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Oct- 11, 1933- i T. R. HARRISON ET AL 2,132,617 MEASURING INSTRUMENT Original Filed June 25, 1931 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 64 I24 FIGI. 54 ' 5e IN V EN TOR. THOMAS R. HARRISON, BY ERNEST H. GRAUEL, 8 JOHN E. KESSLER Oct- 11, 1938- , I T. R. HARRISON ET AL 2,132,617 ‘MEASURING INSTRUMENT Original Filed June 25, 1951 3 Shéets-Sheet 2 FIGA. IN VEN TOR. THOMAS R. HARRISON, ERNEST H. GRAUEL, BY“ &JOHN E. KESSL$ ! E ATTORNEY Oct. 11, 1938. T. R. HARRISON ET AL 2,132,617 MEASURING INSTRUMENT Original Filed- June 23, 1951 s Sheets-Sheet s é ‘ N HA“ p . ................ __ muuunn / IN VEN TOR. THOMAS R. HARRISON, v (0 ERNEST H.6RAUEL, BY 8 JOHN E. KESSL R m ' k‘QM?‘ETTORNEY Patented Oct. 11, 1938 UNITED STATES . I 2,132,617; PATENT OFFICE Y 2,132,617 MEASURING INSTRUMENT .Tliomas R. Harrison, Wyncote, Ernest H. Grauel,. Perkasie, and John E. Kessler, Gettysburg, Pa., assignors to The Brown Instrument Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania , Original application June 23, 1931, Serial No. 546,290. Divided and this application Novem her 4, 1936, Serial No. 109,124 4 Claims. ' (Cl. 171-95) The general object of the present invention is to provide improvements in galvanometer con struction, to the ends of simplifying and reducing cost of manufacture, and of providing a desirably 5 simple and effective galvanometer assembly, hav ing a maximum accessibility for adjustment and servicing operations and a minimum of structural features subject to failure in operation. While a galvanometer embodying our improve or supporting arm 41, hinge connected at 62 to an instrument casing 24. The frame 41 and instru ment mechanism arenormally received in and en closed. by said casing, but when the front door of the casing is opened, the frame 41 may be swung on its hinges to move the instrument mechanism out of the casing and thereby‘ make accessible the portions of the mechanism .normally facing and adjacent the rear wall of the casing. In the said 10_ “ments is adapted for use with advantage in vari ‘instrument, the galvanometer is mounted in a‘ ous relations and for various purposes, it may be recess 64 formed in the frame 41, and open at its used with a special advantage in a potentiometer upper end and at its rear side, though in the measuringinstrument which, because cf'its oper normal operating condition of the instrument, ating characteristics and the relatively large the galvanometer is surrounded by the walls of 15 number of operating parts which it comprises, is‘ an' enclosure formed in part by the member 41,. 15 relatively bulky, and imposes special spatial re and in part by removable cover parts I24, I21, strictions on the form and disposition of the gal and I26, hereinafter described. \ vanometer included in the instrument, and makes The galvanometerassembly includes a plate 66, it especially important that the. galvanometer detachablysecured against the ijront vertical wall 20 should be constructed and rranged so that its relatively delicate parts mayaiie readily separated from the remainder of the instrument, when of the recess 64 and forming the member through 20 which‘ the galvanometer assembly is normally secured to the frame 41. - necessary for repair, adjustment, or replacement operations. 25 - Special objects and advantages of the inven tion are made apparent in the following detailed description of an embodiment of the invention illustrated in the accompanying drawings, of which:- 30 - D - \ Fig. 1 is a sectional plan, with‘parts broken away and removed, of- a portion of a potentiom eter instrument including a galvanometer con :fructed in accordance with the present inven ‘a The plate 66 is‘ provided with an aperture 61 through which a screw 66 extends to secure the plate 66 to the frame 41. Projections 68 are, 25. provided on that surface of the plate 66 adjacent the surface of the instrument frame and ?t into recesses in the frame 41, so as properly to align plate 66 when secured in place. Plate 66 is pro vided with pins 69 which extend into recesses (not 30 shown) in pole pieces 60 of the galvanometer horse shoe magnet 64, thereby properly position ing the pole pieces. The pole pieces 60 are pro on; vided with threaded recesses 6| into which bolts 62 are screwed,_the bolts passing through aper 35 away and in section, of a portion of the instru ' tures 63 in the magnet 64 and securing the mag Fig. 2 is a front elevation, with parts broken ment shown in Fig, 1; . Fig. 3 is a plan view of the galvanometer enclo sure partly broken away and in section to illus trate the galvanometer zero adjustment mecha nism'; Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the galvanometer‘ assembly, with the parts separated for clearance; Fig. 4a is an enlarged reproduction of a portion 45 of Fig. 4 illustrating the galvanometer pointer and coil structure; _ Fig. 4b is a section on the line 4b—4b of Fig. 4a; net 64 to the pole pieces 60. A hook‘ 66 extends over .the magnet 64, and through an aperture 66 in plate 66, and the magnet 64 is clamped to the