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Патент USA US2132717

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Gd. 31,1938.
F. G. BECKMAN
LOGGING WELL FORMAT ION
¿led June 5, 1957
'2,132,717
Patented Oct. 11, 17938 `
2,132,717
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,132,717
LOGGING WELL FORMATION
Fred G. Beckman, Muskogee, Okla.
Application June 5, 1937, Serial No. 146,658
12 Claims.
This invention relates to new_and useful im
provements in logging well formations.
One object of the invention is to provide an
tu
drilled, a log is made of the formation of the well
during the drilling operation to ascertain the
structure of the formation. This is done by ex
am‘ining the cuttings as they reach the surface of
the well, such cuttings being carried upwardly 10
from -the bottom of the well bore by a vcirculating
`
'
Another object of the invention is to provide
an improved method for ascertaining the struc
35
-
mined at any time after the well has been com
ascertained.
30
v
~
Figure 4 is a similar view, with the method
complete.
An important object of the invention is to pro
vide an improved method whereby the well for
mation may be accurately logged while an under
reaming operation is performed, whereby as the
bottom of the well bore -is enlarged by such under
reaming the structure of the formation may be
~5
reamer cutting the formation to enlarge the well
bore, and
improved method of logging well formations,
whereby the formation may be accurately deter
pleted.
»0
(Cl. Z55-24)
ture of the formation at the bottom of a well
which has either been abandoned and the log'of
such Well lost or otherwise unavailable, which
method includes an underreaming operation with
means for immediately conducting the well cut
tings to the surface as they leave the formation,
whereby said cuttings reach the surface in the
order in which they are removed from `the forma
tion, which permit an accurate logging of the
formation as the underreaming proceeds.
A further object of the invention is to provide
an improved method, of the character described,
which includes the introduction of a material,
foreign to the formation, into the bottom of the
well bore, whereby when the bore is enlarged by
an underreaming operation, the cuttings cannot
fall to the bottom of the bore, but are immedi
ately carried to the surface by a circulating fluid,
which fiuid may circulate downwardly through
the drill pipe and upwardly through the well cas
ing in the usual manner or it may circulate re
versely; that is, downwardly through the casing
and upwardly through the tubing.
A construction designed to carry out the in
vention will be hereinafter described, together
with other features of the invention.
The invention will be more readily understood
45' from a reading of the following specification and
by reference to the accompanying drawing, in
which an example of the invention is shown, and
wherein:
.Figure 1 is a schematic sectional view of a well
50 bore having casing therein,
Figure 2 is a. similar view, showing a material
foreign to the formation in the bottom of the
well bore in accordance with the invention, an
underreamer being shown within the well casing,
55
Figure 3 is a similar view, showing the under
It is well known that when an oil well is first 5
fluid. During the initial drilling of a well, it is
evident that the cuttings‘must come to the sur
face immediately upon their removal from the
formation because obviously, they cannot fall 15
downwardly because the ground below the drill
bit is unbroken. However, after the well has been
drilled and the casing set therein, it is not possi
ble to again obtain a log >of the formation through
which the drill bit has passed. This formation 20
which is below the bottom of the well casing is
known as the producing area.
The only` way
to obtain additional cuttings from this producing
formation is by means of an underreaming op
eration and since the underreaming begins at the 25
bottom of the casing and proceeds downwardly
toward the bottom of the hole, it will be obvious
that the cuttings will fall downwardly to the bot
tom of the well bore as the underreaming opera
tion continues. Therefore, it is not possible to 30
lift or raise the cuttings with a circulating ñuid
immediately as they are removed from the forma
tion during the underreaming operation.
For
this reason, the cuttings are not carried to- the
surface of the well in the order in which they are 3;removed- and an accurate log of the formation
cannot be taken during the usual underreaming
of the well bore.
There are many wells in the oil i‘lelds which
have been drilled and after producing for some 40
time are abandoned for one reason or another.
There are other wells in which the producing area
or the formation below the bottom of the casing
becomes contaminated with mud or paraiñn, in
which case it is necessary to enlarge the well bore 45
so as to remove this contaminated surface of said
bore. There are still other wells in which a log
was made at the time they were originally drilled,but the record of the formation structure has
become lost or is otherwise unavailable. The ad- 50
vantages of being able to obtain a log of the
formation of these various wells at any time after
they have been drilled, are obvious.
Referring specifically to Figure 1 of the draw
ing, the numeral l0 designates a well bore having 55
2,132,717
2
a well casing II set therein.
