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Патент USA US2132599

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Oct. 11, 1938.
K.~BAUMANN Er AL
I
2,132,599
LANDING MEANS FOR AIRCRAFT
Filed Jan. 3l, 1936
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Patented Oct. 11, 1938
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2,132,599:
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2.132.599
» »LANDING MEANS Foa AiRcRArT'
_Karl Baumann, BaseL‘ïand Armin Ettinger, Birs-`
felden, near Basel, ‘Switzerland¿>
i
`Application> January 31, 1936, _Serial No. 671,712.0-` j
ï
In Switzerland December 23, 1935
~
5 claims. iol.’ 2501-11) '
` yThis invention ‘relates to a Inetl‘iod"` of and
means forassisting the landing of airplanes. Y
` To assist the landing of aircraft when there is
little or no visibility it is necessary for the pilot
may be adapted as `desired to local landing con
ditions.
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`"The invention accordingly consists in the fact
thatithe output potential of the receiver on the
5
proper direction for landing and that he is gliding matically, from >a certain point of approach of the
.down along a path suitable for the particular landing airplane, theV ampliñcation of the receiver
` `landing ground concerned, and for this purpose va in respect of thevertical- navigation, in such fash
method has already been proposed which makes ion that the pilot, in» order to maintain constant
lO'use of different levels in the radiation ñeld of the intensity of the signals received, is compelled 10
‘5 `tor be 'notified> in some form that he is in the - ground for thev horizontal navigation varies auto-
a `transmitting aerial' or aerial combination, a
transmitter being‘provided on the ground and a
receiver in the airplane see for instance:> E. Kra
to descend at an angle which intersects the levels
infthe ñeld lof the receiving aerial in respect of
mar;` The present state in the art of blind land
loïing of `airplanes using ultra-short waves in Eu
ropa. Proc. I. R. E., vol. 23, page' 1171, October
1935.
The invention will* now be described more fully
The primary disadvantages associated with this
.
arrangement consist in the ñrst place in the fact
20 that the more sensitive of the two apparatus,
viz.,` the receiver, is located `on the airplane, so
that there are considerable interferenceslin the
reception, `due chiefly to the ignition _system ofA
the engine.` To overcome these interferences the
25 transmission output must accordingly be-very
high.
Secondly, there is no possibility of con
trolling the glide of` theaircraft during the land
ing operation on the ground.
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f
A
the vertical
navigation.`
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Y
_
with reference to theaocompanying drawing, in 15
which`
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Fig. l indicates diagrammatically Vthe landing
operation in'accordance with the invention,
Fig. 2 is a circuit diagram relating to the trans
mission of the signals.
20
Fig. 3" is a diagrammaticv plan view` of the di~
rectional aerial for the receiver for horizontal
navigation.
`
‘
A
~
Figl 4 is a diagrammatic view of the receiver
for horizontal navigation and the change-over 25
device interposed between it and the directional
aerial.
`
Fig. 5 is a diagrammatic view hereinafter re
To avoid the disadvantages aforesaid it'has, ferred to.
i
30 therefore, also been proposed to locate the trans
. For determining the horizontal direction of ap- 3o
mitter on the aircraft and to provide the receiveA proach towards the landing ground there are
ing system on the ground, the landing glide of the employed the directional characteristics of two
aircraft being determined by a level of the re~ ‘ crossed` receiving loops R1 and R2. Fig. 3 shows
ceiving aerial system. 'IA‘he receiving ‘apparatus these two' loops Rl'and R2 with their horizontal
35 controls automatically a‘ .transmitter> non the directional characteristics in plan. The circles 35
ground, and the controlA signals received by the ` in dotted lines represent the receiving character- »
aircraft, for example by means of a normal re
istie of the loop R1 and the circles in full lines
ceiver, are made noticeable‘to the pilot either
acoustically or optically.
the receiving characteristic of the loop R2. The
mined by the signals received, i. e., in which the
landing ñeld in ,the direction> PO, which line of
output potentials of . the two loops, with equal
40 `Now‘inthis latter method, in which‘the exact construction of the loops, are alike when a wave 40
horizontal and vertical line of movement of the arrives .in the direction PO which is the direction
aircraft when approaching the ground is deter-" ofrlanding.V If now an airplane approaching the
gliding path is defined as level in the field of the ‘ direction divides the angle between the planes of
45 receiving aerial arrangement provided on the
the two loops into two equal angles, transmits by 45
ground, it has been found that the glide becomes
means of atransmitter a continuous tone, then
very ilat towards the end. In consequence there
is always a certain danger'in association with
are alike. AIf there is a deviation from the proper
50 comparatively high points or obstacles situated in
the output potentials created inthe two loops
landing direction towards the> right,` the output
potential of the one loop, owing to the transmis- 50
sion of a continuous tone by the ultra-short wave
transmitter on the airplane, is greater than that
It is the object of the invention, therefore, to of the other loop. _» Upon deviation towards the
provide a method and means by which the line left the position is exactly vice versa. For the
55 followed by the airplane when gliding to' earth s purpose of obtaininga greater relative sensitivity 55 `
` the line of ñight in the immediate vicinity of the
aerodrome.
