Патент USA US2132703код для вставки
oct. 11, 193s. E s SWTH l2,132,703 ELECTRICAL TREATENG APPARATUS ESPECIALLY FOR STERILIZATIONl 4Original Filed Oct. 8, 1934 4 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR FRH/VKUN J Sfr/7W ab,ATTORNEYS ¿was +ßm Oct. l1, 1938. F. S. SMITH 2,132,703 ELECTRICAL TREATING APPARATUS ESPECIALLY -FCE,sTEMmzA‘I‘IoN Original Filed Oct. 8, ,1934 4 sheets-'sheet 2 oct. '11, 193s. 2,132,703 F. S. SMITH ELECTRICAL TREATING APPARATUSl ESPECIALLY`F‘OR STERILIZATION original Filed’oct. 8, 1934 BY 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 @Mza „WQQM‘MQ ATTORNEYSV Oct. l1, 1938. 2,132,703 F. s. SMITH ELECTRICAL TREA'I‘ING` APPARATUS ESPECIALLY FOR STERILIZATION Original -Filed Oct*- 8, 1934 4 Sheets-Shes?I 4 /1 È n n 1, /4 /475 l /67 Z /63 INVENTOR f/P/ï/v/rz/A/ á? öff/77( BY ATTORNEYS Z,i32,703 Patented oci. 11, 1938 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,132,703 . ELECTRICAL TREATING APPARATUS, ESPE ' CIALLYAFOR STERILIZATION Franklin S. Smith, New Haven, Conn. , Application October 8, 1934, Serial No. ’747,437 Renewed October 17, 1936 29 Claims. (ci. 21-1o2) This invention relates to apparatus which is particularly adapted for destroying insect life in foodand other products. ' . Figure 3 is a bottom plan view, as seen from the bottom in Figure 2, of the electrode structure of the latter; One of the objects of this invention is to pro vide4 apparatus which may be used for treating materials and which is admirably adapted for use in subjecting food and other products that con tains insects and/or they eggs, larvae and pupae i) ,thereof to thoroughly practical and eflicient treatment for destroying such insect life. Another object is to provide apparatus for elec trically destroying such life in a thoroughly de pendable, rapid and efñcient manner. Another object is to provide apparatus of the above-men tioned character for destroying insect life in food and other products in a rapid and dependable manner without harming the product undergoing treatment. Another object is to provide appa ratus of the above-mentioned character which is 10 ' Figure 4 is a detached vertical sectional view, on a larger scale, of one of the electrode mem- 5 bers of Figures 2 and 3, and others, being more speciñcally a vertical sectional view on an en larged scale, as seen along the line 4-4 of Fig ure 2; rFigure 5 is an elevation, as seen from the top 10 of Figure 4; Figure 6 is a detached elevation of the package or product carrying or conveying apparatus and related parts, being more specifically a plan view, as seen along the line 6-6 of Figure 1; Figure 7 is a vertical sectional view, on an en larged scale, as seen along the line 1--1 of Fig ure 1, showing an illustrative form of means for 'coacting with the rotating electrodes of the ap paratus; simple and compact in construction„and thor- ’ 1 Figures 8 and 9 are diagrammatic or fragmen-` 20 ough and dependable in operation. Another ob tary plan views indicating diagrammatically cer ject is to provide a compact, simple, inexpensive tain actions on the product or packages to be and reliable electrode structure and -driving treated by the electrode structure of Figures 2 means therefor, for use in and coaction with ap paratus of the above-mentioned character. An other object is to provide a dependable and eñi cient‘electrode construction capable of efficient and dependable action in practical use. Another object is to provide an electrode tip or electrode construction in which dependable and reliable 3O control of the discharge therefrom is achieved. Other objects will bejin part obvious or in part pointed out hereinafter. This application is a continuationin part of Ll my co-pending application Serial No. 627,291,~ ñled August 2, 1932, renewed December 27, 1933, issued October 9, 1934, as Patent No- 1,975,805. The invention accordinglyconsists in the fea tures of construction, combinations of elements, and arrangements of parts as will be exemplified in the structure to be hereinafter described and the scope of the application of which will be in_ dicated in the following claims. In the accompanying drawings in which are shown several of the various possible embodi- v and 3; ‘ 25 Figure 10' is a diagrammatic plan view of the vstator and rotor and windings of 'the induction motors that drive the electrodes, showing certain interrelations of these parts; and Figure 11 is a- fragmentary side elevation of the 30 stator per se of Figure 10. Similar reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the several views in the draw ings. Referring to the drawings and more particu# larly to Figure 1 thereof, there >is indicated dia grammatically a suitable frame I0 provided at its respective ends with appropriate pairs of vertical standards II and I2 in which are suitably jour naled the shafts I3 and I4 respectively of the 40 drums I5 and I6. About the drums I5 and I6 ex tends a suitable conveyor belt I1 preferably made of asbestos, canvas, cotton material, or the like. One of the drums, such as the drum I6, is suit ably driven and I have diagrammatically indi cated a motor I8 connected to the drum I6 by ments of my invention; Figure lis a front elevation of a possible form , any suitable transmission diagrammatically in of apparatus embodying therein certain features dicated at I9 for driving the- drum I6 and for thus of my invention,- for electrically destroying insect transmitting motion to the conveyor belt I1. The direction of the drive is preferably such that life in food products, or the like, certain parts be a tension is put on the upper half of the belt ing in Figure 1 shown diagrammatically; I and, as viewed in Figure 1, the motion will be Figure 2 is a front elevation, on an> enlarged from left toright or illustratively from A to B. scale, partly in central vertical section, of an Illustratively the rate of drive of the pulley or electrode structure and drive therefor, as may be drum I6 may be- such that the movement of the 55 employed in the apparatus of Figure 1; âiSß/Mß belt -ill takes place at fa rate of about l5 feet per . which may be readily cast, such, for example, as minute,` but it is not to be understood that this aluminum. The housingl 3U has an upper gener is a limiting rate of drive but that the belt may , ally cylindrical portion and a lower outwardly be driven at any other suitable speed. and downwardly extending skirt portion Mi. The belt il is adapted to receive at its lefte . The skirt portion il ä is`preferably provided with hand end, as at point A, the material, goods or» articles to be sterilized> and thus to transport vthe goods in a direction toward the 'right and to dis charge them at the right-hand end of the belt, as at the point B. Any suitable means, not shown, may be utilized to feed the articles on to_ the belt and to receive them after they have beenl discharged therefrom. . Beneath the article-carrying portion of the 15 belt i7 and extending lengthwise thereof is a plate-like member 20 (see also Figures 6 and 7) preferably of a width somewhat greater than the ' Width of the conveyor belt I'i. The member 20 aids in preventing the sag of the belt il under 20. its load and insures the passage of the material, goods, or articles to be treated along the indicated and prescribed path. Plate member 26 is made of any suitable solid dielectric material, preferably Pyrex glass, and a circle of evenly spaced holes, each of which is adapted to receive an electrode -member M2. The various electrode members H2“, M21), M26, H201, etc. are thus arranged in a circle and they are preferably inclined with their lowermost tip 10 portions trailing from their upper portions when the housing 80 is rotated about its central or ver tical axis. These electrode members are prefer ably of identical construction and in Figures 4 and 5 one of them, illustratively> member Hi2a, is shown on an enlarged scale. The electrode member is preferably formed as a piece of hollow conductive tubing having an upper open end portion ll3a, the top- of which‘is cut to provide an outwardly extending fin IMa (see Figure 5), 20 the purpose of which is to scoop in air and direct it down through the tip member, as will more fully appear hereinafter. Electrode member M2“ terminates in a lower restricted portion Hita.' it extends in a direction lengthwise of the belt throughout a suitable distance. Plate 20 is pref erably supported by a pair of laterally spaced Interfltting with this restricted portion i 958 is 25 able manner at their respective ends to the frame Figures 4 and 2. ’I'he electrode members M2 .are preferably 30 a tubular jacket HSB (shaped as shown), remov- , ably interlocked therewith as, for example, by and lengthwise extending insulating beams Zia _means of a bayonet joint indicated clearly in and 22a (see also Figure 6) secured in any suit I6, being illustratively and preferably secured to the standrads H and I2. Beams 2te and 22H' made of a material, such as aluminum, which is a good conductor of heat as well as electricity are- made of any appropriate or suitable solid and which may be simply and economically pro dielectric material such, fpr example, as lami duced. The above-described construction lends 35 nated Bakelite, and are preferably given such to rapid and economical manufacture. 