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Патент USA US2132703

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oct. 11, 193s.
4Original Filed Oct. 8, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet l
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Oct. l1, 1938.
Original Filed Oct. 8, ,1934
4 sheets-'sheet 2
oct. '11, 193s.
original Filed’oct. 8, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Oct. l1, 1938.
Original -Filed Oct*- 8, 1934
4 Sheets-Shes?I 4
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Patented oci. 11, 1938
Franklin S. Smith, New Haven, Conn.
, Application
October 8, 1934, Serial No. ’747,437
Renewed October 17, 1936
29 Claims.
(ci. 21-1o2)
This invention relates to apparatus which is
particularly adapted for destroying insect life in
foodand other products.
Figure 3 is a bottom plan view, as seen from the
bottom in Figure 2, of the electrode structure of
the latter;
One of the objects of this invention is to pro
vide4 apparatus which may be used for treating
materials and which is admirably adapted for use
in subjecting food and other products that con
tains insects and/or they eggs, larvae and pupae
,thereof to thoroughly practical and eflicient
treatment for destroying such insect life.
Another object is to provide apparatus for elec
trically destroying such life in a thoroughly de
pendable, rapid and efñcient manner. Another
object is to provide apparatus of the above-men
tioned character for destroying insect life in food
and other products in a rapid and dependable
manner without harming the product undergoing
treatment. Another object is to provide appa
ratus of the above-mentioned character which is
Figure 4 is a detached vertical sectional view,
on a larger scale, of one of the electrode mem- 5
bers of Figures 2 and 3, and others, being more
speciñcally a vertical sectional view on an en
larged scale, as seen along the line 4-4 of Fig
ure 2;
rFigure 5 is an elevation, as seen from the top 10
of Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a detached elevation of the package
or product carrying or conveying apparatus and
related parts, being more specifically a plan view,
as seen along the line 6-6 of Figure 1;
Figure 7 is a vertical sectional view, on an en
larged scale, as seen along the line 1--1 of Fig
ure 1, showing an illustrative form of means for
'coacting with the rotating electrodes of the ap
simple and compact in construction„and thor- ’ 1 Figures 8 and 9 are diagrammatic or fragmen-` 20
ough and dependable in operation. Another ob
tary plan views indicating diagrammatically cer
ject is to provide a compact, simple, inexpensive tain actions on the product or packages to be
and reliable electrode structure and -driving treated by the electrode structure of Figures 2
means therefor, for use in and coaction with ap
paratus of the above-mentioned character. An
other object is to provide a dependable and eñi
cient‘electrode construction capable of efficient
and dependable action in practical use. Another
object is to provide an electrode tip or electrode
construction in which dependable and reliable
control of the discharge therefrom is achieved.
Other objects will bejin part obvious or in part
pointed out hereinafter.
This application is a continuationin part of
my co-pending application Serial No. 627,291,~
ñled August 2, 1932, renewed December 27, 1933,
issued October 9, 1934, as Patent No- 1,975,805.
The invention accordinglyconsists in the fea
tures of construction, combinations of elements,
and arrangements of parts as will be exemplified
in the structure to be hereinafter described and
the scope of the application of which will be in_
dicated in the following claims.
In the accompanying drawings in which are
shown several of the various possible embodi- v
and 3;
Figure 10' is a diagrammatic plan view of the
vstator and rotor and windings of 'the induction
motors that drive the electrodes, showing certain
interrelations of these parts; and
Figure 11 is a- fragmentary side elevation of the 30
stator per se of Figure 10.
Similar reference characters refer to similar
parts throughout the several views in the draw
Referring to the drawings and more particu#
larly to Figure 1 thereof, there >is indicated dia
grammatically a suitable frame I0 provided at its
respective ends with appropriate pairs of vertical
standards II and I2 in which are suitably jour
naled the shafts I3 and I4 respectively of the 40
drums I5 and I6. About the drums I5 and I6 ex
tends a suitable conveyor belt I1 preferably made
of asbestos, canvas, cotton material, or the like.
One of the drums, such as the drum I6, is suit
ably driven and I have diagrammatically indi
cated a motor I8 connected to the drum I6 by
ments of my invention;
Figure lis a front elevation of a possible form , any suitable transmission diagrammatically in
of apparatus embodying therein certain features dicated at I9 for driving the- drum I6 and for thus
of my invention,- for electrically destroying insect transmitting motion to the conveyor belt I1.
The direction of the drive is preferably such that
life in food products, or the like, certain parts be
a tension is put on the upper half of the belt
ing in Figure 1 shown diagrammatically; I
and, as viewed in Figure 1, the motion will be
Figure 2 is a front elevation, on an> enlarged
from left toright or illustratively from A to B.
scale, partly in central vertical section, of an Illustratively the rate of drive of the pulley or
electrode structure and drive therefor, as may be drum I6 may be- such that the movement of the 55
employed in the apparatus of Figure 1;
belt -ill takes place at fa rate of about l5 feet per . which may be readily cast, such, for example, as
minute,` but it is not to be understood that this
The housingl 3U has an upper gener
is a limiting rate of drive but that the belt may , ally cylindrical portion and a lower outwardly
be driven at any other suitable speed.
and downwardly extending skirt portion Mi.
The belt il is adapted to receive at its lefte . The skirt portion il ä is`preferably provided with
hand end, as at point A, the material, goods or»
articles to be sterilized> and thus to transport vthe
goods in a direction toward the 'right and to dis
charge them at the right-hand end of the belt,
as at the point B. Any suitable means, not
shown, may be utilized to feed the articles on to_
the belt and to receive them after they have beenl
discharged therefrom.
Beneath the article-carrying portion of the
15 belt i7 and extending lengthwise thereof is a
plate-like member 20 (see also Figures 6 and 7)
preferably of a width somewhat greater than the '
Width of the conveyor belt I'i. The member 20
aids in preventing the sag of the belt il under
20. its load and insures the passage of the material,
goods, or articles to be treated along the indicated
and prescribed path.
Plate member 26 is made of any suitable solid
dielectric material, preferably Pyrex glass, and
a circle of evenly spaced holes, each of which is
adapted to receive an electrode -member M2.
The various electrode members H2“, M21), M26,
H201, etc. are thus arranged in a circle and they
are preferably inclined with their lowermost tip 10
portions trailing from their upper portions when
the housing 80 is rotated about its central or ver
tical axis. These electrode members are prefer
ably of identical construction and in Figures 4
and 5 one of them, illustratively> member Hi2a, is shown on an enlarged scale. The electrode
member is preferably formed as a piece of hollow
conductive tubing having an upper open end
portion ll3a, the top- of which‘is cut to provide
an outwardly extending fin IMa (see Figure 5), 20
the purpose of which is to scoop in air and direct
it down through the tip member, as will more
fully appear hereinafter. Electrode member M2“
terminates in a lower restricted portion Hita.'
it extends in a direction lengthwise of the belt
throughout a suitable distance. Plate 20 is pref
erably supported by a pair of laterally spaced
Interfltting with this restricted portion i 958 is 25
able manner at their respective ends to the frame
Figures 4 and 2.
’I'he electrode members M2 .are preferably 30
a tubular jacket HSB (shaped as shown), remov- ,
ably interlocked therewith as, for example, by
and lengthwise extending insulating beams Zia _means
of a bayonet joint indicated clearly in
and 22a (see also Figure 6) secured in any suit
I6, being illustratively and preferably secured to
the standrads H and I2. Beams 2te and 22H' made of a material, such as aluminum, which is
a good conductor of heat as well as electricity
are- made of any appropriate or suitable solid
and which may be simply and economically pro
dielectric material such, fpr example, as lami
duced. The above-described construction lends
35 nated Bakelite, and are preferably given such
to rapid and economical manufacture.
cross-sectional dimensions as to withstand the itself
The tubular jackets are subjected,ras will later
vertical stresses to which they are subjected. The
cross-section may be, for example, L-shaped or
it may be square tubing. Any suitable means
may be utilized to secure the supportingplate 2t
to its associated insulating beams 2te and 22a.
