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Патент USA US2132740

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Oct. 11, 1938.
' 2,132,740
Filed Sept. 4, 1956
Patented Oct. 11, 1938
.11 a‘ .1 L
' era-res
‘ ‘‘ ~
."Kar'olus E. -Kunze, 'Ja‘maicaQN. Y., and Theodore " ‘
vL. Son-‘H00, Quincy, Mass.
Application September 4, 1936, Serial ‘No. 99,380
v4 Claims.
(01. 33-222)
The invention relates to aircraft vdirection instruments in which a. 'gyroscopically stabilized
magnetic ?eld having radial horizontal =compo-
understood thatthe design ‘of this case and ‘such
details as methods of ‘preventing :pivots ifror'h
permanently leaving their‘ jewels are omitted as
nents maintains a system of directive and stabi-
being non-pertinent.
V 5 lizing magnets in the horizontal plane, the ‘mag-
‘ '
.A directive magnet‘ I, Figs. 1 and 2, is fastened 5.
net system being mounted in approximately
neutral gravitational suspension. The object of
to frame 4 by ‘meansiof'a 'suspender wire'5; Two
auxiliary magnets 2, 2; Figs. 1
3, are also
the invention is to allow‘the‘use of statically bal-
secured to framev 4 by Suspender wires "5. ‘ ‘Each
anced magnetic directive systems thereby prol0t viding magnetic direction instruments free from
errors due to accelerating the instruments.
As is well known, the 5present ‘magnetic dir'éCtion instruments ‘necessarily use gravitationally
pendulous' directive elements since any indicating
' l5 device, such as a card or ?lament, attached to a
non-pendulous directive element may assume
practically any azimuth orientation without ‘destroying the alignment _ between‘ the resultant
magnetic axis ‘of ‘the ‘system and the external
20 ?eld. In other words,‘ when a non-pendulous
directive system is perfectly balanced about its
center of rotation, thevindicator completely loses
its directive qualities;
The improvements‘ described herein permit‘ the
25 use of non-pendulous magnetic directive systems
with the consequent freeing of the instruments
from the adverse e?ects of accelerations.
These improvements are applicable to several
types of magnetic direction instruments such as
30 the aperiodic compass; the card compass; optically read compasses, etc, but only one such application is hereindescribed. This is ' a cardtype compass employing the improvements inv
of these “three magnets, (I, 2, and'2, is placed'with
its poles ‘at "unequal distances from the pivot 10
The like poles ‘of ‘these three'magn'ets are
adjacent. In ‘this ‘case "the :three isoutheseeking
poles are located nearest pivot '3. The mag-net 'l'
is placed with its axis in a plane which contains
the ‘card meridian and which is normal-Ito the 115
plane ‘of the edge Of the 'ehrd- Magnets '2, 2 ‘are
placed symmetrically relative to magnet I. In
this ‘case the magnets 2., ‘2 ‘are placed with ‘their
axes in a plane which contains the card east
and west pointsa‘ndthe axisof the piV0t,“3-" As 20
Shown in the drawing’, ‘the axes of "the three
magnets, ‘in this @9759, he ‘in a Plane ‘perpendicu;
lar to the geometrical axis of the pivot 3, and
slightly below the point of ‘the ‘latter.
" A mass In, attached to frame ‘4 ‘byte euspehdel‘ 25
wire 5, balances the weight of magnet ‘~l‘.
' ,
The magnet System here ‘Shown, including the
card, is statically balanced relative to the point
of pivot 3. This is done in any desirable manner.
In this case the final adiustm‘ent'of the vertical 3-0‘
position of the 'centersof mass is made by raising
OflOWerihg the ‘Point ‘Of Pivot *3, i. 8-, by Screw‘
ing this ‘pivot in oro'utof vits threaded holder.
question. It is illustrated by the accompanying In Summary, the magnetic ‘directive System
35 drawing in which'Fig. 1 is a plan view of the spe- consists of a directive magnet having one pole at;
ci?c instrument chosen for illustration; Fig, 2 is farther from the center of rotation than the
a sectional elevation on the meridian plane; Fig. other; tWO ‘auxiliary magnets having their poles
3 is a sectional elevation on the east-west vertical symmetrically located relative to the directive
plane; 'Fig. 4 is a schematicdiag'ram of the Sta40 bilizing magnetic ?eld; and Fig_ 5 is a diagram
showing the torques acting on a portion of the
directive system, in a vertical plane’ through the
center of motion,
Fig. 1 shows a normal side-reading card 6 car;
45 ried by a frame 4 which is attached to the pivot
magnet but withthe poles of each at unequald-is=->
tances ‘from the center of rotation, like poles of 40;
the three magnets lying adjacent to each other;
a frame holding the three magnets‘ in ?xed DOSi—
tion relative to each other; an adjustable pivot
carrying this frame; a counterbalaneing mass;
and a compass card attached to the frame in- 45,
3, the‘latter being vertically adjustable relative to
?xed position relative to the ‘magnets. the entire
the frame.