35 cross-sectional dimensions as to withstand the itself The tubular jackets are subjected,ras will later vertical stresses to which they are subjected. The cross-section may be, for example, L-shaped or it may be square tubing. Any suitable means may be utilized to secure the supportingplate 2t to its associated insulating beams 2te and 22a. If desired, the insulating beams 2l“ and 22*l may be mechanically reinforced by the respec tive side members 2l and 22. 'I'hese side mem bers are preferably made of a sheet-like solid di electric material, sueh as laminated Bakelite. The side members 2i and 22 are preferably se cured along their upper edges tofth'e beams 2l'i and 22a and thus form downwardly extending ñanges that oñ'er substantial resistance to bend ing because of the load carried thereby, The upper portion of the frame lil serves to support framework structures generally shown (Figure 1) at 23 and 2d which in conjunction 55 with a longitudinally extending beam 82 serves to support a plurality of electrode structures, illus tratively two in number, and generally indicated in Figure 1 at S and T. 'I'he electrode structures 60 65 70 burning and other deteriorating eüects unless` adequately safeguarded against. To withstand the heavy duty imposed upon the _lowermost end portions of the electrode tip members, the tubular jackets are preferably made of a conductor, such as steel, which can withstand the electric dis 45 charge emanating from its lower outer surfaceI without undue deterioration and yet which lends itself to rapid and economic production. In Figure 2, the inclined positioning of the electrode member lf2“, and the others as well, 50 with respect to the fianged or _skirt portion iii of the rotatable housing 80 is shown. The elec trode housing is driven in such a direction as to cause the electrode members H28”, H2", H2c, etc. tovmove through the surrounding atmosphere with their upper end portions H33, H3b, H32, A etc. leading and their lowermost tip portions e As may be seen from Figure 5, the elec _S and T are merely diagrammatically indicated trailing. trode members are cylindrical in form, and as 1n Figure 1 and theyl may take any of the various positionedin Figure 2, a horizontal cross-section forms, about to be described and the details of _ of the electrode member is substantially elliptical 60 which are shown in enlarged scale in other views in form. This form is of particular advantage of the drawings. It is therefore to be understood that any of the electrode structures later herein in that it gives a stream-line- effect in the move ment of the'electrode member 'incident to Athe described in detail may be employed in the appa rotation of the electrode, thus preventing rariñed 65 ratus oft-Figure 1 in which they are to be con pockets adjacent the tip members and attendant sidered as representedl by the 'diagrammatic rep, _ resentations thereof at S and T. Of these va- » corona formation. „ 'I'he electrode structure S (see Figures 2 and 3), rious possible forms of .electrode structures, that in addition to the outer rotatable housing 80, shown in Figures 2 and 3 may ñrst be con includes an. inner rotatable housing d20 having cylindrical portion >from which projects Referring, then, more particularly to Figure 2, aancentral outwardly and downwardly extending sln'rt there is shown an electrode structure comprising an upper rotatable housing 80 preferably made portion I 2l and which in general conforms to, but is encompassed by, the skirt portion iii of the of a, suitable electrically conducting material outer rotatable housing 8U. The outer periphery „ sidered. ' become clean-to the electric discharge emanating from its lower outer surface portion or the tip end z. Such electrical emanations cause heating, . ` . u 3 2,132,703 of the portion I2| is provided with a circle of holes which are adapted to receive the upper end portions of electrode members |25 which are thus arranged in a circle, being also inclined, andare Ui preferably slanted in a direction opposite to that of the electrode members I|2a, Il2b', IIZC, etc. on the other housing. To simplify construction, the electrode members |25 are preferably identical to the members II2, the details of which have been shown and described above in conjunction -with Figures 4 and 5. The electrode housings 80 and |20 with their respective electrode members II2ß, I|2b, etc. and |253, |25”, |256, etc. are adapted to rotate in opposite directions, the purpose of which sembly and positioning of the electrodes relative to their supports may be readily and quickly achieved and is, moreover, highly dependable. For illustrative purposes, the outer electrode housing 80 with its associated electrode members | I2 may be drivenat a speed of 1200 R. P. M. and the inner housing |20 with its associated ring or circle of electrode tip members |25 (having a will appear more fully hereinafter, with their sev eral respective extreme tip endy portions z of the electrode members trailing. Upon'rotation of the ring of outer electrode members | I2?, |I2b, II2C, etc., their respective leading upper end portions H31, H3", II3°, etc., havingI respective air ñns I |4a, etc., air is scooped in by the various fins above-mentioned and is directed down through the hollow or tubular elec trode members and out through the extreme open 25 end portion of their respective jackets Illia, IIS", H6“, etc. Upon rotation of the ring of inner elec trodes |25a, I25b, I25°, etc., their respective lead smaller diameter) is driven at a speed of approx imately l1300 R. P. M. With the relative dimen sions of the circles formed by the outer electrode members | I2 and the inner electrode members |25, as illustratively shown in Figure 3, the peripheral velocities of the two circles of electrode tip mem bers is preferably substantially the same. With 15 the same spacing between electrode members in the outer housing 80 and the inner housing |20, it will be seen that an article passing beneath the electrode structure receives approximately Vthe same number of impulses from each of the oppo 20 sitely rotating sets of electrode tip members. Such a construction assures a more uniform treat ment of the material, articles or other products undergoing treatment as will be more fully de scribed hereinafter. 25 Considering now more in detail the construc tion of the driving means for the several sets of electrode members II2 and |25 above-mentioned, it is ñrst to be noted that I prefer to make the housings 80 and I 20 each in two parts, and for, 30 30 in by the latter fins and is directed down through , convenience the construction of housing 80 may the respective hollow or tubular electrode mem ñrst be considered, reference being made now to bers and out through the extreme open end por tion of their respective jackets |283, |20b, |28°, Figure 2Í of the drawings. One of the parts of housing 80 is the lower por etc.- The stream of air passing downwardly tion which comprises a horizontally extending 35 through the various electrode members serves t0 disk-like wall BI)a from whose outer periphery -the give a cooling effect whichaugments that pro duced by the rotation of the ring of tip members. skirt portion III projects downwardly and out ing upper end portions |2611, I26b, |260, etc. hav ing respectively‘ïair fins |213, etc. air is scooped This cooling effect contributes toward negativing the tendency of small particles of metal to sep arate from the electrode members, particularly from the tip portions z, and hence contributes toward keeping thetreatment zone free from such metallic particles. In addition to the above-mentioned cooling effect, the circulation of air about the electrode members, due to their rotation, Aand the addi tional air circulated due to the current of air flow ing out of the electrode members contributes toward blowing away from the treatment zone, 50 or space between the electrode members and the belt, any small particles of metal coming 01T from the electrode tip members and thus prevents the establishment and maintenance of a dynamic arc. Thus the air circulation means employed directly 55 contributes toward maintaining the treatment zone free from extraneous electrical effects which would tend to decrease the efficiency of treat-` ment, detract from the dependability of opera tion, and which might generally impair the eflî 60 ciency of the treating apparatus. As is better shown in Figure 2, the holes in which the electrodes I|2 and |25 are seated are wardly and from whose peripheral portion there projects upwardly a cylindrical wall portion 