Y
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l
l2,132,599
2
to fluctuations in the direction the loops may be
fashion that the instrument actuated by the
disposed at an angle which is greater than 90°.
answer-back continues to> show the same extent
The output of the two loops is applied alternately
of movement, in which case he glides down to the
by means of a mechanically operated switch-over
device S (Fig. 4) to a receiver U, in such fashion
that the period of connection varies in respect of
the two loops. The mechanically operated
The two modulation tones (for horizontal and
vertical navigation) are separated by low-fre
switch-over device S may be driven by a motor
adapted to connect the movable pair of switch
members alternately with the terminals of the
two loops R1 and R2. The direct current result
ground along the prescribed landing curve.
quency filter chains in the receiver on board the
airplane.
It is also possible to provide .at a suitable point
a receiver combined with an aerial arrangement, 10
which has such a vertical characteristic, -that '
ing after rectification of the low-frequency output Y Vwhen passed over bythe ultra-short wave trans
of the said receiver is employedV to control the `mitter transmitting on board the aircraft de
velops for a brief interval an output voltage key
amplitude of `a tone produced by a tone genera
tor, the frequency of which differs» from,r >>the Aing a'thirdV tone generator and applying this` low 15
modulating frequency of the ultra-short wave frequency voltage as modulation frequency to the
aerodrome transmitter. This modulation fre
transmitter on the airplane.-`v
Y
quency, when» received in the airplane provides
This locally generated frequency, which is de
pendent as regards amplitude on the output of.r indication that landing should be commenced
20
’
the said receiver,’is then applied as modulation v(marker signal).
Fig.
5
illustrates»
diagrammatically
the
methodv
tothe aerodrome transmitter,L Thesignalsof thev
aerodrome transmitter may be received by the described in the foregoing. Hi represents the
aircraft with a normal long-wave receiver. If the ultra-short wave> transmitter in the aircraft, I
direction of the airplane exactly coincides with the normal» long Wave operating receiver with
the landing direction, the two loops'r will be actedv automatic sound-volume control in the aircraft,
25 upon>
equally by the ultra-short wave transmitter K are Ythe low frequency filter chains by means of
on the airplane.
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25
which the answer-back signals ofthe aerodrome
,
Upon the changingover of the loops there` is
then no jump in the sound intensity at the out
put of the receiver U. The modulation of the
aerodrome transmitter corresponds, therefore,
with acontinuous tone without jumpin intensity,
and indicates to >the pilot,_who receivesthe sig
nals with _the long wave4 apparatus, that he is
3.57 iiying inthe correct- direction of approach. If his
course deviates from the mid-position towards the
right, the one loop isacted upon bythe ultra
shortwavetransmitter'to a greater extent than
theA other, and the one signal, for‘exam'ple the
40. shorter one, will be louder thanthe other. Upon
deviationV towardsthe left the longer signal will
transmitter modulated with different sounds are
separated,„L and M are the indicating means
for the horizontal and1vertical navigation, N rep 30
resents the receiver- for the vertical navigation,
R the low frequency output rectifier for the ver
ticalr navigation, Trthe loop system for the hori
zontal navigation, S the changeover device for the
loops, U the receiver for the horizontal-'naviga 35
tion, and Weis ,theaerodrome operating trans
mitter.
,
.
TheV method asdescr-ibed up to now constitutes
in all detailspart of the- known art, and no claim
whatsoever- is made to the same per se.
40
Referring now to` Fig. 1, the curvesV lY to 5 indi- ‘
be `louder than the ‘shorter one. , In this way it
cate different levels in the field of the receiving
is possible to distinguish between the two sides.
aerial V. ’ The dilîerent curves correspond with
different valuesof the» intensity of the field. 'I'he
fv aerialv arrangement on the ground isA acted upon> top curve indicates the greatest and the bottom
by the waves transmitted bythe ultra-short wave curve the lowest intensity of the field.
For the` vertical navigation; another receiving
transmitter on the airplane.
An exampleï for
such anarrangement ofantennassee for instance
Diamond and Dunmore: A radio beacon .and re
_ ceiving system for vblind landing of aircraft. Proc.