system being adjusted to neutral mass - balance
This is shown in Figs. 2 and 3
Where ‘the pivot ais'iase'en to be threaded and
screwed through a sleeve which forms the center
50 of frame 4. The pivot '3 rests upon a normaltype jewel 1, Figs. 2 and 3,'which is held in‘the
relative 13017118 pivot point.
AS here Shown, the three magnets are of equal
Size and all like poles are at equal distances from 50‘
the center of rotation.
‘top of a post 8. The post is secured to the bot-
A circular spool [2, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, is mounted
tom of a case indicated .fra’gmentally at 9. .An
in a ?xed position on three struts, II, which are
index M is mounted immovably, relative to the
secured to ‘the case 9. The spool i2’ is located
55 ease, for reading the card. 1tis,‘of course}, tube» concentrically with a line Vie-V ‘Which passes. 56,
generally, through the point of pivot 3. This line,
dicular to the plane of the spool I2. Two grooves
with the point of pivot 3, Figs. 2 and 3, near the
plane of symmetry of the ?eld (i. e., Q near C,
Fig. 5), the pointsa and b will lie close together
‘are turned in the rim of I2 and in these grooves
two coils of insulated wire, I3 and I4 Figs. 2 and
and the rest point for the pole n will be close to
the plane I-I—H regardless of the azimuth posi
V—V, is normally a true vertical, and is perpen- '
3, are placed. The windings are, therefore, short
. solenoids having the common axis V—V. Non
tion of n.
2. The line V—V is perpendicular to the plane
pertinent detail such as coil terminals, leadouts, H—I-I. Since V—V is also the axis of the sole
etc., is omitted. When in circuit with a battery, noidal windings which give rise to the forces 11,
or other source of electrical energy, not shown, f2, . . . , the components of the latter which are
the coils are so connected that current traverses parallel to I-I--I-I intersect V——-V. This line, V~~V
the upper coil, I3, in the clockwise direction as _ is a true vertical when the instrument functions
viewed from above (Fig. 1) while current in the
(see following). For these reasons the coil-?eld
lower coil, I4, travels in the opposite, oricounter
clockwise direction.
vectors"(f1 . . .), acting upon any magnet in the
'I‘hisproduces-a magnetic ‘?eld, give rise to no torques about V—V. Bc~
?eld as illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 4.
cause of this, the horizontal component of the
Fig. 4 represents one turn each of the'upper earth’s ?eld acting upon the directive magnet I,
and lower coils I3 and I4,.Fi‘gs. 2 and 3. The 1 Figs. 1 and 2, provides the usual directive torques
about the point of ‘ pivot 3.
view is a sectional elevation on a vertical center
20 plane. The point C represents the center'of the”
3. The resultant torques due to the action of 20
magnetic ?eld created by these coils. The plane
H--H is parallel to the planes of coils I3 and I4;
lies midway. between these planes; and. passes
the earth’s ?eld on the two auxiliary magnets
2, 2, Figs. land 3, are ‘zero because of the sym
metrical _positions of. these magnets relative to
through C.
the center of rotation.
Current through I3 (Fig. 4). is in. the direction’
The resultant ?eld of coils I3 and I4, acting 25
indicated, and .in the reverse direction through upon'the magnets 2,'produces no torque about
I4, as shown. The resulting magnetic ?eld is rep
V—V for the reason discussed in 2, above.
resented by the circular ?ux lines 45, as shown.
In the case of these auxiliary magnets it will be
Points m, q, and t represent positions of a noted that the two outer, n, poles must lie either
30 north-seeking pole placed in the ?eld. The forces in theplane H—1-I or at unequal distances there 30
with which the resultant ?eld due to coils I3 and
I4 acts upon this north-seeking pole, in the three
positions,‘ are represented‘by the vectors f2, 1‘,
plane I-I,—H while the other is below, it is evident
taken on a vertical planethrough the center of
from a study of Figs. 4 and 5 that a torque which
tends to restore both n poles to the plane H-—H
is set up. Actually, this restoring torque comes 35
into play whenever the two 12 poles of these auxil
iary magnets 2 are not at equal distances from
the ?eld, C, the cutting plane also containing
the plane H—H. ~
and f1.