If desired, the insulating beams 2l“ and 22*l
may be mechanically reinforced by the respec
tive side members 2l and 22. 'I'hese side mem
bers are preferably made of a sheet-like solid di
electric material, sueh as laminated Bakelite.
The side members 2i and 22 are preferably se
cured along their upper edges tofth'e beams 2l'i
and 22a and thus form downwardly extending
ñanges that oñ'er substantial resistance to bend
ing because of the load carried thereby,
The upper portion of the frame lil serves to
support framework structures generally shown
(Figure 1) at 23 and 2d which in conjunction
55 with a longitudinally extending beam 82 serves to
support a plurality of electrode structures, illus
tratively two in number, and generally indicated
in Figure 1 at S and T. 'I'he electrode structures
burning and other deteriorating eüects unless`
adequately safeguarded against. To withstand
the heavy duty imposed upon the _lowermost end
portions of the electrode tip members, the tubular
jackets are preferably made of a conductor, such
as steel, which can withstand the electric dis 45
charge emanating from its lower outer surfaceI
without undue deterioration and yet which lends
itself to rapid and economic production.
In Figure 2, the inclined positioning of the
electrode member lf2“, and the others as well, 50
with respect to the fianged or _skirt portion iii
of the rotatable housing 80 is shown. The elec
trode housing is driven in such a direction as to
cause the electrode members H28”, H2", H2c, etc.
tovmove through the surrounding atmosphere
with their upper end portions H33, H3b, H32, A
etc. leading and their lowermost tip portions e
As may be seen from Figure 5, the elec
_S and T are merely diagrammatically indicated trailing.
are cylindrical in form, and as
1n Figure 1 and theyl may take any of the various
positionedin Figure 2, a horizontal cross-section
forms, about to be described and the details of _ of the electrode member is substantially elliptical 60
which are shown in enlarged scale in other views in form. This form is of particular advantage
of the drawings. It is therefore to be understood
that any of the electrode structures later herein in that it gives a stream-line- effect in the move
ment of the'electrode member 'incident to Athe
described in detail may be employed in the appa
rotation of the electrode, thus preventing rariñed 65
ratus oft-Figure 1 in which they are to be con
pockets adjacent the tip members and attendant
sidered as representedl by the 'diagrammatic rep,
resentations thereof at S and T. Of these va- » corona formation. „
(see Figures 2 and 3),
rious possible forms of .electrode structures, that
in addition to the outer rotatable housing 80,
shown in Figures 2 and 3 may ñrst be con
includes an. inner rotatable housing d20 having
cylindrical portion >from which projects
Referring, then, more particularly to Figure 2, aancentral
outwardly and downwardly extending sln'rt
there is shown an electrode structure comprising
an upper rotatable housing 80 preferably made portion I 2l and which in general conforms to, but
is encompassed by, the skirt portion iii of the
of a, suitable electrically conducting material
outer rotatable housing 8U. The outer periphery „
become clean-to the electric discharge emanating
from its lower outer surface portion or the tip
end z. Such electrical emanations cause heating,
of the portion I2| is provided with a circle of
holes which are adapted to receive the upper end
portions of electrode members |25 which are thus
arranged in a circle, being also inclined, andare
Ui preferably slanted in a direction opposite to that
of the electrode members I|2a, Il2b', IIZC, etc. on
the other housing. To simplify construction, the
electrode members |25 are preferably identical to
the members II2, the details of which have been
shown and described above in conjunction -with
Figures 4 and 5. The electrode housings 80 and
|20 with their respective electrode members II2ß,
I|2b, etc. and |253, |25”, |256, etc. are adapted to
rotate in opposite directions, the purpose of which
sembly and positioning of the electrodes relative
to their supports may be readily and quickly
achieved and is, moreover, highly dependable.
For illustrative purposes, the outer electrode
housing 80 with its associated electrode members
| I2 may be drivenat a speed of 1200 R. P. M. and
the inner housing |20 with its associated ring or
circle of electrode tip members |25 (having a
will appear more fully hereinafter, with their sev
eral respective extreme tip endy portions z of the
electrode members trailing.
Upon'rotation of the ring of outer electrode
members | I2?, |I2b, II2C, etc., their respective
leading upper end portions H31, H3", II3°, etc.,
havingI respective air ñns I |4a, etc., air is scooped
in by the various fins above-mentioned and is
directed down through the hollow or tubular elec
trode members and out through the extreme open
25 end portion of their respective jackets Illia, IIS",
H6“, etc. Upon rotation of the ring of inner elec
trodes |25a, I25b, I25°, etc., their respective lead
smaller diameter) is driven at a speed of approx
imately l1300 R. P. M. With the relative dimen
sions of the circles formed by the outer electrode
members | I2 and the inner electrode members |25,
as illustratively shown in Figure 3, the peripheral
velocities of the two circles of electrode tip mem
bers is preferably substantially the same. With 15
the same spacing between electrode members in
the outer housing 80 and the inner housing |20,
it will be seen that an article passing beneath the
electrode structure receives approximately Vthe
same number of impulses from each of the oppo
sitely rotating sets of electrode tip members.
Such a construction assures a more uniform treat
ment of the material, articles or other products
undergoing treatment as will be more fully de
scribed hereinafter.
Considering now more in detail the construc
tion of the driving means for the several sets of
electrode members II2 and |25 above-mentioned,
it is ñrst to be noted that I prefer to make the
housings 80 and I 20 each in two parts, and for, 30
30 in by the latter fins and is directed down through , convenience the construction of housing 80 may
the respective hollow or tubular electrode mem
ñrst be considered, reference being made now to
bers and out through the extreme open end por
tion of their respective jackets |283, |20b, |28°, Figure 2Í of the drawings.
One of the parts of housing 80 is the lower por
etc.- The stream of air passing downwardly
tion which comprises a horizontally extending 35
through the various electrode members serves t0
disk-like wall BI)a from whose outer periphery -the
give a cooling effect whichaugments that pro
duced by the rotation of the ring of tip members. skirt portion III projects downwardly and out
ing upper end portions |2611, I26b, |260, etc. hav
ing respectively‘ïair fins |213, etc. air is scooped
This cooling effect contributes toward negativing
the tendency of small particles of metal to sep
arate from the electrode members, particularly
from the tip portions z, and hence contributes
toward keeping thetreatment zone free from such
metallic particles.
In addition to the above-mentioned cooling
effect, the circulation of air about the electrode
members, due to their rotation, Aand the addi
tional air circulated due to the current of air flow
ing out of the electrode members contributes
toward blowing away from the treatment zone,
50 or space between the electrode members and the
belt, any small particles of metal coming 01T from
the electrode tip members and thus prevents the
establishment and maintenance of a dynamic arc.
Thus the air circulation means employed directly
contributes toward maintaining the treatment
zone free from extraneous electrical effects which
would tend to decrease the efficiency of treat-`
ment, detract from the dependability of opera
tion, and which might generally impair the eflî
60 ciency of the treating apparatus.