I._ R. E.,l vol. 19, Fig. ’7, page 596, April 1931.
There'is described an arrangementfor the trans
mittingcase', but allv concerning the vertical
characteristic holds also` for the receiving case.
l The glide pathislaid down as anequalintensity
linein the vertical characteristic of the receiving
antenna arrangement. The direct current of the
In landing without the regulation provided for
by the invention the line of flight would coincide
with'one of the curves l to 5. If Vnow the ampli
fication of the receiver on the ground for the 50
Verticalv navigation is increased from .a certain
point of> approach, such as A, which corresponds
with the distance Xfrom the aerial system for
the vertical navigation, the pilot, in order that
the’ outputofî the ground receiver for the verti 55
cal navigation, and accordingly the intensity of Y Y
the verticalnavigation signals transmitted to the
low-.frequently Output of this receiver on the ' airplane, remain-constant, 'must steer the ma
ground controlsthe amplitude of` a second sound> chine so as to intersect thecurves I to 5, for eX
generator, the frequency of which differs from an'iple at ther points A; B, C, D‘and E, so that 60
that of the sound generator previously. referred to. ` proceeding from the point A the angle of descentv
~
The output of, this second so_und generator like- ' becomes steeper.
This` method maybest be Vexplained in con- H
wise modulates the aerodrome transmitter.
For thev purposeY of explanation it- is assumed . junction with a particular formv of embodiment: Y
The ultra-short wave transmitter on the airplane
65 kthat an airplane is> flying at a certain altitude :ln`
the direction ofk landing. The output potential> acts on the ground receiversfo-r the marker sig
nal,V the horizontal navigation and the vertical
navigation. The aerial system of the receiver>
for the horizontalnavigation should be such that
notifledbackÑ to the airplane.
'
If the movementon thepart'of aninstrument ` its output potential depends primarily on the dis
tance of> the -airplane transmitter. The 'aero
in the’airplane actuated bythe answer-back sig
nal reaches a certain Yvalue which is individualto- drome receiver for the vertical navigation oper
the.` particular aerodrome concerned, the pilotl ates without regulation up to the moment when
commences to descend and, whilst maintaining the airplane with the ultra-short wave trans- .
of the ground receiver continuously increases, and.
in accordance with the method above described is
75. ¿the -landing,direction~,'steers his-machine in such - mittervv on board- transmittingv flies over the an- 75
211232,599':
tenna arrangement of ftheïinarker signal- receiver
and so actuates‘the‘fmarker signalywhichat the
same time indicates by its location the nearest
obstacle in 4the" direction of4 landing in the’vicin
` ityìof‘the aerodrome. ‘Up to this point, therefore,
the airplane‘indescending follows a normal level
must be of such a construction, that the contacts
of the aerial systeinin vrespect of the vertical
navigation.
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the ampliñcation of the receiver for the vertical
navigation becomes all the greater the nearer the
aircraft approaches the receiver` for horizontal
navigation, thus giving a glide path steeper than
without regulation. It is clear, that `the relay 6
are fixed in their position, when ‘once the two up
per are opened and the two lower ones are closed,
’
«When the airplane .with> the ultra-short wave because the current through the coil of relay 6
transmitter transmitting on 4board passes over
the antenna system@ connected with the receiver"
for themarker signal the antenna yields an in->
put voltage to the `marker signal receiver. The
output .voltage of `this' receiver is only present
‘when the transmitter‘on boardvpenetrates thev
vertical lobe of the vertical diagram of the asso
ciated antenna arrangement `of‘ the marker sig
nal receiver. This` output.. voltage switches on
automatically by means of a‘relay the regulation
flows only during the time, when the airplane
with the’ultra-short wave transmitter transmit
ting on board isftransversing the vertical lobe of
the diagram of the marker signal antenna sys
tem. Such relays are known (Impulse relays).
When the landing is made the contacts must be 151
brought back to their initial position. This can
be eiïected by giving an impulse over the coil of
thel‘relay given Aby the wireless operator of the
aerodrome'.
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»
'A
»
:of amplification ofthe ground: receiver in respect
If theantenna system of the marker signal- re
of 'the `vertical navigation.4 The' voltage .regulat-` ceiver
is not passed at exactly Vthe correct alti
ing the amplification of the receiver for the ver
tude, then the voltage tapped at `potentiometer
tical navigation is deducted from the output of ‘I does not exactly compensate the voltage tapped
the‘receiver for the horizontal navigation. 'I‘his at potentiometer 8. Thus a jump occurs in the
is; regulation voltage is substantially'proportional to amplification
of the tube 3 upon the switching
Vthe >distance of the airplane from the receiver for over of the relay 6. From the answer-back mes
horizontal navigation. l‘In the receiver for theV
verticali‘iavigation` are provided one or `more sage received by' the-.pilot `the latter- is able to
>whether the machine was flying over
tubes having-a variable and adjustable amplifica-- ascertain
the marker signal receiver too high or too low.