8()b which is counterbored as at 80C to provide a 40 recess or seat within which the rotor 25 of the motor that rotates _the electrode-members II2 and which rotor will be more in detail described hereinafter, is seated, being made up preferably 45 of laminations of suitable magnetic material. The other part or portion of the two-part housing 80 comprises the upper hollow hori zontal butr slightly downwardly and outwardly inclined top Wall portion 8|)d peripherally termi nating ina downwardly directed cylindrical wall 50 portion 80e shaped to seat upon the upper face of the cylindrical wall portion 80b of the other part of the housing 80, suitable screws 26 (Fig ure 2) securing the two parts together and, it will be noted, acting also to clamp or hold the 55 rotor 25 rigidly in place. ` ' The lower wall portion 80a (Figure 2) is coun terbored as at 80f to provide a seatA for the >outer race 211’- of a suitable combined thrust and radial anti-friction bearing generally indi 60 cated at 21 whose inner race 21b is seated against >a shoulder _28a ofv a vertically extending stud 28. . formed in the thickened peripheral portions of shaft The uppermost wall portion 80dr is similarly the above-mentioned skirt portions III and |2I, x counterbored as at 80E to receive the outer race 65 65 respectively, the above-mentioned air fins resting against the upper face of these peripheral portions 29a of a suitable combined thrust and radial anti friction bearing generally indicated at 29, whose thus limiting or íixing the position of- the elec inner race 29h is snugly received about the upper trodes and .thus'insuring that the active tip ends ' end of the same cylindrical portion of the stud z thereof fall in the same plane. The electrodes 28 onto which the inner race 2‘Ih of the bearing 70 70 | I2 and |25 are held in their respective holes each 21 is ñtted. by a set screw 49, and the upper ends of the elec Intermediate'of the bearings 21 and 29 and» trodes |I2 and |25 Vmaybe covered over by ring similarly strung, as it were, onto the stud shaft like plates 50 and 5| secured respectively to the 28. is the stator 30 of the above-mentioned motor extreme peripheral or flange portions of the por 75 tions III and I2I, respectively. Thus, the as-` and adapted to coact with `the- above-mentioned 75 2,132,703 rotor 25. Certain features of the construction are described later but for present purposes it will suffice to say. that the stator 30 is made preferably of disk-like laminations of suitable magnetic material, suitably diametered to be re ceived, ,with adequate clearance, within the annular rotor core 25. _ Interposed between the stator 30 and the inner race 29b is a ring or spacer 3| and interposed 10 between the stator 30 and the inner race 21b is a spacer 32, these lspacers vbeing likewise strung onto the stud shaft 28. The latter, just above the upper bearing 29, is threaded as at 28b to terbored as at. 120€ to receive the outer race 40a of a combined radial and thrust anti-friction bearing 40, whose inner race 40h is snugly ñtted onto the cylindrical part of the stud 2B. Intermediate of the bearings 39l and 40 and also strung onto the shaft 28 is the stator 4|, also preferably laminated and hence made up of suitable sheets of- magnetic material, such as transformer iron, but with a collar or spacer 42 between the stator 4| and the inner race 39b anda collar or spacer 43 between the stator 4| and the inner race 401’. _ The lower end portion of the stud 28 is receive a threaded nut or collar 33, suitably aper threaded, as at 28e, to receive a nut or collar 44 15 tured to be manipulated by a Spanner wrench, suitably apertured to be operated by a spanner and when this nut 33 is tightened or driven -wrench, or the like. Between the nut 44 and home, the inner race 21h, spacer 32, stator core the shoulder 28a on the stud 28 the inner race 30, spacer 3|, and the inner race 29b are se 39h, the spacer 42, the stator 4|, the spacer 43, curely clamped between the nut 33 and the and the inner race 4|)b are securely clamped and 20 shoulder 28a, thus dependably holding these parts in assembled relation. Accordingly, with the stud shaft 28 rigidly held in position, as is later described herein, the housing 80 with its rotor 25 and is depending electrodes ||2 may 25 freely rotate about the stator 30 and the studr shaft 28. The stator 30 carries appropriate windings 34, described in more detail hereinafter, and one ~ terminal of the windings 34 is grounded as at 35 held in assembled relation. - 20 The stator 4| is provided with windings 45 one terminal of lwhich is grounded as at 46 and the other terminal of which is carried, as by con ductor 41, through an appropriate aperture in the spacer 42 into` a radial channel 28f in the stud shaft 28 _and thence upwardly in the channel 28d where the conductor is joined to the above-men tioned conductor 36 which'merges from the chan nel adjacent the upper end- of the stud 2B by way A 30 to the stator 30 and the other terminal is brought of a radial passage 28g, whence it lies within a 30 by a contactor 36 through a suitable aperture in keyway-like slot 20h. the spacer 32 or in the stator 30 or both, andThus, the lower or inner housing |20 with its ~ thence through a radial channel 28C in the stud electrodes |25 is mounted for free rotation co 28 and thence upwardly within the latter axially with the upper or outer housing 80, the _ 35 through an axially extending channel 28d. electrodes and theirv‘driving means forming a The lower or inner electrode housing |20 com compact unit which vmay be fixed in position by prises, as vabove noted, also two` parts; one of appropriately securing the stud shaft 28 to a suit thesel comprises an upper disk-like and generally horizontally extending upper Wall portion |20a ` terminating about its periphery in a downwardly extending cylindrica1 portion |20b which is coun terbored as at |20c to form a seat within which is received and seated the rotor 31, preferably built-up of annular laminations of suitable mag netic material. From the upper disk-like wallv portion |20’.i the skirt portion |21, which carries the electrodes |25 above described, projects out wardly and downwardly under the cover of the skirt portion || | of the upper housing 80. The extreme peripheral or end portions of the parts ||| and 12|, within which are the recesses for receiving the electrodes, terminate preferably in the same horizontal plane though they are' of sufñciently diiîerent diameters to give the »de 55 sired spacing between the two sets of opposite/ly rotating electrodes. _ ‘ ’ 'I_‘he lother part or portion of the two-part housing |20 includes a bottom closing wall por able support, The operatingfparts of the motor or motors are dependably encased and if desired further security of enclosure may be achieved 40 by interposing felt or similar washers 48, seated in appropriate recesses in the hub portions of the casing parts 80d and |20d, between the latter and the collars 33 and 44, respectively. The induction motors within the housings 80 and |20 are preferably constructed to operate at commercially available frequencies, such as 60 cycle alternating current energy and may be con structed to operate at a voltage on the order of 110 volts -or. 220 volts. The motor within the housing 80 is constructed as -a six-pole motor giving a speed of rotation of the housing 80 and hence the electrodes |I2 of 1200 R. P.' M. The diameter of the circle of the electrodes |25 car ried by the housing |20 is less than the diameter of the circle of the electrodes H2> and, to give substantially the same linear speed thereto, the motor within the housing |20 is constructed as tion |20d which extends in a rgeneral horizontal 60 direction'though inclined somewhat upwardly Aa four-pole motor which, at 60 cycles, gives a speed of substantially 1800 R. P. M. „ (Figure 2) terminating peripherally in an up-y wardly extending cylindrical wall portion |20@ Where the electrode structures S and T of Fig ure 1 take the form above described in connection with Figures 2 and 3, the, studs ~ 28 thereof are which mates with the end of the cylindrical wall portion 1201>, closing the recess |20c in which the ’ secured to the beam 82, which may be metallic, rotor 31 is seated and, when the two parts areMJ by suitable socket-like brackets 52 and 53 (Figure >secured together as by thescrews 38, the rotor 1). The conductors 36 that come up through 65 31 is securely clamped or held in place. _ the stud shafts 28> (see Figure 2) may be con The yinnermost- portion of the upper wally ‘por-y ` , nected to a common conductor 54 that leads to tion |20a is counterbored as atl |20bto receive one side of a suitable source of power current, 70 the outer race 39a of a combined thrust and radial bearing4 39,~ whose inner race 39b is snugly fitted to the lower portion of the stud 28 _but which abuts against the -shoulder 28a above .sucëi as 60-cycle alternating current energy, and 70 illu tratively taking the form of a transformer 55.” The other side of this source is connected by conductor 56 to' the beam 82 to which the other » mentioned. v ' terminals of the windingsof the motor or motors 75 ’The lower or closed V«wall portion |20d is“ coun- j within , the electrode structures S and T arev 75 2,132,7os grounded as was above described in connection with Figure 2, thus completing the supply to the windings of the motor or motors of the driving energy. The electrodes ||2 and |25 are maintained at a high potential, a potential on the order' of 150,000 volts, preferably alternating and pref 5 yokes |46 and |41, respectively, preferably bolted to the side wall portions 2| and 22 of the conveyor belt supporting framework (see Figure l) . For reasons of simplicity and economy of con struction, the cylindrical groups |4l and |42 of like electronic conduction devices |43 and their associated supporting structures |44-_|46 and |45-_|41 are preferably identical so that but the -one group |42 and the supporting structures 10 |45-|41 is considered in detail. 