As is better shown in Figure 2, the holes in
which the electrodes I|2 and |25 are seated are
wardly and from whose peripheral portion there
projects upwardly a cylindrical wall portion 8()b
which is counterbored as at 80C to provide a 40
recess or seat within which the rotor 25 of the
motor that rotates _the electrode-members II2
and which rotor will be more in detail described
hereinafter, is seated, being made up preferably
of laminations of suitable magnetic material.
The other part or portion of the two-part
housing 80 comprises the upper hollow hori
zontal butr slightly downwardly and outwardly
inclined top Wall portion 8|)d peripherally termi
nating ina downwardly directed cylindrical wall 50
portion 80e shaped to seat upon the upper face
of the cylindrical wall portion 80b of the other
part of the housing 80, suitable screws 26 (Fig
ure 2) securing the two parts together and, it
will be noted, acting also to clamp or hold the 55
rotor 25 rigidly in place.
` '
The lower wall portion 80a (Figure 2) is coun
terbored as at 80f to provide a seatA for the
>outer race 211’- of a suitable combined thrust
and radial anti-friction bearing generally indi
cated at 21 whose inner race 21b is seated against
>a shoulder _28a ofv a vertically extending stud
formed in the thickened peripheral portions of shaft
The uppermost wall portion 80dr is similarly
the above-mentioned skirt portions III and |2I, x counterbored as at 80E to receive the outer race 65
65 respectively, the above-mentioned air fins resting
against the upper face of these peripheral portions 29a of a suitable combined thrust and radial anti
friction bearing generally indicated at 29, whose
thus limiting or íixing the position of- the elec
inner race 29h is snugly received about the upper
trodes and .thus'insuring that the active tip ends '
end of the same cylindrical portion of the stud
z thereof fall in the same plane. The electrodes
28 onto which the inner race 2‘Ih of the bearing 70
70 | I2 and |25 are held in their respective holes each 21 is ñtted.
by a set screw 49, and the upper ends of the elec
Intermediate'of the bearings 21 and 29 and»
trodes |I2 and |25 Vmaybe covered over by ring
similarly strung, as it were, onto the stud shaft
like plates 50 and 5| secured respectively to the 28. is the stator 30 of the above-mentioned motor
extreme peripheral or flange portions of the por
75 tions III and I2I, respectively.
Thus, the as-`
and adapted to coact with `the- above-mentioned 75
rotor 25.
Certain features of the construction
are described later but for present purposes it
will suffice to say. that the stator 30 is made
preferably of disk-like laminations of suitable
magnetic material, suitably diametered to be re
ceived, ,with adequate clearance, within the
annular rotor core 25.
Interposed between the stator 30 and the inner
race 29b is a ring or spacer 3| and interposed
10 between the stator 30 and the inner race 21b is a
spacer 32, these lspacers vbeing likewise strung
onto the stud shaft 28. The latter, just above
the upper bearing 29, is threaded as at 28b to
terbored as at. 120€ to receive the outer race 40a
of a combined radial and thrust anti-friction
bearing 40, whose inner race 40h is snugly ñtted
onto the cylindrical part of the stud 2B.
Intermediate of the bearings 39l and 40 and
also strung onto the shaft 28 is the stator 4|,
also preferably laminated and hence made up of
suitable sheets of- magnetic material, such as
transformer iron, but with a collar or spacer 42
between the stator 4| and the inner race 39b
anda collar or spacer 43 between the stator 4|
and the inner race 401’.
The lower end portion of the stud 28 is
receive a threaded nut or collar 33, suitably aper
threaded, as at 28e, to receive a nut or collar 44
15 tured to be manipulated by a Spanner wrench,
suitably apertured to be operated by a spanner
and when this nut 33 is tightened or driven -wrench, or the like. Between the nut 44 and
home, the inner race 21h, spacer 32, stator core the shoulder 28a on the stud 28 the inner race
30, spacer 3|, and the inner race 29b are se
39h, the spacer 42, the stator 4|, the spacer 43,
curely clamped between the nut 33 and the and the inner race 4|)b are securely clamped and
shoulder 28a, thus dependably holding these
parts in assembled relation. Accordingly, with
the stud shaft 28 rigidly held in position, as is
later described herein, the housing 80 with its
rotor 25 and is depending electrodes ||2 may
freely rotate about the stator 30 and the studr
shaft 28.
The stator 30 carries appropriate windings 34,
described in more detail hereinafter, and one
~ terminal of the windings 34 is grounded as at 35
held in assembled relation.
The stator 4| is provided with windings 45 one
terminal of lwhich is grounded as at 46 and the
other terminal of which is carried, as by con
ductor 41, through an appropriate aperture in the
spacer 42 into` a radial channel 28f in the stud
shaft 28 _and thence upwardly in the channel 28d
where the conductor is joined to the above-men
tioned conductor 36 which'merges from the chan
nel adjacent the upper end- of the stud 2B by way A
30 to the stator 30 and the other terminal is brought of a radial passage 28g, whence it lies within a 30
by a contactor 36 through a suitable aperture in keyway-like slot 20h.
the spacer 32 or in the stator 30 or both, andThus, the lower or inner housing |20 with its ~
thence through a radial channel 28C in the stud electrodes |25 is mounted for free rotation co
28 and thence upwardly within the latter axially with the upper or outer housing 80, the
35 through an axially extending channel 28d.
electrodes and theirv‘driving means forming a
The lower or inner electrode housing |20 com
compact unit which vmay be fixed in position by
prises, as vabove noted, also two` parts; one of appropriately securing the stud shaft 28 to a suit
thesel comprises an upper disk-like and generally
horizontally extending upper Wall portion |20a
` terminating about its periphery in a downwardly
extending cylindrica1 portion |20b which is coun
terbored as at |20c to form a seat within which
is received and seated the rotor 31, preferably
built-up of annular laminations of suitable mag
netic material. From the upper disk-like wallv
portion |20’.i the skirt portion |21, which carries
the electrodes |25 above described, projects out
wardly and downwardly under the cover of the
skirt portion || | of the upper housing 80. The
extreme peripheral or end portions of the parts
||| and 12|, within which are the recesses for
receiving the electrodes, terminate preferably in
the same horizontal plane though they are' of
sufñciently diiîerent diameters to give the »de
55 sired spacing between the two sets of opposite/ly
rotating electrodes.
'I_‘he lother part or portion of the two-part
housing |20 includes a bottom closing wall por
able support, The operatingfparts of the motor
or motors are dependably encased and if desired
further security of enclosure may be achieved 40
by interposing felt or similar washers 48, seated
in appropriate recesses in the hub portions of the
casing parts 80d and |20d, between the latter and
the collars 33 and 44, respectively.
The induction motors within the housings 80
and |20 are preferably constructed to operate at
commercially available frequencies, such as 60
cycle alternating current energy and may be con
structed to operate at a voltage on the order of
110 volts -or. 220 volts. The motor within the
housing 80 is constructed as -a six-pole motor
giving a speed of rotation of the housing 80 and
hence the electrodes |I2 of 1200 R. P.' M. The
diameter of the circle of the electrodes |25 car
ried by the housing |20 is less than the diameter
of the circle of the electrodes H2> and, to give
substantially the same linear speed thereto, the
motor within the housing |20 is constructed as
tion |20d which extends in a rgeneral horizontal
60 direction'though inclined somewhat upwardly Aa four-pole motor which, at 60 cycles, gives a
speed of substantially 1800 R. P. M.