When one of these n poles is above the
In Fig. 5 the outer tip of magnet I is sketched
in the ?eld justconsidered. Thisview is also
the center of rotation Q, of the magnet system.
With the north-seeking pole in the position a,
In other words, the total effect of the two aux
iliary magnets 2, 2 is to maintain the east-west 40
axis of the directive element parallel to the plane
Fig. 5, intermediate between the points q and t,
Fig. 4,. the force‘fri, due to the ?eld of coils I3 H—H.
and I4, acts upon it. Simultaneously, the earth’s
4. As a result of considerations 1, 2, and 3,
magnetic ?eld actsupon this pole with the force 7 above, it is evident that the plane determined by
45 F. The resultant of the two forces in and F is the three outer, or n, poles of the magnets I, 2, 45.
represented by the vector R1.
and 2, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, will be maintained in
Similarly, if the pole n is rotated- about Q to a practical parallelism with the plane H-H, Figs.
position b (i. e., to the region m, Fig. 4) the coil 4 and 5, whenever the coils I3 and I4 are propj
?eld vector frZ and the earth’s ?eld vector act erly'energized. At the same time an unimpeded
directive effort is developed by the magnet sys 50
50 upon the pole n with the resultant force R1.
It is evident that the magnet pole n, in position tem, due to the action of the horizontal com
a, develops a clockwise torque R1 d1 about the ponent of the earth’s ?eld on the directive mag
center of rotation, Q,- while the counter-clockwise net, I, when the plane I-I--H is horizontal. This
torque R2 d2 acts, about Q, when the pole n' is plane H—H is maintained in the horizontal posi
55 in position b.
The factors d1 and (12 are th
torque arms, as is apparent.
' Similar,
torques about Q are developed by the action of
the resultant forces upon the south-seeking pole,
60 s, when the latter lies near the center of rota
tion, Q, as is the case with the magnets I, 2, and
2, Figs. 1, 2, and 3. However, these torques are
always less than those due to the north-seeking
pole, n, because of the reduced coil ?eld near C
65 and, also, because of decreased torque arms. For
purposes of qualitative explanation the torques
due to the south-seeking pole may, therefore, be
From the foregoing, the following may be de
70 duced:
, 1. Considering the magnet I_, Figs. 1 and 2, the
vertical equilibrium position of the pole n will
lie between two such positions as a and'b,‘ Fig. 5,
With the strength of the ?eld due to coils I3 and
75 I4 several times that of the earth’s ?eld, and
tion by gyroscopic stabilization, as will be ex
plained, the coils I3 and I4 being pendulously
mounted within the aircraft.
_ The results obtained from the entire system
are, then, as follows:
The directive element, being in neutral mass 60
balance relative to its center of motion, is un
affected by the inertia torques which act when
the system is accelerated. This directive element
is held nearly in the horizontal plane by the combined action of the gyroscopically. stabilized ring
magnetic ?eld, produced by the coils I3 and I4,
and, the three magnets I, 2, and 2. The magnet
I, being asymmetrically placed, reacts with the
earth’s magnetic ?eld and provides a directive
torque, that is, a torque which orients the di 70
rective ’ element,
One form of the detailed arrangement of the
gyroscopic stabilizer is that shown in the draw
2, 132,740;
, 3
The compass case 9v is mounted upon the .top , the purpose of this arrangement being to place
of a vertical ring l5, Figs. 2 and 3, while the gyro. ‘the instrument terminus of the ?exible coupling
case 3|, 39 'issecured to the bottom of this ring, as near the center of relative motion as possible.
This. obviates, to a large extent, de?ecting torques
‘The entire instrument is carried by a pivot H. due- to the coupling. The air flow between rotor
which is mounted in a sleeve. 18, this sleeve being case and flexible coupling is through the air ducts
rigidly fastened to the top of the inner» rim of ring 33 and32, Fig. 2, in the upper case 3|, thence
l'5. A cup bearing, 2|, Figs. 2 and 3, carries'the through the ducts I6 in the ring I5, and thence
pivot I‘! and, hence,.the entire instrument, This through the ducts l9, in sleeve I8 and pivot 11,
10. cup bearing, is mounted ina holder 22 which is tothe tube 20... The ring‘ I5 is an assembly be 10,
fastened to a bar 23. The bar 23 terminates in
a bracket 24 drilled, as indicated, for mounting
in the aircraft. .
The bar 23 has two openings, 25 and 26 Figs. 1
and 2, cut through it for the purpose of allow-v
ing clearance for the ‘ring l5 when the bar 23
assumes various angles relative to thevertical.
line V-—V. As actually constructed, the bar 23
, is built up of several pieces in order to allow the
20. ring l5 and its azimuth guide (see following) to
beplaced in position, but for the purpose of
simplifying the explanation it is shown as a single
unit in the drawing.