The lower end of
the casing is anchored within the well bore by
cement I2, or in any other suitable manner. The
portion I0’ of the well bore which is below the
lower end of the casing II is known as the pro
ducing area and its particular structure is, of
course, dependent upon the'particular field in
which the well has been drilled. This portion I0'
of the bore I0, which is below the lower end of
10 the well casing, has been illustrated as consist
ing of four layers or strata. The uppermost
layer A is a rock formation, the layer B is lime
stone, the layer C may be shale, while the lower
most layer or stratum D is the producing sand.
15 When the well I0 was first drilled, a log of said
well may have been taken as the drilling opera
tion was performed but after some time, the log
may have been misplaced or is otherwise unavail
able. Therefore, the operator is at a loss to know
20 just what the structure of the formation below
the casing II may be.
In order to obtain another log of the forma
tion so as to accurately ascertain the structure
thereof, a material such as gravel, thick mud or
25 some other substance which is foreign to the
material of which the formation is composed, is
placed in the lower end of the well bore so as to
completely» fill the same. A sufficient amount of
this gravel E is introduced into the well bore so
30 as to extend from the bottom thereof into the
lower end of the casing, as is clearly shown in
Figure 2. After this is done, an underreamer I3,
which may be of any suitable construction, is
lowered through the well casing I I on a drill pipe
35 I4. The upper end of the drill pipe extends
through the usual casing head I5 mounted on
the upper end of the casing and said head is
provided with suitable outlets I6.
When the
blades I3’ of the underreamer I3 strike the upper
40 end of the extraneous material E, a circulation
is set up between the drill pipe I4 and the cas
ing I I. This circulation is established by pump
ing oil, water, mud or a mixture of fluid and gas
or air downwardly through the well casing II
45 outside of the drill pipe I4. This liquid upon
reaching the lower end of the casing will be
forced upwardly through the usual ports (not
shown) in the underreamer I3 and then up
wardly through the drill pipe I4. This circula
50
tion is maintained throughout the underreaming
operation. It is pointed out that although it is
preferable to circulate fluid from the well cas
ing II upwardly through the drill pipe I4, it
would be possible to force the fluid or liquid»
downwardly through the drill pipe I4 and up
55
wardly in the casing which would be in a re
verse direction. It is pointed out that this lat
ter method of circulation is conventional in oil
field practice.
60
As soon as the circulation is set up, the blades
of the underreamer engage the extraneous ma
terial E within the bottom of the bore I0 and
rotation is imparted to the drill stem or pipe I4,
whereby the underreamer is also rotated. The
85 blades I3' cut into the material E and upon pass
ing from the lower end of the well casing are
expanded so as to also cut into the formation, as
is clearly shown in Figure 3. Since the bore II)
is completely filled by the material E, it will be
obvious that the cuttings which are removed by
70
the blades I3' from the wall of the formation
cannot fall downwardly in the bore. Therefore,
the fluid or liquid which is circulating from the
75
removal of the cuttings occurs immediately
upon the removal thereof from the formation
and therefore by examining the cuttings at the
surface of the well, it is possible to tell exactly
what material the cutters I3’ are passing
through. Since the material E is extraneous to
any of the material which goes to make up the
formation, this material is readily identified at
the surface and the remaining cuttings are those
of the formation. So long as the blades I3’ are 10
rotating within the layer of rock A, the rock cut
tings are being carried to the surface through
the drill pipe I4.
As soon as the blades enter
the second layer-B, the cuttings from this layer
begin to be visible at the surface.
It is noted 15
that as soon as the blades complete their travel
through the first layer A, all of the cuttings which
have been removed by such travel have been
carried to the surface. Manifestly, as the under
reamer I3 moves downwardly through the var 20
ious layers of the formation, an observer at the
surface of the well can accurately log the forma
tion structure. When the underreamer reaches
the bottom of the hole or bore I0, all of the ex
traneous material E which has been introduced 25
thereinto will have been raised to the surface
by the circulating liquid or fiuid.
Therefore,
when no further cuttings of the ~extraneous ma
terial E are carried to the surface, the operator
knows definitely that the bottom of the bore 30
has been reached.
With the above method, it is possible to ac
curately ascertain the exact structure of a par
ticular formation by merely performing an un
derreaming operation. It is noted that the ma
terial E which is introduced into the bottom of
the bore I0 will vary, as this material must be
foreign to the material of which the formation is
composed so that the operator may readily rec
ognize the cuttings from the formation proper. 40
By calculating the distance which the under
reamer has travelled while certain types of cut
tings are emitting at the surface of the well. it
is possible toA definitely fix the depth of any
45
layer or stratum in the formation.