(Figure 2) terminating peripherally in an up-y
wardly extending cylindrical wall portion |20@
Where the electrode structures S and T of Fig
ure 1 take the form above described in connection
with Figures 2 and 3, the, studs ~ 28 thereof are
which mates with the end of the cylindrical wall
portion 1201>, closing the recess |20c in which the ’ secured to the beam 82, which may be metallic,
rotor 31 is seated and, when the two parts areMJ by suitable socket-like brackets 52 and 53 (Figure
>secured together as by thescrews 38, the rotor 1). The conductors 36 that come up through 65
31 is securely clamped or held in place.
the stud shafts 28> (see Figure 2) may be con
The yinnermost- portion of the upper wally ‘por-y ` , nected to a common conductor 54 that leads to
tion |20a is counterbored as atl |20bto receive one side of a suitable source of power current,
70 the outer race 39a of a combined thrust and
radial bearing4 39,~ whose inner race 39b is snugly
fitted to the lower portion of the stud 28 _but
which abuts against the -shoulder 28a above
.sucëi as 60-cycle alternating current energy, and 70
illu tratively taking the form of a transformer
55.” The other side of this source is connected by
conductor 56 to' the beam 82 to which the other
» mentioned.
terminals of the windingsof the motor or motors
75 ’The lower or closed V«wall portion |20d is“ coun- j within , the electrode structures S and T arev
grounded as was above described in connection
with Figure 2, thus completing the supply to the
windings of the motor or motors of the driving
The electrodes ||2 and |25 are maintained at
a high potential, a potential on the order' of
150,000 volts, preferably alternating and pref
yokes |46 and |41, respectively, preferably bolted
to the side wall portions 2| and 22 of the conveyor
belt supporting framework (see Figure l) .
For reasons of simplicity and economy of con
struction, the cylindrical groups |4l and |42 of
like electronic conduction devices |43 and their
associated supporting structures |44-_|46 and
|45-_|41 are preferably identical so that but the
-one group |42 and the supporting structures
|45-|41 is considered in detail.
10 This potential is supplied by a low voltage high
frequency alternator 51 supplying energy to a
there is shown at |45 a circular rack preferably
step-up transformer Sli-59, one terminal of the rotatably
mounted and including illustratively a.
high voltage winding 59 of which is grounded to
the frame of the machine as at 60 and the other flat dish-shaped cast aluminum base |48 having 15
a central hub portion |48a and an outer upturned
15 terminal of which is connected to the supporting `rim portion |48b, the outer periphery of which is
beam 82, as by way of the conductor 56. The
provided with raised circumferential sections ,
transformer 55, in this case, is insulated to with
|42!c and |48d to form a sheave, the purpose of
stand this high voltage and thus safely to pro
will appear more fully hereinafter.
tect the low voltage side and circuit of the trans
Preferably made integral with the base |48 20
20 former 55 against this high voltage. The elec
trode structures S and T being grounded to the and spaced adjacent and including the outer up
turned rim |48b thereof, are a number of indi
beam 82 or mechanically and electrically con
nected thereto, are thus maintained at this'high vidual socket wall portions |48e which are adapted
to receive the lower ends of .electronic conduction
devices |43 comprising the cylindrical group |42.
interior of the various sockets |48e is pref
ports the structures S and T so that the planes 'I'he
erably enlarged and adapted to receive a ring
of- their electrodes are parallel to the plane of the
|49 of yieldable material, such as feld or rubber,
product-carrying side of the belt Il and is mov
the upper edge of which contacts the lower edge
ably supported by the main frame l0 for adjust
of the inwardly extending rim |48f or reduced 30
30 ment thereof and hence of the electrode struc
section of the socket which loosely receives an
tures S and T toward or away from the belt |`|.
electronic conduction devicel |43. The ring |49
A possible form of adjusting or elevating mecha
is forced upwardly against th'e inwardly extend
nism is indicated in Figure l and it may include
the manually controlled elevating screws 6| and ing rim |48f by a metallic circular band |50 which 35
is loosely received within the socket and which is
35 62 whose threaded brackets 53 and 64 are con
held in position by a cup-shaped end-cap |5|
nected to the high potential structure or beam threaded in the lower slightly enlarged interior
l82 through insulating frames 65 and 56, re
of socket |488.
Each electronic conduction device |43 prefer
Cooperating with the electrode structures S ably
includes a cylindrical thin-walled glass en 40
and T and spaced immediately beneath the upper
velope |52, the upper closed end of which is
part of conveyor belt |`| and» the insulating sheet dented
in or recessed as at |529' lending strength
20, there are arranged, preferably in the form of and rigidity to the end closure. Sealed intothe
two cylindrical groups |4| and |42 (see Figure l)
lower end |52b of the glass envelope and pref
substantially coaxially with the electrode struc
erably axial thereto is an electrode |53 having an 45
enlarged metallic head portion |53a and a down
preferably identical electronic conduction devices wardly extending stem portion |53b of reduced
|43. The extreme outside diameters of the cylin
size. The electrode |53 is partially supported by
drical groups |4| and |42 of these conduction de
|54a and |54b in their associated support
vices are preferably equal to or slightly less than wires
ing ring portion |54c conveniently sealed into 50
tip portions of the outer rings of electrodes | l2 of the protruding end portion |52b of the glass
the electrode structures S and T, where the latter. envelope.
The glass envelope preferably contains one of
take the form described in connection with Fig
erably of relatively high frequency, a frequency,
for example, on the order of 640 cycles per second.
the noble gases, such as neon, at a‘ pressure of
ures 2 and 3, as they are whirled above the con
, illustratively 6 millimeters of mercury which is 55
veyor and the product to be treated. The inside Y
adapted to be ionized and rendered highly con
diameters of the cylindrical groups |4| and |42 of -these conduction devices are substantially equal ductive when subjected to a suñicient high elec
to or greater than the diameters of the circular
paths traced bythe extreme tip portions of the
60 inner rings of electrode members |25 of the elec
trode structures S and T, respectively.
Preferably, the electronic conduction devices
|43 are in the form of elongated cylindrical tubes
of diameters substantially equal to the distance
between the centers of the inner and outer elec
trodes ||2 and |25, andof such ,length that they
are adapted to be conveniently received within
the space between the upper and lower sides of
belt l1; illustratively the length is five or six times
the diameter.
The various electronic conduction devices |43
are maintained in cylindrical groups |4| and |42
spaced from electrode structures S and T re
spectively, as indicated above, by suitable racks
75 |44 and |45. and their associated supporting
trical potential gradient, as will more fully ap
pear hereinafter.
The electrode stem |53b projects through a 60
small hole portion |5|a provided in the end cap
|5| whereit is bent over and fastened to the
end cap by a suitable screw |55 after the elec
tronic conduction device is properly positioned
within the socket.
In positioning the electronic conduction device
in its socket so that it is firmly held against lat
eral displacement in spite of slight shocks and
jars that may be encountered in actual use, ring
|49 of yieldable material is expanded in a radial 70
direction so as to tightly press against the wall of
the electronic conduction device adjacent its
lower portion by screwing up end cap |5| and
forcing the circular band |50 to compress the
ring |49 in an axial direction.
6 .
To maintain the various electronic conduction
devices k«M13 in upright positions with their axes
parallel to the central axis of the cylindrical
group |92, a short insulating tubular section |56.
n preferably of a material such as Dilecto or lam
;inated Bakelite having high electrical insulating
properties .coupled with mechanical strength, is
axially mounted on hub |63a of the base plate |68
and supports the l flat circular disk |51 `(in >a
10 plane substantially perpendicular thereto)
insulating material, such as Diletco or laminated
suitable number, of spaced hole portions |51b
‘ which are adapted to snugly receive the _upper
portions `of the electronic conduction devices.