The “azimuth guide” referred to above con
25. sists of the two rollers, 21, 21 Figs. 1, 2, and‘B,
which are mounted in a small gimbal ring 29, by
means of the pivots 28. Thus each roller, 21,
may rotate, within the ring 29, upon an, axis
determined by the center line of its pivots, 28.
The gimbal ring 29 is, itself, mounted upon two
pivots, 3H, 3,6, which may rotate in bearing holes
formed in bar 23 at the ends of the opening 26.
The axis of pivots 30 is parallelto the axes of
pivots 28 and passes through the point of pivot
IT. The rollers 21 bear lightly against the sides
of ring I5, when the instrument is ‘assembled, as
shown in the drawing.
This arrangement allows the ring I5 and,
hence, the entire‘ instrument, complete freedom
401 of rotation about the point of pivot I1, except in
azimuth. In azimuth, the ring l5 and, therefore,
the entire instrument, is restrained, and allowed
‘no rotation relative-to the bar 23. Thus the
compass case 9 and the index 4| are maintained
'_ in an invariant azimuth position relative to the
aircraft. At the same time, the pitching and
rolling motions of the aircraft are transmitted to
the instrument only by the friction at the point
of pivot '11 and by the friction of the azimuth
guide pivots 28, ‘. . . ‘30, L . . The latter is very
cause of the constructional requirements in form
ing the ducts l6.
The spinv axis of_the‘ rotor 31 passes through
the points of pivots l1 and 3 and thus coincides
with the instrument vertical, V—V.
The center of mass of the entire system lies in
the line V—V and at a distance from the point of _
pivot I1 which is determined by the required
period of oscillation of the system about this
The complete action has been described, but
may be summarized as follows:
The. magnetic axis of the directive element,
mounted in neutral mass suspension, is con
strained to lie very nearly in the horizontal plane, 25
and- in the plane of the magnetic meridian, by
the combined action of. the earth’s magnetic ?eld
and ag-yroscopically stabilized external magnetic
?eld. The vectors de?ning the external ?eld in
tersect the vertical line through the center of mo— '30
tion of the directive element. The resultant of
the earth’s ?eld and the external ?eld also pro—
duces torques, by interaction with the poles of
auxiliary stabilizing magnets, which disappear
only when the east-west axis of the directive ele
ment lies in the horizontal plane, the torques al
ways movingthis axis toward the horizontal.
No directive, or azimuth, torques result from the
interaction of. the?elds and the, auxiliary mag
the external stabilizing‘?eld is not con?ned toe
the speci?c arrangement herein described. For
instance, a permanently-magnetized ring having
its inner and outer rims of opposite polarity might 45
be used.‘ Or, the two coils l3 and I4, Figs. 2 and
3, might be placed at a considerable distance ’
from each other, l3 being at the top of the case
9 and i4 being near the bottom. That is, the
distances 1/, and 1J2, Fig. 4, may be varied at will. 50
Detail in arrangement may also vary to any
the operation of the azimuth guide.
We consider this type of suspension to be very
extent. For instance, the single directive mag
net may be replaced by a system of directive mag
nets, and similarly for the auxiliary magnets.
desirable, as it does away with the usual multiple
The bottom of ring I5 is fastened, as previously
mentioned, to the top of the upper portion, 3|, of
the gyro rotor case, Figs. 1, 2, and 3. This case
is completed by the lower portion, 39, screwed
60 into position on 3| as shown. ‘A boss in the
upper center of the case holds a bearing 34, while
a bearing 35 is similarly mounted in a boss in the
lower part of the case. The rotor axle 36 spins
in these two bearings. A conventional air-driven
It is to be noted that the method of creating
small due to the negligible pressures involved in
bearing gimbal system.
The latter may be located at positions other than 55
those shown herein. The spool i2, Figs. 1, 2, and
3, may be external to the case 9 and gyroscopi
cally stabilized, alone. The entire case 9 is here
in shown stabilized only for purposes of descrip
It is also to be understood that we do not limit
the arrangement herein described to any partic
ular type of instrument. The card-type of com
pass has been described, but the principle is fully
impulse wheel 31, mounted upon the axle 36.
applicable to aperiodic compasses; optical1y~read 65
forms the gyro rotor.
compasses; remote reading, or remote indicating
compasses; etc.