` tion factor. »The regulation voltage deducted
A certain allowance may nevertheless be made in
from> the output of the receiver for horizontal this
connection whilst still permitting of a safe
navigation is applied‘to. the regulation grids of
these.> tubes thus alîe’cting‘. the amplification of
theV receiver for vertical navigation in proportion
ofthe distance of the ultra-short wave transmit
terv on board the airplane: to the' antenna system
of the receiver for horizontal navigation;`
'
In Fig. 2, I is the receiver, which’can be of the
normal superheterodyne type, with its antenna
‘ system having a vertical characteristic with the
main lobe directed upwards.` l 2 is the receiver for
the horizontal ‘ navigation with its. two crossed
loops.` 3 is a variable high-frequency` pentode
landing.
25
This allowance may be marked on the
vertical navigation instrument inthe airplane.
The pilot then merely `requires to navigate the
machine vertically in such fashion upon landing
that the diiîerent movement of the instrument
remains
constant.
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The angle of the glide pathmay be adjusted
by means of the potentiometer 1 applying a more
or less greater part of the-output voltage of the 40
receiver for'horizontal navigation as regulation
voltage to the receiver for vertical navigation,
thus making the angle of the glide path to follow
provided >for instance as .a stage in the intermedi
i ate frequency amplifier ‘of the receiver for the more or less steep. By means of resistance 5 it
isV possible to vary the length of the regulated 45
vertical navigation or as` an input stage of this
receiver. In the first case the grid circuit ¿lisA path. If for instance the resistance 5 is set at
tuned tothe intermediate frequency of the re-_
ceiver, in the second case to the frequency of the
ultra-short Vwave transmitter in the airplane.
With the aid of resistance 5 the working point of
the tube 3 is set at a point of low ampliñcation
factor, the resistance 5 giving a fixed bias to the
regulation grid of this tube, when the upper two
contacts of relay 6 are closed. So long as the
marker signal receiver has no input voltage ap
plied thereto due from the transmitter on board
the airplane the tube works constantly at this
` point of its characteristic. When iiying over the
60 antenna system of the marker signal receiver,
however, the relay 6, actuated by the output volt
age of the marker signal receiver, by closing the
two lower contacts and opening the two upper
ones, applies a part of the output voltage of the
65 horizontal navigation voltage, which is tapped at
the potentiometer 8, to the regulation grid of the
tube 3 of the vertical navigation receiver. The
potentiometer is so adjusted, that, when the
`marker signal receiver is flown over at the cor
70 ` rect altitude, the potential tapped by way of the
potentiometer 1 is just compensated, so that upon
the switching over of the relay 6 the amplifica
cation of the tube 3 is not altered.
After the receiver I is overflown the regulation
75 commences to take effect, in -such fashion that
a-value `such that only a small voltage increase
puts the amplification of the tube 3 to its highest
possible value, then the last part ofthe glide path
is not regulated, because a further increase of 50
the regulation voltage does not increase further
the .ampliñcation of tube 3. Since the horizontal
navigation is performed according to the method
in which in a certain direction the signals supple
ment each other to form a steady line, care must 55
be taken in the output of the horizontal naviga
tion receiver that in the case of small deviations
from the exact horizontal path the regulating
potential corresponds with the mean value of the
two signals, which may be accomplished by a 60
netwo-rk‘with corresponding time constant.
What we claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent is:
1. In means for assisting the landing of air
craft, means for transmitting signals from the 65
aircraft, directionally sensitive aerials on the
ground by which said signals are received, means
for establishing answer-back signals from ground
to aircraft, a vertical navigation receiver on the
ground and connected with one of said aerials, 70
and means including a horizontal navigation re
ceiver connected to another of said aerials for so
varying automatically from a predetermined
point of approach of the aircraft the ampliñca
tion of said vertical navigation receiver to vary 75
22132;,599?