'I‘he recessed lower end of tubular section |56
receives and is attached to Bakelite bushing |59
which snugly fits the outer periphery of hub lili!EL
-of base plate |68. Tubular section |56 is at
tached to bushing |59 by means of screws |60;
the rim portion of bushing |59 is attached to
base |68 by means of screws |6l.
portion ldßaof base plate M8.
Ball bearing assembly §61 preferably has semi
thrust characteristics and sustains part of the
weight of the array of electronic conduction de
vices and their supporting rack M5; the upper
end of recessed portion M311 resting directly on the
upper edgeY of the outer race |611’ of the lower ball
bearing assembly. Lower ball-bearing assembly
|61 is preferably rendered dust-tight and grease
tight by a dust ring |61c preferably including a
Bakelite, the central portion ofl which is recessed - felt ring, the inner periphery of which rides upon
Vas at |51a and adapted to snugly fit a reduced the outer periphery of the inner race |611a of the
end section |56a of lthe central tube |56 and be ball bearing assembly, and the outer periphery of
fastened- thereto by a suitable-pin or set screw
A. |58. The outer rim of disk |51 is provided with a
received within a recessed portion 168k of the hub
which is preferably received withinv a recessed
portion of the outer lrace |61b and maintained
tight in this position by a spring ring seated with
in a circumferential groove.
Thus, the cylindrical array of electronic con
duction devices is securely supported'and adaptedto be rotated about an axis -coincident with the
axis of rotation of an electrode structure and with
the extreme upper ends of the electronic devices
moving in a common plane substantially parallel
to that of the extreme tip portions of electrode
members ||2 and |25 and to the upper conveying
The various electronic conduction devices |63 ‘ surface
of belt l1.
are adjusted in rack |45 so that their upper closed
noted that the above
end portions just clear the lower surface of the
s_olid dielectric plate 20 supporting the upper part described rack and rotatable mounting therefor
permits a maximum length of electronic conduc
of theI conveyor belt I1 within the region im
tion device between upper and lower sides of belt
mediately beneath electrode structure S or T.
They are maintained in this position by the stem I1, or fora desired size and length of electronic
conduction device enables a minimum size of driv
portion or terminal |53b of the electrode which, ing
and driven pulleys I5 and |6, respectively; the
as above-mentioned, is brought out and fastened lower
side of belt |1 passes in a return direction
to the end cap |5|. The electronic conduction
devices are further held in proper position as just clear of the lowermost portions of the sup
above-mentioned by the gripping action of the porting yoke |61'to permit a generally compact
and rigid construction which, furthermore, is ex
yieldable rings |49 included within each socket. tremely
light in weight and well adaptedto be'
Rack |65 with electronic conduction devices supported by the light insulating conveyor belt
|63 arrayed in a cylindrical formation about its‘ supporting structure.
outer portions, is preferably rotatably mounted
As mentioned above, the cylindrical array IM
on a short upstanding shaft |62, the lower end of of electronic conduction devices |63 mounted in
which is received within the central portion |61.a rack |44 and supported by yoke |66 are prefer
of an H-shaped yoke, preferably of cast alumi
ably of identical construction to the cylindrical
num. The H-shaped yoke is also provided with array of electronic conduction devices |63 mount
arms |ll1b, the ends of which are illustratively ed in rack |45' and supported by yoke |61, all as
crooked upwardly and bolted to the- lower edges -more particularly described above.
of the insulating side membersZl and 22 of the
The electronic conduction devices or gaseous
conveyor belt supporting structure 2D, etc. The conduction devices thus constructed are prefer
central portion of yoke |131a is preferably pro_- ( ably rotated in` opposite directions conveniently l 50
vided with a raised collar |61c integral therewith,
upon the upper edge, of which rests a shoulder
,portion |62P- of the shaft |62; permanent con
55 nection between shaft and yoke being achieved
preferably by horizontal pins |63.
Shaft |62 is provided with an upper reduced
portion |62b which receives the inner race |64a
of the upper ball bearing assembly |615 preferably
of a semithrust construction.. The inner rac'e is
secured to the shaft by a nut |65 which holds the
race against a shoulder portion |62c of the shaft.
The outer race |66b >of the ball bearing assembly
65 is received within a recessed portion Illßg of the
hub portion MGS of base plate |68 and is
maintained securely therein by end cap |66 which
threadedlyengages an upper interiorly-threaded
portion of hub |68a.’ End cap `|66 is interiorly
70 cupped so yas to permit free movement with re
spect to nut |65 and the upper end of shaft |62.
Shaft |62 is provided with an additional reduced
portion |62d upon which is mounted the inner race
|61a of the ball bearing assembly |61 in a pressed
,65 fit relation, the outer race |61b of which is tightly
by an electric motor |68 illustratively of the single
‘phase induction type which is conveniently bolted
to an outwardly projecting arm portion ||e pref
erably made integral with the upstanding support 55
Mechanical driving energyv is conveniently
transmitted to electronic conduction device rotor
assemblies l|lH-|4¢l_l66 and |42--|45-|41 by a
belt |69 of high electrical insulating character
istics, such as a cotton fabric', which is received
within sheaves or circumferential groove portions
of racks |44 and |45, the detailed construction of
which is more particularly set forth above, the
belt preferably crossing over at a point t between
the rotor assemblies so as to rotate them in op
posite directions.
Motor |68 is preferably driven (upon being en
ergized in a manner described more fully herein
after) in a counter-clockwise direction, looking 70
downwardly on the motor as seen in Figure 1, and
transmits motion by belt |69 to electronic conduc
tion device rotor assemblies läl-lM-lllß and
|42--|65-|111 in ccunterclockwise and clockwise
directions, respectively.
The rotation of the electronic conduction de
are somewhat in excess of the respective lengths
vice rotor assemblies is preferably relatively slow
giving them a peripheral velocity of about 500
the condenser plates 61 and 68 are made substan
of the treatment zones along the belt; preferably
feet per minute. The advantages of rotating the
electronic conduction device rotor assemblies will
tially square (see Figure 6).
The condenser plates 61 and 68 are preferably
appear more fully hereinafter in considering cer
being substantially parallel to that of the tips
mounted in a common plane, the plane of each
tain electrical actions and effects on the product of the electrode structures S and T, respectively,
to be treated as it is conveyed through the region
‘l and the plates are mounted in any suitable man
between the _rotating electrodes maintained at a ner so that they may be moved in a vertical di 10
high electrical potential and their respectively rection and without being shifted in their axial
associated electronic conduction device rotor as
relation with respect to the electrode structures
S and T. An illustrative form of mounting is
KUnder operating conditions of the treating ap
shown in Figure 1 and it will be seen to include
paratus electronic conduction devices |43 become a cross-beam support 69 upon which the plates 15
ionized, in a manner more fully described herein
61 and 68 are directly mounted. The member 69
after, and emit a dull red-orange glow (for neon)
is preferably of such a material, for example iron
indicating that the tube is functioning properly. or steel, which lends suitable mechanical support
In order that- the devices may be observed, the to the condenser plates 61 and 68 and which also
downwardly extending side members 2| and 22 serves as an electrical conducting member be 20
of the conveyor belt supporting structure are pro
tween the plates and the frame. The cross-beam
vided with apertures (not shown) adjacent elec
69 includes the threaded brackets which respec
tronic conduction device rotor assembly |4|--- tively engage suitable elevating screws 1|] and 1|
|44---|46 (see Figure 1) and apertures 2|c and suitably journalled in standards || and l2.