plate 66 by the nut 61 applied to the threaded end 40 of the hook 65. Studs 68Uextend through aper tures 69 in plate 56 and are threaded into pole pieces 60 to secure the pole pieces to the plate 56, the pole piecesbeing provided with apertures ‘III through which the ends of studs ‘68 extend. The ends of studs 66 are arranged to pass 45 through apertures ‘II in a Bakelite molding ‘I2. Fig. 5 is a front elevation of the galvanometer , The studs 66 are provided with recesses ‘I3, adapt unit; ? ed to accommodate notches ‘I4 in clamping bar Fig. 6 is a rear elevation of the galvanometer unit; andN» Fig. 7 is a perspective view of a molding form ing an element of the galvanometer assembly. In the embodiment and use of our invention illustrated in the drawings, the galvanometer forms a part of a potentiometer instrument dis closed in our prior application, Serial No. 546,290, filed June 23, 1931, of which the present applica tion is a division. 16. (See Figs. 4 and 6.) When the plate 66, 50-. pole pieces 60, magnet 64, and Bakelite molding - In said instrument, the bulk of 60 the instrument mechanism isvmounted on aframe ‘I2 are in assembled relation, the bar ‘I6, when» turned into clamping position with respect to studs 66, secures the Bakelite molding to the magnet system. The bar ‘I6 is mounted on the‘. Bakelite molding 12 for rotation by bolt ‘I6. The bolt ‘I6 extends through passage ‘II in core ‘l6 ' adapted to ?t within Qthe galvanometer coil and provide a uniform electro-magnetic ?eld in which the galvanometer coil may move. The Bakelite ‘ 2 , 2,132,617 with aperture 8| through which the bolt ‘I6 passes. spring I03 is formed with, an extension IIO to which a bushing I I I is secured in such position as to be in axial alignment with the pivots I08 when the spring I03 is secured to its arm 'I0'I by pro Suitable securing means, such as washer and nut 82, are threaded on the end of the bolt ‘IE to se may be secured to the corresponding spring I03 molding is provided with ‘a projection ‘I9 having a face 80 shaped to receive and support the core ‘I8 and the body of the molding ‘I2 is provided cure the core ‘I8 in place. The bolt 16 is pro vided with a recessed projection 83 over which the aperture 84_of the bar ‘I5 ?ts and which 10 accommodates a cotter 85 to secure the bar ‘I5 into position on the end of the bolt ‘I6. The molding ‘I2 has upper and lower exten sions 86 provided with shoulders 81 and ways 88 respectively adapted to receive and guidably sup 15 port upper and lower ?ttings 89 for motion lon gitudinally of the extensions 86. Each ?tting 89 is provided with an offset 90 which contacts with and rides along the faces of the shoulders 81. The face or body portion 9I of each ?tting'89, ?ts into the way 88 of the molding. The offset 90 of each ?tting 89, cooperating with shoulders 81, and the corresponding face 9I, cooperating with way 88, support the ?tting 89 against lateral jection I06‘from the latter. Each bushing III ' by welding or in any other suitable manner. Each bushing III receives a ferrule II2 which is secured thereto by means of screws passing through the bushing or in any suitable manner. 10 A suspension wire or strip H3 is secured to each ferrule I I2 as by soldering. A ferrule at the coil adjacent ends of two suspension wires H3 ‘is se cured to upper and lower bosses II4_, fastened as by welding to sheet metal clips II5 which are 15 bent around the top and bottom portions of the galvanometer coil II5a to 'rigidly connect the galvanometer coil and bosses. One of said clips I I5, the upper one as shown, is provided with an integral projection having at its end an uprising 20' edge H6. The same clip H5 is provided with a projection II'I extending in the opposite direc tion from the ‘?rst mentioned projection, to which is secured, as by welding, a leaf spring II8 form ing an extension of the pointer II9 of the gal 25 lug 92 having a threaded aperture 93 into which , vanometer. The spring H8 is provided with aperture I28 through which boss II4 extends. is threaded a thumb screw 94. The shaft of the The spring H8 is provided with a ridge or like thumb screw 94 extends through a correspond ing aperture 95 in the Bakelite molding ‘I2. The edge forming surface I2I adapted to cross and rest upon the edge H6. The point of contact 30 30 end of each thumb screw 94 is provided with a between edge H6 and ridge I2I affords a single recess into which ?ts a cotter 96 for securing the thumb screw against longitudinal movement with point of hearing about which the pointer II9 may respect to the molding ‘I2, and for limiting the ‘be moved slightly during the hereinafter men movement with respect to the corresponding ex 25 tension 86. Each ?tting 89 is provided with a movement of the corresponding ?tting 09 along 35 longitudinally of the corresponding‘ thumb screw 94. Rotation of each thumb screw 94 shifts the corresponding ?tting 89longitudina1ly of the ex tension 86. Each ?tting 89 is provided with a threaded aperture 91 to receive a screw 98 pass 40 ing through a clip 99, having ears I00 which ride on the face IOI of the corresponding extension 86. The clips 99, when secured in place by the screws 98, afford additional support against lat— eral movement for the ?ttings 89. 