerant
evaporating
chamber
extending
around said shelves ‘for shielding the shelves from
circulating air, a conduit extending from one of
said shelves to said chamber for conveying re 60
frigerantfrom the reservoir of said one of said
shelves into the lowermost portion of said U
shaped chamber, means providing an outlet for
refrigerant evaporated in said chamber, and said
conduit communicating with said reservoir above 65
the bottom thereof for trapping a quantity of
liquid refrigerant in said one of said plurality of
freezing shelves.
14.JAn evaporator for a refrigerating system 70
comprising afreezing shelf for receiving and sup
porting a receptacle adapted to contain a sub
stance to be congealed or frozen, said shelf hav
ing a reservoir thermally associated therewith
and adapted to receive liquid refrigerant, means 75
amass‘
I‘
-
‘
‘
5
and the connection of said conduit with said
for conveying refrigerant to
shelf, an air ber,
reservoir being constructed and arranged to com
cooling refrigerant evaporating chamber, a con- /
therewith above the bottom thereof for
duit extending from said shelf downwardly to municate
trapping a quantity of liquid refrigerant in said
said chamber for conveying refrigerant from the
.
c
reservoir into said chamber, means providing an freezing shelf.
I
A. KUCHER.
outlet for refrigerant evaporated in said cham
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