22° (Figure 7) adjacent electronic conduction de
The elevating screws 1li-1| may be conjointly 25
vice rotor assembly |42-|45-|41.
controlled as by a hand-wheel 12 suitably geared
A defective electronic conduction device may to the screws, as shown in Figure l, and thereby
be readily detected by an absence of the above
the condenser plates 61 and 6B may be positioned
mentioned glow of the device and a replacement appropriately with respect to the electronic con
of the defective electronic conduction device may duction devices above described _and also with 30
then be made. `In effecting the replacement of an respect to the electrode structures S and T.
electronic conduction device |43, the edge of the `
The product to be treated, illustratively ñour,
lower side of conveyor belt |1 immediately beneath milled cereal, or the like, and illustratively pack
the defective device is pushed clear of the space aged and hence indicated at C in Figure l, is,
immediately `beneath the particular socket sup
as above noted, moved by the conveyor l1 ina
direction from the left to the right and hence it
lo L! porting the defective device; the belt being of such
length and physical characteristics as to pernut enters 'ñrst the treatment zone under the electrode
the distortion indicated.
structure S and then the treatment zone under
End cap |5| associated with socket Hlth-«|48e the electrode structure T, a corona-like discharge
(see Figure 7) holding the defective device |43 is emanating from the tips z of the oppositely rotat 40
ing rings or circles of electrodes ||2 and |25 (see
40 then unscrewed from the lower portion of the
socket and tube> |43 is withdrawn or pulled down Figures 2 and 3) in each ofthe electrode struc
through the socket and taken out beneath the tures ÑS and T, accompanied by actions already
conveyor belt " supporting structure,
sufficient . briefly described in connection with the structure
working space being provided between the arms
of yoke |41. A replacement of the defective elec
tronic conduction device is effected in a sub
stantially reverse order, care being taken, as men
the electrode members and their relatively high
tioned above in connection with the initial mount
ing of the electronic conduction devices in their
50 respective sockets, that the upper end of the re
placed device be properly spaced from the solid
dielectricsheet 20. Thus, a defective conduction
device may be readily detected and quickly and
'effectively’replaced with a minimum expenditure
55 of eifort and with a minimum shut-down of the
apparatus, all with a minimum change, altera
tion or disturbance of other p_arts of the appa
of Figure 2; this corona-like discharge impinges 45
.upon the belt I1 or upon the dielectric plate 2U
that supports the belt, and due to the number of
As mentioned above, the lower base plates of
60 the racks supporting the various electronic con
duction devices are preferably made of metal, as
well as the supporting shafts, bearings and yokes,
so that paths of good electrical conductivity are
provided from the various electrodes of the elec
65 tronic conduction devices, through the parts
above-mentioned including the electrically con
ductive metallic end caps to which the electrodes
are directly connected.
Referring to Figurejl, desirably underneath
70 conveyor belt |1 are positioned two condenser
plates> 61 and~68. In this embodiment these
plates arf,` made of sheet metal and have a di
mention crosswise of the `belt in excess of the
width‘of the belt itself or the width of the plate 26.
The lengths of the condenser plates 61 and 68
rate of movement, as well as due to the high fre
_quency of «the potential applied to them, the 50
corona discharge that emanates from each circle
of electrodes is in the form substantially of an
annulus of 'innumerable and apparently dense
mass of fine corona streamers.
The lower por
tions of these annuli are controlled and pre
vented from spreading or straying by the action
of the electronic conduction devices M3 above
described, the action of which, moreover, due >to
their movement or rotation as above described,
is uniformly distributed throughout the general 60
circle `whichtheir upper ends deñne.
This action is important in achieving rapid and
eiiicient sterilization. When a product which is
being treated is passing through >the treatment
z_one the' concentration of flux and the movement 65
of the electrodes results in thorough steriliza
tion of the product. 4As will be explained below
in connection with Figures 8 and 9, the corona
discharge is directed to every portion of the arti
cle as it passes through the apparatus.
vIn the above-mentioned annuli of concentrated
local rupture or corona discharge, the articles or
materials to be treated are moved by the con
tinuously moving belt |1. The material, hav
ing a higher average permittivity than the air di
2,13%,703 '
electric through which the local rupture had been
taking place, brings about a redistribution of the
voltages in the paths leading from the electrode
tips H2 and ,S25 to the condenser plate â'l (or t8)
and in fact causes a, still greater and more in
tense concentration of the local rupture and also
an earlier rupture (because it is made to occur at
a lower point on the voltage wave) than had
been previously taking place.
The air dielectric intervening the spaces in the
particles of the material, such as the grains of
corn meal, is quickly ionized _and is, in fact, over
stressed to a greater extent than the air dielectric
between the electrode tips z of electrodes H2
15 and E25 and the plate 2@ because of this in.
tervening air dielectric having a low permittivity,
namely unity, while the average permittivity of
thereof sumciently great, so that each of itself
can withstand the total or maximum high po
tential of its own circuit without breakdown or
rupture, and thus spark-over or complete rupture
in the circuit of either electrode structure S o-r
T is prevented. Furthemo're, by varying the
spacing of the rotating electrodes from the' belt
H, I may control theintensity of the individual
corona streamers to suit them to the particular
conditions to be met with in practice.
But an action comes into play because of the
character and/or movement of the corona
streamers emanating _from the two oppositely
moving or rotating sets of electrodes H2 and §25,
this action being identical in the two structures L
S and 'I' and repeated; in fact, because of this
feature of action, Iam enabled to dispense en
the individual particles of the material'is higher tirely with one treatment zone and hence utiliz-than that of, air. Hence the local rupture or ing only one electrode structure (S or T) with
20 corona takes place within and throughout the
material and; because the contaminating insect Y the corresponding control means, such as only
life has a substantially inñnite permittivity and one Vcylindrical group Ml of tubes M3 and one
condenser, such as the air condenser formed be
is in eüect electrically conducting, this insect life tween
the parts H38 (Figures 7 and 1) and the
is sought out by the corona streamers which pass
condenser plate Si. In Figures 8 and 9 I have
therethrough and thus bring about its destruction. diagrammatically shown, by circles made up of
The uniform current- density, toward the
the directions of movement of the sets
achievement of which the electronic conduction arrows,
of electrodes i l2 and l25, and four successive po
devices 463 contribute, aids materially in achiev
of the same package C as it is moved in the
ing eñective and uniform destruction of insect sitions
direction from A to B and hence from left .to
If the material is packaged as, for example, in
tendency of the corona dis
pasteboard cartons or packages, the above-de
charge emanating from the moving electrodes
scribed actions likewise take place but are ac
the structure S (or T) -to persist particularly
companied by a further action which prevents
along the outside surfaces of the side or end walls
35 puncturing of the material oi the carton. The ofthe package C when, due to the direction of
pasteboard or paper or like material of the pack
age. has an average permittivity that is higher movement of the electrodes, the discharge is
moved, as viewed in Figures 8 and 9, toward the
than the air which, prior to the entry of the pack
package, and because of flux refraction and like
age into the treatment zone, constituted the di
factors brought about by the action of the paper
'40 electric between the electrode structure S (or T)
or pasteboard or like dielectrics of which the
and the plate 2li (see Figure 1). More particu
carton is made, thereis a tendency for the corona
larly, the walls of the carton or package act as
discharge not to take place in regions of the
condenser dielectrics which become serially re
material within the package closely adjacent to
lated with the dielectrics of the fixed and variable that exterior side or end wall of the paêkage'
45 capacities otherwise in the circuit. The resultant onto which the discharge has just been wiped or
“redistribution of voltages throughout the thus swept.
newly and serially related condenser dielectrics . For example, _at the left of Figure 8 note how
is such that the voltage gradient across the ma „the _electrodes M2 sweep lthe discharge down
terial of the carton is below ,the puncturing> wardly (as viewed in that figure) with respect
gradient and hence puncturing of the material to the upper side wall; accordingly, there is a
of the carton is positively precluded. region or portion of the material adjacent that
The solid dielectric (member 2h) of the above-~
mentioned iìxed capacities also functions to pro
tect the electronic conduction tubes M3 against
55 punctureof the glass envelopes thereof and I am
thus enabled to avoid the disadvantages that
might accompany the use- of electronic conduc
tion devices of otherwise adequately thick walls.