What I claim and desire to secure by Letters
Patent is:
1. The method of logging the formation of
drilled wells which consists in, filling the bore
of the well with material capable of being re 50
moved by drilling therethrough, then drilling to
enlarge the bore of the well and to remove the
material, and carrying the cuttings to the sur
face as soon as they are removed by the drilling
operation.
55
2. The method of logging the formation of
drilled wells which consists in, filling the bore of
the well with material capable of being removed
by drilling therethrough, then drilling to en
large the bore of the well and to remove the 60
material, andcirculating'a drilling fluid through
the well bore to carry the cuttings to the surface
as 'soon as they are removed by the drilling oper
ation.
_
3. The method of logging the formation of 65
drilled wells which consists in, filling the bore of
the well with- material which is foreign to the
material of which the vformation is composed,
then drilling through the material to` enlarge the
bore of the-well and to remove the material, and 70
carrying the cuttings to the surface as soon as
they are removed by the drilling operation.
4. The method of logging the formation of
casing upwardly through the drill pipe carries drilled wells which consists in, filling the lower
these cuttings upwardly through said pipe. The- end of the bore with a material which is foreign 75
3
2,132,717
to the material of which the formation is com-posed, enlarging that portion of the well bore
wherein such foreign material is located by drill
ing through the material, and carrying the cut
DI ting's to the surface as they are removed from the
surface as they are removed by the underream
ing operation.
9. The method of logging the formation of a
wellr having a casing set therein which consists
in, filling the well bore below the casing with
formation, whereby said cuttings may be exam
material, lowering an underreaming tool through
ined to denote the structure of the formation
which is being drilled.
5. The method of logging the formation of
drilled wells which consists in, filling the lower
end of the bore with a material which' is foreign
the casing on a_ drill pipe, rotating the pipe and
tool to enlarge the bore and'remove the material,
and pumping a drilling fluid downwardly through
the casing and upwardly through the drill pipe, 10
whereby the cuttings are carried to the surface
through said drill pipe as they are removed by
the underreaming operation.
10. The method of logging the formation of a
well having a casing set therein which consists
in, filling the well bore below the casing with
material which is foreign to the material of
which the well formation is composed, lowering
to the material of which the formation is com
posed,lenlarging that portion of the well bore
wherein such foreign material is located by drill
' .ing through said material, and circulating a
drilling ñuid through the well bore to carry the
cuttings to the surface as they are removed from
the formation, whereby said cuttings may be ex
amined to denote the structure of the formation
being drilled.
6. The method of logging the formation of a
well having a casing set therein which consists
in, filling the well bore below the casing with
an underreaming tool through the casing on a
drill pipe, rotating the pipe and tool to enlarge 20
the bore and remove the foreign material, and
circulating a drilling fluid through the casing and
drill pipe to carry the cuttings to the surface as
material, then underreaming the bore to enlarge
they are removed by the underreaming opera
the bore and to remove said material, the ma
tion.
11. The method of logging the formation of a
terial preventing said cuttings from falling to the
bottom of the bore, and carrying the cuttings to
the surface as soon as they are removed by the
underreaming operation.
7. The method of logging the formation of a
well having a casing set therein which consists
in, filling the well bore below the casing with
material, then underreaming the bore to enlarge
the same and to remove said material, the ma
terial preventing the cuttings from falling to the
bottom of the bore, and circulating a drilling
fluid through the Well bore to carry the cuttings
to the surface as soon as-they are removed by
the underreaming operation.
8. The method of logging the formation of a
well having a casing set therein which consists
in, filling the well bore below the casing with ma
terial, lowering an underreaming tool through
the casing on a drill pipe, rotating the pipe and
tool to enlarge the bore and remove the ma
terial, and circulating a drilling fluid through the
casing and drill pipe to carry the cuttings to the
well having a casing set therein which consists
in, filling the well bore below the casing with
material which is foreign to the material of
which the well formation is composed, lowering «
an underreaming tool through the casing on a
drill pipe, rotating the pipe and tool to enlarge
the bore and remove the foreign material, and
pumping a drilling ñuid downwardly through the
casing and upwardly through the drill pipe,
whereby_the cuttings are carried to the surface
through said drill pipe as they are removed by
the underreaming operation.
12. The method of logging the formation of a
well bore which consists in filling the bore of the
Well with a relatively soft material which is for
eign to the material of which the formation is
composed, then enlarging the well bore by drill
ing through the material and the formation, and
carrying the removed material and formation
cuttings to the surface as they are removed by
the drilling operation.
'
_
FRED G. BECKMAN.
40
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