10 This potential is supplied by a low voltage high Referring now more particularly to Figure '7 frequency alternator 51 supplying energy to a there is shown at |45 a circular rack preferably step-up transformer Sli-59, one terminal of the rotatably mounted and including illustratively a. high voltage winding 59 of which is grounded to the frame of the machine as at 60 and the other flat dish-shaped cast aluminum base |48 having 15 a central hub portion |48a and an outer upturned 15 terminal of which is connected to the supporting `rim portion |48b, the outer periphery of which is beam 82, as by way of the conductor 56. The provided with raised circumferential sections , transformer 55, in this case, is insulated to with |42!c and |48d to form a sheave, the purpose of stand this high voltage and thus safely to pro which will appear more fully hereinafter. tect the low voltage side and circuit of the trans Preferably made integral with the base |48 20 20 former 55 against this high voltage. The elec trode structures S and T being grounded to the and spaced adjacent and including the outer up turned rim |48b thereof, are a number of indi beam 82 or mechanically and electrically con nected thereto, are thus maintained at this'high vidual socket wall portions |48e which are adapted to receive the lower ends of .electronic conduction potential. f devices |43 comprising the cylindrical group |42. The beam 82, thus also at high potential, sup 25 interior of the various sockets |48e is pref ports the structures S and T so that the planes 'I'he erably enlarged and adapted to receive a ring of- their electrodes are parallel to the plane of the |49 of yieldable material, such as feld or rubber, product-carrying side of the belt Il and is mov the upper edge of which contacts the lower edge ably supported by the main frame l0 for adjust of the inwardly extending rim |48f or reduced 30 30 ment thereof and hence of the electrode struc section of the socket which loosely receives an tures S and T toward or away from the belt |`|. electronic conduction devicel |43. The ring |49 A possible form of adjusting or elevating mecha is forced upwardly against th'e inwardly extend nism is indicated in Figure l and it may include the manually controlled elevating screws 6| and ing rim |48f by a metallic circular band |50 which 35 is loosely received within the socket and which is 35 62 whose threaded brackets 53 and 64 are con held in position by a cup-shaped end-cap |5| nected to the high potential structure or beam threaded in the lower slightly enlarged interior l82 through insulating frames 65 and 56, re of socket |488. spectively. Each electronic conduction device |43 prefer Cooperating with the electrode structures S ably includes a cylindrical thin-walled glass en 40 and T and spaced immediately beneath the upper velope |52, the upper closed end of which is part of conveyor belt |`| and» the insulating sheet dented in or recessed as at |529' lending strength 20, there are arranged, preferably in the form of and rigidity to the end closure. Sealed intothe two cylindrical groups |4| and |42 (see Figure l) lower end |52b of the glass envelope and pref substantially coaxially with the electrode struc erably axial thereto is an electrode |53 having an 45 tures S and T respectively, a suitable number of 45 enlarged metallic head portion |53a and a down preferably identical electronic conduction devices wardly extending stem portion |53b of reduced |43. The extreme outside diameters of the cylin size. The electrode |53 is partially supported by drical groups |4| and |42 of these conduction de |54a and |54b in their associated support vices are preferably equal to or slightly less than wires ing ring portion |54c conveniently sealed into 50 the diameters of the circles traced by the extreme 50 tip portions of the outer rings of electrodes | l2 of the protruding end portion |52b of the glass ' the electrode structures S and T, where the latter. envelope. The glass envelope preferably contains one of take the form described in connection with Fig erably of relatively high frequency, a frequency, for example, on the order of 640 cycles per second. the noble gases, such as neon, at a‘ pressure of ures 2 and 3, as they are whirled above the con , illustratively 6 millimeters of mercury which is 55 veyor and the product to be treated. The inside Y adapted to be ionized and rendered highly con diameters of the cylindrical groups |4| and |42 of -these conduction devices are substantially equal ductive when subjected to a suñicient high elec to or greater than the diameters of the circular paths traced bythe extreme tip portions of the 60 inner rings of electrode members |25 of the elec trode structures S and T, respectively. Preferably, the electronic conduction devices |43 are in the form of elongated cylindrical tubes of diameters substantially equal to the distance between the centers of the inner and outer elec trodes ||2 and |25, andof such ,length that they are adapted to be conveniently received within the space between the upper and lower sides of belt l1; illustratively the length is five or six times 70 the diameter. » The various electronic conduction devices |43 are maintained in cylindrical groups |4| and |42 spaced from electrode structures S and T re spectively, as indicated above, by suitable racks 75 |44 and |45. and their associated supporting trical potential gradient, as will more fully ap pear hereinafter. The electrode stem |53b projects through a 60 small hole portion |5|a provided in the end cap |5| whereit is bent over and fastened to the end cap by a suitable screw |55 after the elec tronic conduction device is properly positioned 65 within the socket. In positioning the electronic conduction device in its socket so that it is firmly held against lat eral displacement in spite of slight shocks and jars that may be encountered in actual use, ring |49 of yieldable material is expanded in a radial 70 direction so as to tightly press against the wall of the electronic conduction device adjacent its lower portion by screwing up end cap |5| and forcing the circular band |50 to compress the ring |49 in an axial direction. 6 . *aisavos To maintain the various electronic conduction devices k«M13 in upright positions with their axes parallel to the central axis of the cylindrical group |92, a short insulating tubular section |56. n preferably of a material such as Dilecto or lam ;inated Bakelite having high electrical insulating properties .coupled with mechanical strength, is axially mounted on hub |63a of the base plate |68 and supports the l flat circular disk |51 `(in >a 10 plane substantially perpendicular thereto) of insulating material, such as Diletco or laminated Ans suitable number, of spaced hole portions |51b ‘ which are adapted to snugly receive the _upper 25 portions `of the electronic conduction devices. 