onwtheeaircraftï indicating ¿the horizontal andver
that the pilot in order to¢»mainta~infa -constant; tical navígationlnecessary inaccordancezwith the
intensity of reception-of the answer-_back signals'ì
4.. In-- av means o forgaaissisting;.theI landing o of -air
is compelled-to descend atfan, angle intersect-ing;v
5
the levels in thefield ofthe receiver for the ver-Í craft; aftransmitter on boardftheaircraft; direc
tionallyfsensitive
,aerials
'onthe'
ground;
a
vertical
ticalmavigationv
a characteristic ofg’the answer-backesignals so:
signals,»,receivedi
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2,.A In a ,means-'for' .assisting the landing; of, air-l ,navigation receiver-»connected with, one >of saidv
craft, ’a transmitterçon board the ,'aircraft', a1 ver-` aerials, a horizontal navigation receiver ’and a;
marker» signal` receiver ' connectedA with others;` of
tical navigation receiver and a directionally sen
sitive aerial thereforlocated‘ on the ground; aY said-aerials, themarker signal receiver`V being ac
tuatedby signals-transmitted bythe aircraftwhen;
horizontal navigation receiver anda direction
ally sensitive aerial therefor, _said receivers; being- the aircraft. i‘lies, overf-thesame, an; ansWer-back-~`
constructed to receive signals transmitted from' signal transmitting means, 'meansl operatively
theV aircraft, an, aerodrome transmitter and. an, connectingsaidi receivers =with one another and
with saidianswer-back signal: transmitting means> 15
E aerial'therefor- for transmitting answer-backl sig
nals to the aircraft; operative means connecting for transmitting answer-back signals :to-the air
craft automatically, _ag receiver; onI thev aircraft;
saidvvertical navigationY receiver and said hori
zontal navigation receiver respectively tosaid for receiving said; answer-back; signals, a relay.
operatively connectedwith said'marker signal retaerodrome transmitter for affecting a character
istic'jofçthe ans_Wer-back- transmission, a receiver ceiver for, energization. by, the output> voltage 2.0
thereof; said: relay,”including- ,means> for coupling
ontheaircraft forreceiving the answer-back sig
nais, meansfor varying theY ampliñcationof said' the vertical navigation receiver` with the outputy
vertical navigation receiver in accordance with. circuit; of the-,horizontal navigation receiver, and’
the output-.of the‘horizontal navigation receiver,-r means for adjusting the effective actionof, said,
horizontal navigation. receiverf.~
2,57; and» instruments on the aircraft forindicating
5'. Ina means forassistingçthe„landingof air- >
the horizontal and vertical navigation necessary-~
Y
in view-of- the signals received;
,
o
3; In Ia means forïassisting the lancling'oi:` air
craft, a transmitter'on board the aircraft, di
rectionallysensitive aerialsfon theground,l a verticalnavigation receiver, a horizontal/navigationV
receiver and- a~ marker signal receiver; each'fre
ceiver being- connectedto ay diiîeren-t one of saidfv
aerials, the said receivers `being adapted to re->
¿.¿ceive signals transmitted by. the- aircraft,- an
answer-back signal transmitter, operating con
nections between said marker signal receiver and
said' horizontal and said vertical navigation re
ceivers,V operating connections between saidfhori
zontal and >vertical' navigation receivers respec
tiveiyand rsaid answer-back transmitter for af
fecting a characteristic of- transmissionl ofu an
sWer-back signals to theV aircraft»V automatically,
a receiver on the-aircraft-for receiving the said
eli), answer-back
signals, a relay operatively connect
edfwith said marker signal receiver'for energiza
tion bythe output voltage thereof', said; relay in
cludingfmeans,for-coupling the vertical naviga
tion receiver with the output circuit of the hori
zontal navigation receiver so `that the output po
tential thereof` Will act on the amplification Yof
the vertical navigation receiver, andjinstruments,`
,
25.
craft,-, a, transmitter;l on board; the' aircraft, di- `
rectionallyv sensitive» aerials on the> ground,Y a `
verticalV navigation _l receiver connected'- With one
of said .aerials and having an intensity regulating 30,
tube, a` horizontal. navigation receiver and a>
marker.I signal receiver-connectedwith others of
said aerials, said marker signal receiver being
actuated in response to. signalstransmitted by
the .aircraft when the - latter flies ¿over said mark
3,5v
er signal- receiver, ran answer-back` 'signal trans
mitter, operating»connectionsbetween said mark;
er signal receiver.' and. saidhorizontal; andV said
vertical navigation receivers respectively and,
said answer-back signal transmitter` and includ
ing-means to couplevthe intensity regulating tube
4,0.
with. the output circuit of thehorizontal naviga
tion receiver, a„ variable‘resistance acting inthe
circuit ofthe tube ofçthe vertical navigation re- '
ceiver for varying the working. point of the'char 45
acteristic 'of'saidt tube, andiinstruments onthe.
aircraft indicating the horizontal and vertical
navigation necessary, in, accordancev withV the
signals received.
v
' KARL BAUMANN.
ARMIN.: ETTINGER.
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