45 Each clip 99 and screw 98 serve an additional function in that they form means used in con necting the galvanometer leads, or terminal con ductors, 99' and 99'.'., to the galvanometer coil or winding, as shown in Figs. 2 and 6. As ‘shown in Fig. 6, an electrical connection is made between 50 each clip 99 and the galvanometer suspension by a corresponding conductor I02 secured to the clip 99 as by soldering, or any other suitable means, and secured to the corresponding spring I03, to which the corresponding galvanometer suspen 55 sion part is connected, by a soldered or other , suitable joint between the conductor I02 and a tioned operation of the mechanism for gauging the position of the galvanometer, thus providing a single point of support between the galvanom eter pointer and edge “6, whereby wabbling of the pointer and distortion of the suspension sys tem due to force acting on the pointer, is pre- ‘ vented, which is especially important because the gauging operation tends to set the pointer into vibration at the time of releasing the pointer. The contact between edges H6 and I'll damps the pointer oscillations and quickly brings the pointer to rest. The clip I I5 to which the pointer H9 is secured, is provided with a threaded rod I2'I' projecting laterally of the coil in line with the pointer which carries the nut I22 threaded . thereon for adjustment to balance the weight of the pointer II9. ' As will be observed in Figs. 5 and 6, the parts shown in displaced relation in Fig. 4, when as sembled, are so arranged that the galvanometer 50 coil II5a extends about the core 18 and is sit uated between the poles 60 of the magnet, the 55 whole system comprising the galvanometer sus bent lug portion I04 of spring I03. pension, core, magnet, and poles being clamped together by bolts‘ 68 and cooperating parts. The ?tting 89. galvanometer coil supporting clips, rest in a pair Each spring I03 is provided with an aperture ' molding _‘I2, as shown in Fig. '7, is provided with four troughlike Idepressions I23, so positioned 00 I05 which ?ts over a projection *I06 carried by 60 arm_ I01 pivotally mounted as by means of pin that when the movable system of the galvanom I08 on the lug portion I09 of the corresponding eter is being assembled, the bosses, II4 on the Each spring I03 is secured in place upon the corresponding arm I01 by turning over 65 the projection I06, or in any other suitable man ner. The pivotal mounting of each arm I0'I on the corresponding lug I09, provides for adjust ment of the galvanometer suspension about its axis in order to properly position the galvanom eter suspension with respect to the zero point as determined by the other parts of ‘the, instrument with which the galvanometer suspension is asso ciated. In order that movement of each arm I0'I about'its pivot I08 may provide only rotational adjustment of-the galvanometer suspension, each of the recesses I23, and the ferrules II2 distant‘ . from the galvanometer coil rest in the other pair 05 oh'ecesses I23. Recesses I23 provide convenient supports for the parts mentioned to facilitate the assembling operation. _ It is apparent from the foregoing description, by this invention there has been provided a markedly simpli?ed form of galvanometer con struction employing molded and stamped parts, which in molded and stamped form inter?t to provide a complete assembly affording a maxi mum of adjustability together with marked sim 75 3. 7 2,132,617 plicity of construction, affording facility of ‘man ufacture and assembly at a minimum cost. The galvanometer unit is so constructed that it can be assembled as an independent unit comprising those parts illustrated in Fig. 4, the single unit being shown in Figs. 5 and 6, which may be secured on the instrument "frame in proper re lation with the other parts of the instrument by in as they form no part of the invention claimed herein, and are fully disclosed in our parent application Serial Number 546,290. It is to be noted, however, that the features of galvanom eter construction and arrangement claimed here in are well adapted for the ready and effective association with the galvanometer, of a suitable gauging mechanism, and that the galvanometer a single screw 55 passing through the aperture pointer and they means for supporting the gal The unit is arranged for facility . vanometer coil, are well adapted to withstand 10 10 _51 in plate 56. in inspection, dismantling, service and repair. The recess 54 in the instrument frame or arm 41 on which the galvanometer unit is mounted, is provided with a rear cover I24 v(see Figs. 1, 2, 15 and 3), which is adapted to ?t onto the walls of the recessed portion of the frame by spring ac tion, and can be removed manually when the instrument frame is swung out of the casing, making the back of the frame available. A cap 20 I 21 (Figs. 1, 2, and 3) closes the top of the re cess and rests upon the top edge I26 of the recess 54, closes the top of the recess space proper, and forms the top and side walls ofan upper horizontal front extension of that space. 