We are well aware of the prior design of neu
The blades are indicated
at 38. The driving air jet is formed, in the usual
manner, by the aspiration of the rotor case and
the use of a nozzle 40, Figs. 1 and 2, at the case
The aspiration of the case is effected, in this
instance, by connecting the vacuum line to the
instrument by means of a short ?exible coupling,
not shown, ‘connected to the tube 20. The tube 20
75 is secured to the pivot I‘! as shown in Fig. 3,
trally'balanced magnetic directive elements; of
gyroscopically stabilized double-pivoted mag 70
netic compasses; etc., but we believe the combi
nation of neutrally balanced directive element
having magnets arranged as described, stabiliz->
ing external ?eld, and gyroscopic stabilization for
the external ?eld, forms a new and useful prin- 75
ciple for the construction of aircraft instruments.
We claim:
3. In an aircraft magnetic direction instru- ,
ment, the combination of a magnetic directive
1. In an aircraft instrument, the combination ' element; means for producing, around the direc
of a frame; a vertically adjustable pivot support
tive element, a stabilizing magnetic ?eld of the
ing said frame; a directive magnet attached to type described in this speci?cation; a mounting,
said frame with its poles at unequal distances
from the point of said pivot; auxiliary magnets
attached to said frame, each having its poles at
unequal distances from the point of said pivot,
10' but the auxiliary magnets being symmetrically
and immovably arranged relative to said direc
tive magnet and the axis of said pivot, said direc
tive and auxiliary magnets having like poles ad
jacent; a supporting bearing for said pivot;
15 means for mounting said bearing in an aircraft;
means for creating a stabilizing magnetic ?eld
around said directive and auxilary magnets, said
?eld being such that it possesses a plane of mag
netic symmetry and that all vectors de?ning said
20 ?eld intersect a particular normal to said plane
of magnetic symmetry, said particular normal
intersecting said plane of symmetry at the center
of the stabilizing ?eld and determining with each
?eld vector a plane perpendicular to said plane
of symmetry, the said vectors having components
normal to, and directed either toward or away
from said plane of magnetic symmetry, for all
points of the effective ?eld outside of said plane;
means for pendulously supporting, within the air
30 craft, the said means for creating the stabilizing
?eld; and gyroscopic means for stabilizing said
supporting means for maintaining the said plane
of magnetic symmetry in a nearly horizontal po
2. In an aircraft magnetic instrument of the
character described in this speci?cation, the com
containing air ducts, for said means for produc
ing the stabilizing ?eld; a single hollow pivot at
tached to said mounting; a gyro case attached
to 'said mounting; a support holding a bearing
for said hollow pivot; a gimbal ring; means for 10
mounting said gimbal ring in said support for
rotation about a normally horizontal axis passing
through the point of said hollow pivot; two
spaced guide rollers; means for mounting said
rollers in said gimbal ring for rotation about axes 15
parallel to theraxis of rotation of said gimbal
ring; a circular guide member, arranged to slide
between said spaced rollers; means for fastening
said guide member, immovably, to said mounting,
concentrically relative to the point of said hollow 20
pivot; a tube attached to said hollow pivot and
connecting with the interior thereof; and air ducts
connecting the interior of said hollow pivot to the
interior of said gyro case whereby air may be ex
hausted from-said case to spin the gyro.
4. Inan aircraft instrument of the type de
scribed in this speci?cation, the combination of
a pivotally mounted neutrally-balanced, mag
netic compass directive element having a direc
tive magnet placed entirely on one side of the 30'
center and auxiliaryv magnets, offset from the
center and placed in symmetricalangular rela
tionship relative to the directive magnet and on
opposite sides of same, substantially as described;
and two solenoids having a common axis passing 36
of the directive element and energized by electric
through the pivot point of said magnetic direc
tive element, the said two solenoids being ar
ranged to carry electric currents in relatively op
posed rotary senses, and being placed one above
and one below a normally horizontal plane pass 40
ing through, or close to, the point of pivotal mount
currents which rotate clockwise in one solenoid
ing of said magnetic element, and whereby the
bination of means for creating a stabilizing mag
netic ?eld around the directive element, said
means consisting of two solenoids having a com
40 mon axis passing through the center of motion
and counterclockwise in the other solenoid, the
two solenoids being placed above and below, re
45 spectively, a normally horizontal dividing plane;
and gyroscopic means for maintaining the said
means for creating the stabilizng ?eld in position
with the solenoidal axis of the stabilizing mag
netic ?eld in a vertical position, regardless of mo
50 tion of the aircraft.
axes of the said directive and auxiliary magnets
are constrained to lie nearly parallel to said plane
of symmetry while the directive force of said 45
magnetic directive element is unaltered by the
magnetic ?eld of said solenoids.
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