In the ‘absence of such protective means,` the
60 walls of the tubes M53 would have to be made
relatively very thick with the result that it ‘would
be dimcult to achieve a sumcient homogeneity
of current density at the bottom of the corona
>annuli because in turn the gas columns could not
65 be suñiciently closely spaced.
Another action that comes into play and con-`
tributes toward the achievement ofthe above
side wall that is likely to be insuiiiciently treated,
but in the region adjacent the lower side wall of
the package in the left-hand positionl in Figure 8,
that action does not take place and the material
is thoroughly sterilized.
«Howeven as the package continues to move
from the left to the right, it strikes the oppo
sitely moving eiîects of the inside ring of elec
trodes‘mäfand the discharge from the latter acts 60
in a reversed manner, namely, while it may not
thoroughly act upon 'the material adjacent the
lower side wall of the package (that being now
not necessary since that portion was thoroughly
treated by the ring of electrodes H2) it does, 65
however, completely permeate and penetrate all
`portions of the material adjacent the upper side
:described results and advantages is the condenser wall (the portion or region that was'likely to be
action between the plate memberswmiélâkandt‘l o Yinsufiiciently treated by the discharge from the
'i to (Figure l) in the circuit of the treatment zone electrodes M2).
under electrode structure S; and between the
As the package continues to move toward the
plates iti? and _td in the circuit of the treatment right and progressively into and through the
'I äzone of the electrode structure T; these `are vir
right-hand portion of Figure 8, these actions are
tually air condensers and they are dimensio'ned, again reversed, and thus double certainty of com- "
v ‘55 as by maintaining the spacings `between the plates plete sterilization is achieved, it being understood
I claim:
that similar actions as above described take place
1. In electrical treating apparatus of the type
with respect also to the leading and trailing ver
tical or end walls of the package. Figures 8 and
wherein a high potential is impressed across a
pair of electrodes to produce discharges within
9, therefore, indicate diagrammatically succes
a treatment zone, in combination, a source of
sive positions of the same package with respect high
potential, capacity-forming means con
to the oppositely moving concentric rings of elec
thereto and including two opposed rotat
trodes and show how the possible deñciencies of ing electrode
means having adjacent eiîective
one s_et of electrodes with respect to material im
discharge-controlling portions of substantially
mediately inside of a particular vertical wall of matching effective area with a treatment zone 10
the package are remedied by the action of the
therebetween, one of said electrode means com
other of the concentrically moving electrodes.
two coaxial electrode members rotating
As all these actions take place, the air being prising
scooped up by the vanes I i4“ (Figures 2, 4 and 5) in opposite directions, and means for moving a
through said treatment zone.
is projected downwardly through the orifices or product
2. In electrical treating apparatus of the type
nozzles H5“, not only ~with actions already above wherein a high potential is impressed across a
described, but also thereby blowing out of the pair of electrodes to produce discharges within
treatment zone ionized air or air remaining
a treatment zone, in combination, a source of
ionized when, in a voltage wave or pulsation, the
high potential, capacity-forming means con
instantaneous »discharge has ceased. This action
nected thereto and including two opposed rotat
ing electrode means having adjacent eiîective
l is important because it makes sure that, upon
the next voltage wave or impulse, the local rup
ture or corona discharge takes place on a higher
point of the voltage wave.
discharge-controlling portions of substantially
matching effective area with a treatment zone
therebetween, Aone of said electrode means com
As earlier above noted. various forms of elec
trode structures may be employed and I have
prising two coaxial ring-like members, each hav
ing a plurality of discharge electrodes directed
pointed out how, withv the unique arrangement
toward the other electrode means, means for ro
of Figures 2 and 3, I may utilize only one treat
ment zone instead of the two, as shown in Fig
ure 1. However, I may achieve other advantages
v and results of my invention by using for the
electrode structure S only one of the rings of
electrodes of Figures 2 and 3 and its correspond
ing motor drive. In such case I employ two elec
trode structures S and T, but drive them in
tating said ring members in opposite directions,
and means for moving a product through said
treatment zone.
3. In electrical treating apparatus of the type
wherein a high potential is impressed across a
pair of electrodes to produce discharges within
a treatment zone, in combination, a source of
high potential, capacity-forming means con
nected thereto and including two opposed rotat
ing electrode means having adjacent eiîective
opposite directions, thereby providing two later
allyspaced treatment zones in which the actions,
with respect to packaged material, are reversed
discharge-controlling portions of substantially
and thus complete sterilization insured.
'I'he Ywindings of the motors employed in the
matching -effective area with a treatment zone
therebetween, one of said electrode means com 40
structure shown in Figure" 2 may take the form
shown in Figures 10 and l1 in which the stator
is, as above noted, slotted to receive the various
prising two oppositely rotating electrode mem
bers, and the other electrode means comprising
electronic conduction means, and means for mov
coils WI, W2, W3, W4, etc., connected serially
ing a product through said treatment zone.
and also to the other circuits, as already above
described. The rotor may have a winding of the
sguirrel cage type, known in the art, and indi
-cated‘in Figure 10 by the cross-conductors K
connected to the spaced rings P (see also Figure
2). The periphery of the stator may also _be
slotted and set into the slots, closed circuit coils
X (Figure l1) acting as shading coils to give
the motor appropriate starting characteristics.
The rotating cylindrical groups Uil and M2
of conduction `tubes _M3 coact in achieving the
above-described actions of the rotating electrode
structures S and T and coact also in achieving
the results .above described in connection with
Figures 8 and 9. They insure uniform density
of discharge in the treatment zones and> also
uniform distribution of the corona streamers
throughout the annulus or annuli of discharge
emanating from the rotating ring or rings of
. It will thus
be seen that there has been pro
vided in this invention an apparatus in which
the various objects above described, together with
many thoroughly practical advantages, are suc
cessfully achieved.
' As many possible embodiments may be made
of the above invention and as many changes
.might be made in the embodiment above set
forth, it is to be understood that all matter
hereinbefore set forth or shown in the accom
panying drawings, is to be interpreted as illus
trative and not in a limiting sense. '
4. In electrical treating apparatus, in combi 45
nation, a source of high potential, capacity
forming means connected thereto and including
a movable electrode structure and means juxta
posed thereto for coaction- therewith for produc
ing an electric discharge within a treatment zone, 50
means for moving a product through said treat
ment zone, said electrode structure having a dis
charge electrode and means responsive to the
movement of said electrode structure for effect
ing a blast of air current lengthwise of said elec 55
5. In electrical treating apparatus, in combi
nation, a source of high potential, capacity
forming means connected thereto and including
a movable electrode structure and means juxta CO
posed'thereto for coaction therewith for produc
ing an electric discharge within a treatment zone,
means for moving a product through said treat
ment zone, said electrode structure having a tube
like electrode and vane-like means responsive to 65
movement of said electrode structure for scoop
ing air into said discharge electrode.