'I‘he recessed lower end of tubular section |56 receives and is attached to Bakelite bushing |59 which snugly fits the outer periphery of hub lili!EL -of base plate |68. Tubular section |56 is at tached to bushing |59 by means of screws |60; the rim portion of bushing |59 is attached to base |68 by means of screws |6l. s 35 40 45 60 portion ldßaof base plate M8. ì Ball bearing assembly §61 preferably has semi thrust characteristics and sustains part of the weight of the array of electronic conduction de vices and their supporting rack M5; the upper end of recessed portion M311 resting directly on the upper edgeY of the outer race |611’ of the lower ball bearing assembly. Lower ball-bearing assembly |61 is preferably rendered dust-tight and grease tight by a dust ring |61c preferably including a Bakelite, the central portion ofl which is recessed - felt ring, the inner periphery of which rides upon Vas at |51a and adapted to snugly fit a reduced the outer periphery of the inner race |611a of the end section |56a of lthe central tube |56 and be ball bearing assembly, and the outer periphery of fastened- thereto by a suitable-pin or set screw A. |58. The outer rim of disk |51 is provided with a 20 received within a recessed portion 168k of the hub ' » which is preferably received withinv a recessed portion of the outer lrace |61b and maintained tight in this position by a spring ring seated with in a circumferential groove. „ Thus, the cylindrical array of electronic con duction devices is securely supported'and adaptedto be rotated about an axis -coincident with the en axis of rotation of an electrode structure and with the extreme upper ends of the electronic devices moving in a common plane substantially parallel to that of the extreme tip portions of electrode members ||2 and |25 and to the upper conveying The various electronic conduction devices |63 ‘ surface of belt l1. , are adjusted in rack |45 so that their upper closed 'It may at this point be noted that the above end portions just clear the lower surface of the s_olid dielectric plate 20 supporting the upper part described rack and rotatable mounting therefor permits a maximum length of electronic conduc of theI conveyor belt I1 within the region im tion device between upper and lower sides of belt mediately beneath electrode structure S or T. They are maintained in this position by the stem I1, or fora desired size and length of electronic conduction device enables a minimum size of driv portion or terminal |53b of the electrode which, ing and driven pulleys I5 and |6, respectively; the as above-mentioned, is brought out and fastened lower side of belt |1 passes in a return direction to the end cap |5|. The electronic conduction devices are further held in proper position as just clear of the lowermost portions of the sup above-mentioned by the gripping action of the porting yoke |61'to permit a generally compact and rigid construction which, furthermore, is ex yieldable rings |49 included within each socket. tremely light in weight and well adaptedto be' Rack |65 with electronic conduction devices supported by the light insulating conveyor belt 40 |63 arrayed in a cylindrical formation about its‘ supporting structure. outer portions, is preferably rotatably mounted As mentioned above, the cylindrical array IM on a short upstanding shaft |62, the lower end of of electronic conduction devices |63 mounted in which is received within the central portion |61.a rack |44 and supported by yoke |66 are prefer of an H-shaped yoke, preferably of cast alumi ably of identical construction to the cylindrical num. The H-shaped yoke is also provided with array of electronic conduction devices |63 mount arms |ll1b, the ends of which are illustratively ed in rack |45' and supported by yoke |61, all as crooked upwardly and bolted to the- lower edges -more particularly described above. of the insulating side membersZl and 22 of the The electronic conduction devices or gaseous conveyor belt supporting structure 2D, etc. The conduction devices thus constructed are prefer central portion of yoke |131a is preferably pro_- ( ably rotated in` opposite directions conveniently l 50 vided with a raised collar |61c integral therewith, upon the upper edge, of which rests a shoulder ,portion |62P- of the shaft |62; permanent con 55 nection between shaft and yoke being achieved preferably by horizontal pins |63. ` Shaft |62 is provided with an upper reduced portion |62b which receives the inner race |64a 60 of the upper ball bearing assembly |615 preferably of a semithrust construction.. The inner rac'e is secured to the shaft by a nut |65 which holds the race against a shoulder portion |62c of the shaft. The outer race |66b >of the ball bearing assembly 65 is received within a recessed portion Illßg of the hub portion MGS of base plate |68 and is maintained securely therein by end cap |66 which threadedlyengages an upper interiorly-threaded portion of hub |68a.’ End cap `|66 is interiorly 70 cupped so yas to permit free movement with re spect to nut |65 and the upper end of shaft |62. Shaft |62 is provided with an additional reduced portion |62d upon which is mounted the inner race |61a of the ball bearing assembly |61 in a pressed ,65 fit relation, the outer race |61b of which is tightly by an electric motor |68 illustratively of the single ‘phase induction type which is conveniently bolted to an outwardly projecting arm portion ||e pref erably made integral with the upstanding support 55 ll. l Mechanical driving energyv is conveniently transmitted to electronic conduction device rotor assemblies l|lH-|4¢l_l66 and |42--|45-|41 by a belt |69 of high electrical insulating character istics, such as a cotton fabric', which is received within sheaves or circumferential groove portions of racks |44 and |45, the detailed construction of which is more particularly set forth above, the belt preferably crossing over at a point t between the rotor assemblies so as to rotate them in op 65 posite directions. Motor |68 is preferably driven (upon being en ergized in a manner described more fully herein after) in a counter-clockwise direction, looking 70 downwardly on the motor as seen in Figure 1, and transmits motion by belt |69 to electronic conduc tion device rotor assemblies läl-lM-lllß and |42--|65-|111 in ccunterclockwise and clockwise directions, respectively. l. 2,132,703 The rotation of the electronic conduction de are somewhat in excess of the respective lengths vice rotor assemblies is preferably relatively slow giving them a peripheral velocity of about 500 the condenser plates 61 and 68 are made substan of the treatment zones along the belt; preferably feet per minute. The advantages of rotating the electronic conduction device rotor assemblies will tially square (see Figure 6). The condenser plates 61 and 68 are preferably appear more fully hereinafter in considering cer being substantially parallel to that of the tips mounted in a common plane, the plane of each tain electrical actions and effects on the product of the electrode structures S and T, respectively, to be treated as it is conveyed through the region ‘l and the plates are mounted in any suitable man between the _rotating electrodes maintained at a ner so that they may be moved in a vertical di 10 high electrical potential and their respectively rection and without being shifted in their axial associated electronic conduction device rotor as relation with respect to the electrode structures semblies. S and T. An illustrative form of mounting is KUnder operating conditions of the treating ap shown in Figure 1 and it will be seen to include paratus electronic conduction devices |43 become a cross-beam support 69 upon which the plates 15 ionized, in a manner more fully described herein 61 and 68 are directly mounted. The member 69 after, and emit a dull red-orange glow (for neon) is preferably of such a material, for example iron indicating that the tube is functioning properly. or steel, which lends suitable mechanical support In order that- the devices may be observed, the to the condenser plates 61 and 68 and which also downwardly extending side members 2| and 22 serves as an electrical conducting member be 20 of the conveyor belt supporting structure are pro tween the plates and the frame. The cross-beam vided with apertures (not shown) adjacent elec 69 includes the threaded brackets which respec tronic conduction device rotor assembly |4|--- tively engage suitable elevating screws 1|] and 1| |44---|46 (see Figure 1) and apertures 2|c and suitably journalled in standards || and l2. 