25 The extension space I25 receives the galvanom eter pointer H9 and cooperating pointer posi tion gauging mechanism. A front cover part I28 forms the front of the cap I21 and is provided with a window through which the galvanometer 30 pointer and the pointer gauging mechanism may be viewed. .7 As shown in Fig. 3, the cap I21 rotatably car ries in apertures formed therein, a shaft I29 which extends through the front of the cover v35 I28, its exposed end being provided with a kerf. Shaft I29 carries on its other end a gear I3I meshing with gear _ I32, the axle of which is the shock' and vibration resulting from they clamping and release of the galvanometer point er in the gauging operation. The portions of the member 41 adjacent the recess 54 and extension space I25, and the cover parts I24, I21 and I28, 15 form a closed housing for the galvanometer unit and 'associatedgauging mechanism unit, afford ing ready and complete access to those units together with protection from external influences. While we have herein illustrated and described 20 a preferred speci?c embodiment of the invention herein claimed, variation may be made in de tails of construction and arrangement of the embodiment illustrated‘ without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as de?ned 25' in the followingv claims. Having now described our invention, what we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat ent is: 1. In a galvanometer of the d’Arsonval type, 30 the combination with the galvanometer coil and‘ suspension system, of a molding of insulating material, means for mounting the system on the molding including springs for tensioning the system and means for adjustment of the system 35 relative to the molding in one direction, said first mentioned means and ‘molding being rela journaled in the bushing I33 molded into the tively adjustable for adjustment of the system material of the cap. When the galvanometer unit is mounted in position upon the instrument frame, and when the cap and associated parts are mounted in position, the axle of gear I32 is in axial alignment with pivots I08 and the gal vanometer suspension. The spring I03 carried relative to the molding in a second direction. 2. In a galvanometer of the d’Arsonval type, 45 upon the upper ?tting 89 by an arm I01 ro tatable about pivot I08, is provided with an up ward ‘extension I34 having a'ridge I35 formed therein, which, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, is adapted to extend between teeth of the gear 50 I32, so that rotation of gear I32 bv manually effected rotation of, shaft I29, will transmit angu- ' lar motion to the upper spring I03 and gal vanometer suspension connected thereto, about the axis of the suspension. Such adjustment 55 of the galvanometer suspension about its axis is provided to set the pointer to the zero posi tion- relative to the other parts of the instru ment, when no current is ?owing through the galvanometer. The construction of the zero ad 60 justing means of the galvanometer ‘is simple, trouble free, easy to make, conveniently arranged ‘for operation on the instrument, and readily assembled and available for servicing. The previously mentioned pointer position gauging mechanism, shown in part in Fig. 1, comprises parts co-acting periodically to clamp the galvanometer pointer II9 against de?ection and acting through an arm I13, carried by a rod the combination with aigalvanometer coil and suspension system, of a molding of insulating material, and means for mounting the system on said molding including springs for tensioning said system and including means for adjustment 45 'of the angular position of the system relative to the molding, said first mentioned means and molding being relatively adjustable to vary the positions of said springs relative to said mold-. ing and relative to each other. 3. In a galvanometer, a movable galvanometer ment connected to said clip, a leaf spring ex tending from said clip in a lateral direction rela tive to the coil, a pointer secured to the leaf 55 spring, and a supporting member on said clip and having an edge extending transversely to the direction of the plane of ?exure of the leaf spring, said spring being provided with a nar row surface arranged to extend transversely of, 60 - and rest on, said edge. 4. In an instrument, a galvanometer coil and suspension, a molding, means adjustably sup porting the suspension on the molding, a mag net, a plate, an instrument frame, means for 65, removably uniting the plate, the magnet, and the molding into a unit, and means cooperating with, said plate and frame for securing said unit to or shaft I14, to adjust the latter into an angu- - the frame. 70 lar position depending upon the de?ective po sition of the pointer I I9 at the time. The con struction and mode of operation of the gauging mechanism need not be further referred to here 50 coil,,a clip secured to said coil, a suspension ele = THOMAS R. HARRISON. . ERNEST H. GRAUEL. JOHN E. KESSLER. 10.