6. In electrical treating apparatus, in combina
tion, a source'of high potential, capacity-forming
means connected thereto and including a mov
able electrode structure and means juxtaposed
thereto for coaction therewith for producing an
electric discharge within a treatment zone, means
for moving a product through said treatment
zone, said electrode structure having an electrode 75
projecting therefrom and said electrode having
an eiîective discharge-emanatingportion remov
ably secured thereto.
7. An apparatus like that of claim 1 in which
there are means for moving ionized air out of
the discharge zones.
8. An apparatus like that of claim 1 in which
the two coaxial electrode members are carried re
spectively by motive means, the rotating elements
10 of which rotate in opposite directions.
9. An apparatus like that of claim 1 in which
the two coaxial electrode members are carried
respectively by two rotating housings, one of
which is reentrant and receives therein the other,
15 and means within the housings for eiîecting their
stationary elements therebetween and for there- l I
by securing them to` said stud-like member.
20. A construction as claimed in claim 18 in
which one of said frame-like membersris reen
trantand receives therein the other frame-like
member, said electrode means on each being of
substantially the same length, said frame-like
members having means lying in substantially the
same plane transversely to the axis of said stud
like member for supporting said electrode means. 10
21. A construction'as‘claimed in claim 18 in
which the means rotatably supporting said
frame-like members is in the form of a plurality
of antifriction bearings having inner and outer
races, said inner races being strung along said
stud-like memberJ and alternated with said sta
10. An apparatus Ylike that of claim 1 in which ' tionary elements of said two motive means, said
the two coaxial electrode members are rotatably oute? races being respectively secured to said two
supported by a common stationary support, the frame-like members and said stud-like member
20 latter'carrying driving means effecting opposite carrying -means for clamping said inner races` 20
directions of rotation of said coaxial electrode
`11. An apparatus like that of claim 1 in which "
the coaxial electrode members rotate about a
25 common stationary support, and means rotatably
supporting them with respect to said support.
for thereby securing them to said stud-like mem
22. A construction as claimed in claim 18 in
which the two'motive means are electromotive
means, the stationary and rotatable elements
12. An apparatus like that of claim 1 in which
the coaxialelectrode members are supported by
a common supporting means, the latter carrying
30 the stationary elements of two motive means, and
rotatably supporting the rotatable elements of
thereof having coacting windings which, when y
energized from a suitable source of electrical
energy, effect rotation of said rotatable elements
vand hence of vsaid frame-like members with re 30
said motive means, and means connecting the`
spect to said stationary elements, said stud-like
member having extending therealong _channel
rotating elements respectively to said electrode
means, and electrical conductor means along said
13. An apparatus like that of claim 6 in which
the removable portion is secured to the electrode
by a bayonet joint.
14. Anl apparatus like that of claim 6 in which
the electrode structure is of sheet metal tubing.
with said. stationary elements therebetween and
channel means and . leading to said windings
whereby, when said conductor means is connected 35
to a Ísuitable source of electrical energy, said
windings may be energized.
portion juxtaposed to the two oppositely rotating
23. A construction as claimed in claim 18 in
which that motive means that drives the frame
like member that carries the electrode means at a 40
larger distance from the said common axis than
the distance at which the other electrode means
is carried by the other of said frame-like mem
bers is constructed to drive its frame-like member
and hence its electrode means at a lower R. P. M. 45
electrode members that deiines an annular area
commensurate with the annular »area defined _by
member by its motive means.
15. An apparatus like that of claim 6 in which
the discharge-emanating portion is made of sheet
16. An apparatus like that of claim 3 in which
the electronic conduction'means has an eifective
than the R. P. M. of drive of the other frame-like
the rotating electrode members.
24. A construction as claimed in claim 18 in
17. An apparatus like that of claim 3 in which ' which the said two motive means are in the form
of alternatingA current induction motors, the re
the electronic conduction means comprises a plu
rality of electronic conduction tubes arranged spective stationary androtatable elements thereof _
carrying appropriate windings, the windings of
18. In- electrode structure of the type used in that motive means that drives the frame-like
treating apparatus, in combination', a stud-like _member that carries the electrode means kat a
supporting member having mounted thereon and greater distance from said common axis than the
other having more poles than the windings of
spaced axially therealong two stationary ele
substantiallyin a cylinder.
' ments of two motive means, two frame-like mem
bers each carrying a rotatable element for coacë
tion with one of said stationary elements of said
motive means, thereby to complete the latter,
means rotatably supporting said frame-like
members from said stud-like member and for
thereby positioning said rotary elements in co
acting relation to said stationary elements respec
tively, and electrode means carried by each of said
frame-like members at respectively diiferent dis
tances from the common axis of rotation of said
frame-like members.
19. A construction as lclaimed in claim 18 in
which the' means rotatably supporting said frame
like members is in the form of bearings alternated
along said stud-like member with said stationary
elements, said stud-like member carrying clamp
75 ing means for clamping said bearings and said
the other electromotive means in order that the
former rotates at a lower R. P. M. than the latter.
25. In electrical treating apparatus of .the type
wherin a high potential is impressed across a pair 60
of electrodes to produce discharges within a treat
ment zone, the combination of, a shaft structure,
two electrode structures independently mounted
`upon said shaft structure and adapted to rotate
about a common axis, stator means‘mounted upon 65
said shaft structure, and independent rotor means
associated with each of said electrode, structures
4and with said stator means to impart independent
rotation to each of said electrode structures.
26. An electrical treating apparatus of the type 70
wherein a high- potential is impressed across a
pair of electrodes to produce discharges within a`
treatment zone, the combination of, a shaft struc
ture, a plurality of motor-electrode structures ro
tatably mounted in alignment upon 'said' shaft
adapted to rotate said two electrode members in
opposite directions -upon said axis, said last
structure, and electrode means carried by each
of said motor-electrode structures, each of said
motor-electrode structures including a casing
named means including a nxed stator upon said
axis and a rotor mounted upon one of said elec
trode members, said electrode means including a
shell encasingsaid stator and said rotor.
shell enclosing a motor having a stator rigidly
mounted upon said shaft structure and a rotor
carried by said casing shell.
29. In electrical apparatus of the type wherein
a high potential is impressed across two electrode
27. In electrical apparatus of the type wherein
a high potential is impressed across two electrode
structures having opposed faces with a discharge
10 zone between said faces, the combination of, an
electrode structure positioned upon one side of the
treatment zone including two annular electrode
means having opposed faces with a discharge
zone between said faces, the combination of an
electrode means including two electrode mem
bers mounted upon a single axis and means to
rotate said two electrode members in opposite
directions upon said axis, said last-named means
means mounted to rotate independently about a
single axis, and means to rotate said two annular
including a ñxed stator upon said axis and “a 15
rotor mounted upon one of said electrode mem
bers, said electrode means including a shell en
15 electrode means in opposite directions.
28. In electrical apparatus of the type wherein
a high potential is impressed across two electrode
casing said stator and said rotor, said electrode
means having opposed faces with a discharge
zone between said faces, the combination of an
20 electrode means including two electrode mem
bers mounted upon a single axis and means
means adapted to cause air to circulate through
said discharge zone.
October ll , 1958 .
" «pei-.ent No. 2,152,705 r
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed -specification
of the above numbered patent requiring2 correction as follows: >Page L_., first
column, line 69, for the reference character “l2Qb“ read lZOf; page l0,
second columng‘line '(0, claim 26, for '.‘An" read In; and that the said Let
ters Patent should be read with this correction therein thatthe same may
conform to the record of the c'ase in the Patent Office.
v Signed andV sealed this 29th day ofy November, A. D. 1958.
-Henry -Vari Arsdale
Acting Commissioner of Patents.
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