22° (Figure 7) adjacent electronic conduction de The elevating screws 1li-1| may be conjointly 25 vice rotor assembly |42-|45-|41. controlled as by a hand-wheel 12 suitably geared A defective electronic conduction device may to the screws, as shown in Figure l, and thereby be readily detected by an absence of the above the condenser plates 61 and 6B may be positioned mentioned glow of the device and a replacement appropriately with respect to the electronic con of the defective electronic conduction device may duction devices above described _and also with 30 then be made. `In effecting the replacement of an respect to the electrode structures S and T. electronic conduction device |43, the edge of the ` The product to be treated, illustratively ñour, lower side of conveyor belt |1 immediately beneath milled cereal, or the like, and illustratively pack the defective device is pushed clear of the space aged and hence indicated at C in Figure l, is, immediately `beneath the particular socket sup as above noted, moved by the conveyor l1 ina direction from the left to the right and hence it lo L! porting the defective device; the belt being of such length and physical characteristics as to pernut enters 'ñrst the treatment zone under the electrode the distortion indicated. structure S and then the treatment zone under End cap |5| associated with socket Hlth-«|48e the electrode structure T, a corona-like discharge (see Figure 7) holding the defective device |43 is emanating from the tips z of the oppositely rotat 40 ing rings or circles of electrodes ||2 and |25 (see 40 then unscrewed from the lower portion of the socket and tube> |43 is withdrawn or pulled down Figures 2 and 3) in each ofthe electrode struc through the socket and taken out beneath the tures ÑS and T, accompanied by actions already conveyor belt " supporting structure, sufficient . briefly described in connection with the structure working space being provided between the arms of yoke |41. A replacement of the defective elec tronic conduction device is effected in a sub stantially reverse order, care being taken, as men the electrode members and their relatively high tioned above in connection with the initial mount ing of the electronic conduction devices in their 50 respective sockets, that the upper end of the re placed device be properly spaced from the solid dielectricsheet 20. Thus, a defective conduction device may be readily detected and quickly and 'effectively’replaced with a minimum expenditure 55 of eifort and with a minimum shut-down of the apparatus, all with a minimum change, altera tion or disturbance of other p_arts of the appa ratus. of Figure 2; this corona-like discharge impinges 45 .upon the belt I1 or upon the dielectric plate 2U that supports the belt, and due to the number of .y As mentioned above, the lower base plates of 60 the racks supporting the various electronic con duction devices are preferably made of metal, as well as the supporting shafts, bearings and yokes, so that paths of good electrical conductivity are provided from the various electrodes of the elec 65 tronic conduction devices, through the parts above-mentioned including the electrically con ductive metallic end caps to which the electrodes are directly connected. Referring to Figurejl, desirably underneath 70 conveyor belt |1 are positioned two condenser plates> 61 and~68. In this embodiment these plates arf,` made of sheet metal and have a di mention crosswise of the `belt in excess of the width‘of the belt itself or the width of the plate 26. The lengths of the condenser plates 61 and 68 rate of movement, as well as due to the high fre _quency of «the potential applied to them, the 50 corona discharge that emanates from each circle of electrodes is in the form substantially of an annulus of 'innumerable and apparently dense mass of fine corona streamers. The lower por tions of these annuli are controlled and pre vented from spreading or straying by the action of the electronic conduction devices M3 above 55 described, the action of which, moreover, due >to their movement or rotation as above described, is uniformly distributed throughout the general 60 circle `whichtheir upper ends deñne. Y This action is important in achieving rapid and eiiicient sterilization. When a product which is being treated is passing through >the treatment z_one the' concentration of flux and the movement 65 of the electrodes results in thorough steriliza tion of the product. 4As will be explained below in connection with Figures 8 and 9, the corona discharge is directed to every portion of the arti 70 cle as it passes through the apparatus. vIn the above-mentioned annuli of concentrated local rupture or corona discharge, the articles or materials to be treated are moved by the con tinuously moving belt |1. The material, hav ing a higher average permittivity than the air di 75 2,13%,703 ' electric through which the local rupture had been taking place, brings about a redistribution of the voltages in the paths leading from the electrode tips H2 and ,S25 to the condenser plate â'l (or t8) and in fact causes a, still greater and more in tense concentration of the local rupture and also an earlier rupture (because it is made to occur at a lower point on the voltage wave) than had been previously taking place. , 10 The air dielectric intervening the spaces in the particles of the material, such as the grains of corn meal, is quickly ionized _and is, in fact, over stressed to a greater extent than the air dielectric between the electrode tips z of electrodes H2 15 and E25 and the plate 2@ because of this in. tervening air dielectric having a low permittivity, namely unity, while the average permittivity of thereof sumciently great, so that each of itself can withstand the total or maximum high po tential of its own circuit without breakdown or rupture, and thus spark-over or complete rupture in the circuit of either electrode structure S o-r T is prevented. Furthemo're, by varying the spacing of the rotating electrodes from the' belt H, I may control theintensity of the individual corona streamers to suit them to the particular conditions to be met with in practice. But an action comes into play because of the character and/or movement of the corona streamers emanating _from the two oppositely moving or rotating sets of electrodes H2 and §25, this action being identical in the two structures L S and 'I' and repeated; in fact, because of this feature of action, Iam enabled to dispense en the individual particles of the material'is higher tirely with one treatment zone and hence utiliz-than that of, air. Hence the local rupture or ing only one electrode structure (S or T) with 20 corona takes place within and throughout the material and; because the contaminating insect Y the corresponding control means, such as only life has a substantially inñnite permittivity and one Vcylindrical group Ml of tubes M3 and one condenser, such as the air condenser formed be is in eüect electrically conducting, this insect life tween the parts H38 (Figures 7 and 1) and the is sought out by the corona streamers which pass condenser plate Si. In Figures 8 and 9 I have therethrough and thus bring about its destruction. diagrammatically shown, by circles made up of The uniform current- density, toward the the directions of movement of the sets achievement of which the electronic conduction arrows, of electrodes i l2 and l25, and four successive po devices 463 contribute, aids materially in achiev of the same package C as it is moved in the ing eñective and uniform destruction of insect sitions direction from A to B and hence from left .to life. ' right. . 80 If the material is packaged as, for example, in ,Because of the tendency of the corona dis pasteboard cartons or packages, the above-de charge emanating from the moving electrodes scribed actions likewise take place but are ac of the structure S (or T) -to persist particularly companied by a further action which prevents along the outside surfaces of the side or end walls 35 puncturing of the material oi the carton. The ofthe package C when, due to the direction of pasteboard or paper or like material of the pack age. has an average permittivity that is higher movement of the electrodes, the discharge is moved, as viewed in Figures 8 and 9, toward the than the air which, prior to the entry of the pack package, and because of flux refraction and like age into the treatment zone, constituted the di factors brought about by the action of the paper '40 electric between the electrode structure S (or T) or pasteboard or like dielectrics of which the and the plate 2li (see Figure 1). More particu carton is made, thereis a tendency for the corona larly, the walls of the carton or package act as discharge not to take place in regions of the condenser dielectrics which become serially re material within the package closely adjacent to lated with the dielectrics of the fixed and variable that exterior side or end wall of the paêkage' 45 capacities otherwise in the circuit. The resultant onto which the discharge has just been wiped or 45 “redistribution of voltages throughout the thus swept. f v newly and serially related condenser dielectrics . For example, _at the left of Figure 8 note how is such that the voltage gradient across the ma „the _electrodes M2 sweep lthe discharge down terial of the carton is below ,the puncturing> wardly (as viewed in that figure) with respect gradient and hence puncturing of the material to the upper side wall; accordingly, there is a 50 of the carton is positively precluded. region or portion of the material adjacent that The solid dielectric (member 2h) of the above-~ mentioned iìxed capacities also functions to pro tect the electronic conduction tubes M3 against 55 punctureof the glass envelopes thereof and I am thus enabled to avoid the disadvantages that might accompany the use- of electronic conduc tion devices of otherwise adequately thick walls. In the ‘absence of such protective means,` the 60 walls of the tubes M53 would have to be made relatively very thick with the result that it ‘would be dimcult to achieve a sumcient homogeneity of current density at the bottom of the corona >annuli because in turn the gas columns could not 65 be suñiciently closely spaced. Another action that comes into play and con-` tributes toward the achievement ofthe above side wall that is likely to be insuiiiciently treated, but in the region adjacent the lower side wall of the package in the left-hand positionl in Figure 8, that action does not take place and the material is thoroughly sterilized. «Howeven as the package continues to move from the left to the right, it strikes the oppo sitely moving eiîects of the inside ring of elec trodes‘mäfand the discharge from the latter acts 60 in a reversed manner, namely, while it may not thoroughly act upon 'the material adjacent the lower side wall of the package (that being now not necessary since that portion was thoroughly treated by the ring of electrodes H2) it does, 65 however, completely permeate and penetrate all `portions of the material adjacent the upper side :described results and advantages is the condenser wall (the portion or region that was'likely to be action between the plate memberswmiélâkandt‘l o Yinsufiiciently treated by the discharge from the 'i to (Figure l) in the circuit of the treatment zone electrodes M2). ‘ l 70 under electrode structure S; and between the As the package continues to move toward the plates iti? and _td in the circuit of the treatment right and progressively into and through the 'I äzone of the electrode structure T; these `are vir right-hand portion of Figure 8, these actions are tually air condensers and they are dimensio'ned, again reversed, and thus double certainty of com- " v ‘55 as by maintaining the spacings `between the plates plete sterilization is achieved, it being understood 2,132,703 I claim: that similar actions as above described take place 1. In electrical treating apparatus of the type with respect also to the leading and trailing ver tical or end walls of the package. Figures 8 and wherein a high potential is impressed across a pair of electrodes to produce discharges within 9, therefore, indicate diagrammatically succes a treatment zone, in combination, a source of sive positions of the same package with respect high potential, capacity-forming means con to the oppositely moving concentric rings of elec nected thereto and including two opposed rotat trodes and show how the possible deñciencies of ing electrode means having adjacent eiîective one s_et of electrodes with respect to material im discharge-controlling portions of substantially mediately inside of a particular vertical wall of matching effective area with a treatment zone 10 the package are remedied by the action of the therebetween, one of said electrode means com other of the concentrically moving electrodes. two coaxial electrode members rotating As all these actions take place, the air being prising scooped up by the vanes I i4“ (Figures 2, 4 and 5) in opposite directions, and means for moving a through said treatment zone. is projected downwardly through the orifices or product 2. In electrical treating apparatus of the type nozzles H5“, not only ~with actions already above wherein a high potential is impressed across a described, but also thereby blowing out of the pair of electrodes to produce discharges within treatment zone ionized air or air remaining a treatment zone, in combination, a source of ionized when, in a voltage wave or pulsation, the high potential, capacity-forming means con instantaneous »discharge has ceased. This action nected thereto and including two opposed rotat ing electrode means having adjacent eiîective l is important because it makes sure that, upon the next voltage wave or impulse, the local rup ture or corona discharge takes place on a higher point of the voltage wave. discharge-controlling portions of substantially matching effective area with a treatment zone therebetween, Aone of said electrode means com , As earlier above noted. various forms of elec trode structures may be employed and I have prising two coaxial ring-like members, each hav ing a plurality of discharge electrodes directed pointed out how, withv the unique arrangement toward the other electrode means, means for ro of Figures 2 and 3, I may utilize only one treat ment zone instead of the two, as shown in Fig ure 1. However, I may achieve other advantages v and results of my invention by using for the electrode structure S only one of the rings of electrodes of Figures 2 and 3 and its correspond ing motor drive. In such case I employ two elec trode structures S and T, but drive them in tating said ring members in opposite directions, and means for moving a product through said treatment zone. 3. In electrical treating apparatus of the type wherein a high potential is impressed across a pair of electrodes to produce discharges within a treatment zone, in combination, a source of high potential, capacity-forming means con nected thereto and including two opposed rotat ing electrode means having adjacent eiîective opposite directions, thereby providing two later allyspaced treatment zones in which the actions, with respect to packaged material, are reversed discharge-controlling portions of substantially and thus complete sterilization insured. 'I'he Ywindings of the motors employed in the matching -effective area with a treatment zone therebetween, one of said electrode means com 40 structure shown in Figure" 2 may take the form shown in Figures 10 and l1 in which the stator is, as above noted, slotted to receive the various prising two oppositely rotating electrode mem bers, and the other electrode means comprising electronic conduction means, and means for mov coils WI, W2, W3, W4, etc., connected serially ing a product through said treatment zone. and also to the other circuits, as already above described. The rotor may have a winding of the sguirrel cage type, known in the art, and indi -cated‘in Figure 10 by the cross-conductors K connected to the spaced rings P (see also Figure 2). The periphery of the stator may also _be slotted and set into the slots, closed circuit coils X (Figure l1) acting as shading coils to give the motor appropriate starting characteristics. The rotating cylindrical groups Uil and M2 of conduction `tubes _M3 coact in achieving the above-described actions of the rotating electrode structures S and T and coact also in achieving the results .above described in connection with Figures 8 and 9. They insure uniform density of discharge in the treatment zones and> also uniform distribution of the corona streamers throughout the annulus or annuli of discharge emanating from the rotating ring or rings of electrodes. . It will thus be seen that there has been pro vided in this invention an apparatus in which the various objects above described, together with many thoroughly practical advantages, are suc cessfully achieved. - - ' As many possible embodiments may be made of the above invention and as many changes .might be made in the embodiment above set forth, it is to be understood that all matter hereinbefore set forth or shown in the accom panying drawings, is to be interpreted as illus 76 trative and not in a limiting sense. ' 4. In electrical treating apparatus, in combi 45 nation, a source of high potential, capacity forming means connected thereto and including a movable electrode structure and means juxta posed thereto for coaction- therewith for produc ing an electric discharge within a treatment zone, 50 means for moving a product through said treat ment zone, said electrode structure having a dis charge electrode and means responsive to the movement of said electrode structure for effect ing a blast of air current lengthwise of said elec 55 trode. 5. In electrical treating apparatus, in combi nation, a source of high potential, capacity forming means connected thereto and including a movable electrode structure and means juxta CO posed'thereto for coaction therewith for produc ing an electric discharge within a treatment zone, means for moving a product through said treat ment zone, said electrode structure having a tube like electrode and vane-like means responsive to 65 movement of said electrode structure for scoop ing air into said discharge electrode. 6. In electrical treating apparatus, in combina tion, a source'of high potential, capacity-forming means connected thereto and including a mov 70 able electrode structure and means juxtaposed thereto for coaction therewith for producing an electric discharge within a treatment zone, means for moving a product through said treatment zone, said electrode structure having an electrode 75 E@ 2,132,703 projecting therefrom and said electrode having an eiîective discharge-emanatingportion remov ably secured thereto. 7. An apparatus like that of claim 1 in which there are means for moving ionized air out of the discharge zones. 8. An apparatus like that of claim 1 in which the two coaxial electrode members are carried re spectively by motive means, the rotating elements 10 of which rotate in opposite directions. 9. An apparatus like that of claim 1 in which the two coaxial electrode members are carried respectively by two rotating housings, one of which is reentrant and receives therein the other, 15 and means within the housings for eiîecting their rotation. . stationary elements therebetween and for there- l I by securing them to` said stud-like member. 20. A construction as claimed in claim 18 in which one of said frame-like membersris reen trantand receives therein the other frame-like member, said electrode means on each being of substantially the same length, said frame-like members having means lying in substantially the same plane transversely to the axis of said stud like member for supporting said electrode means. 10 21. A construction'as‘claimed in claim 18 in which the means rotatably supporting said frame-like members is in the form of a plurality of antifriction bearings having inner and outer races, said inner races being strung along said stud-like memberJ and alternated with said sta 10. An apparatus Ylike that of claim 1 in which ' tionary elements of said two motive means, said the two coaxial electrode members are rotatably oute? races being respectively secured to said two supported by a common stationary support, the frame-like members and said stud-like member 20 latter'carrying driving means effecting opposite carrying -means for clamping said inner races` 20 directions of rotation of said coaxial electrode members. `11. An apparatus like that of claim 1 in which " the coaxial electrode members rotate about a 25 common stationary support, and means rotatably supporting them with respect to said support. for thereby securing them to said stud-like mem ber. « í\ . 22. A construction as claimed in claim 18 in which the two'motive means are electromotive means, the stationary and rotatable elements 12. An apparatus like that of claim 1 in which the coaxialelectrode members are supported by a common supporting means, the latter carrying 30 the stationary elements of two motive means, and rotatably supporting the rotatable elements of thereof having coacting windings which, when y energized from a suitable source of electrical energy, effect rotation of said rotatable elements vand hence of vsaid frame-like members with re 30 said motive means, and means connecting the` spect to said stationary elements, said stud-like member having extending therealong _channel rotating elements respectively to said electrode means, and electrical conductor means along said members. - . 13. An apparatus like that of claim 6 in which the removable portion is secured to the electrode by a bayonet joint. 14. Anl apparatus like that of claim 6 in which the electrode structure is of sheet metal tubing. 40 with said. stationary elements therebetween and channel means and . leading to said windings whereby, when said conductor means is connected 35 to a Ísuitable source of electrical energy, said windings may be energized. . portion juxtaposed to the two oppositely rotating 23. A construction as claimed in claim 18 in which that motive means that drives the frame like member that carries the electrode means at a 40 larger distance from the said common axis than the distance at which the other electrode means is carried by the other of said frame-like mem bers is constructed to drive its frame-like member and hence its electrode means at a lower R. P. M. 45 electrode members that deiines an annular area commensurate with the annular »area defined _by member by its motive means. 15. An apparatus like that of claim 6 in which the discharge-emanating portion is made of sheet metal. o 16. An apparatus like that of claim 3 in which the electronic conduction'means has an eifective than the R. P. M. of drive of the other frame-like ' I the rotating electrode members. 24. A construction as claimed in claim 18 in 17. An apparatus like that of claim 3 in which ' which the said two motive means are in the form of alternatingA current induction motors, the re the electronic conduction means comprises a plu rality of electronic conduction tubes arranged spective stationary androtatable elements thereof _ . ' carrying appropriate windings, the windings of 18. In- electrode structure of the type used in that motive means that drives the frame-like treating apparatus, in combination', a stud-like _member that carries the electrode means kat a supporting member having mounted thereon and greater distance from said common axis than the other having more poles than the windings of spaced axially therealong two stationary ele substantiallyin a cylinder. ' ments of two motive means, two frame-like mem 60 bers each carrying a rotatable element for coacë tion with one of said stationary elements of said motive means, thereby to complete the latter, means rotatably supporting said frame-like members from said stud-like member and for thereby positioning said rotary elements in co 65 acting relation to said stationary elements respec tively, and electrode means carried by each of said frame-like members at respectively diiferent dis tances from the common axis of rotation of said frame-like members. - . 19. A construction as lclaimed in claim 18 in which the' means rotatably supporting said frame like members is in the form of bearings alternated along said stud-like member with said stationary elements, said stud-like member carrying clamp 75 ing means for clamping said bearings and said ' the other electromotive means in order that the former rotates at a lower R. P. M. than the latter. 25. In electrical treating apparatus of .the type wherin a high potential is impressed across a pair 60 of electrodes to produce discharges within a treat ment zone, the combination of, a shaft structure, two electrode structures independently mounted `upon said shaft structure and adapted to rotate about a common axis, stator means‘mounted upon 65 said shaft structure, and independent rotor means associated with each of said electrode, structures 4and with said stator means to impart independent rotation to each of said electrode structures. 26. An electrical treating apparatus of the type 70 wherein a high- potential is impressed across a pair of electrodes to produce discharges within a` treatment zone, the combination of, a shaft struc ture, a plurality of motor-electrode structures ro tatably mounted in alignment upon 'said' shaft 75 11 2,182,708 adapted to rotate said two electrode members in opposite directions -upon said axis, said last structure, and electrode means carried by each of said motor-electrode structures, each of said motor-electrode structures including a casing named means including a nxed stator upon said axis and a rotor mounted upon one of said elec trode members, said electrode means including a shell encasingsaid stator and said rotor. shell enclosing a motor having a stator rigidly mounted upon said shaft structure and a rotor carried by said casing shell. i 29. In electrical apparatus of the type wherein a high potential is impressed across two electrode 27. In electrical apparatus of the type wherein a high potential is impressed across two electrode structures having opposed faces with a discharge 10 zone between said faces, the combination of, an electrode structure positioned upon one side of the treatment zone including two annular electrode means having opposed faces with a discharge zone between said faces, the combination of an electrode means including two electrode mem bers mounted upon a single axis and means to rotate said two electrode members in opposite directions upon said axis, said last-named means means mounted to rotate independently about a single axis, and means to rotate said two annular including a ñxed stator upon said axis and “a 15 rotor mounted upon one of said electrode mem bers, said electrode means including a shell en 15 electrode means in opposite directions. 28. In electrical apparatus of the type wherein a high potential is impressed across two electrode casing said stator and said rotor, said electrode means having opposed faces with a discharge zone between said faces, the combination of an 20 electrode means including two electrode mem bers mounted upon a single axis and means means adapted to cause air to circulate through 26 said discharge zone. FRANKLIN S. SMITH. CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION . October ll , 1958 . " «pei-.ent No. 2,152,705 r FRANKLIN s. SMITH. ` It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed -specification of the above numbered patent requiring2 correction as follows: >Page L_., first column, line 69, for the reference character “l2Qb“ read lZOf; page l0, second columng‘line '(0, claim 26, for '.‘An" read In; and that the said Let ters Patent should be read with this correction therein thatthe same may conform to the record of the c'ase in the Patent Office. v Signed andV sealed this 29th day ofy November, A. D. 1958. -Henry -Vari Arsdale v Acting Commissioner of Patents.