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Патент USA US2132778

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0a. 11, 1938.
Filed Nov. 8, 1935
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
ll 172155.10.
Oct. 11, 1938.
Filed Nov. _8, 1935
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Oct. 11, 1938..
- A. R. COLE'
Filed Nov. 8, 1955‘
4 Sheets-Sheet 3
Fig. 20.
Oct. 11, 1938.
1 '
Filed Nov. 8, 1955
4 Sheets-Sheet 4'
Patented Oct. 11, 1938
2,132,778 ‘
Alfred Reymes Cole, Mountsoml, England
Application November 8, 1935, Serial No._ 48,913
In ‘Great Britain November 8,1934
20 Claims.
This invention is for improvements in and re
lating to knitted fabric and the-production there
of, and has for an ‘object the production of knitted
fabric which is strongly resistant to laddering.
5 In particular, the invention aims at the produc
tion of ladder-resistant weft knitted fabric, the
appearance of which is similar to and the
elasticity of which is equal to that of plain knitted
The invention may be viewed from several
aspects, but it is based upon the use of multiple
' -
(01. 66-189) ‘
Figure 2 shows another form of fabric ac
cording to this invention, and
Figures 2A to 211 show the stages in the manu
facture thereof, while
vFigures 3 and 4 illustrate two forms of the 5
novel needle.
Turning first to Figure l, the fabric there illus
trated is composed of compound loops. The
courses‘are numbered} 3, 4' and 5. Considering
any one wale, a compound loop in course 3 may 10
be viewed as comprising a main loop_2s and a
or compound loops, such loops being de?ned for ' locking thread loop 2L.
the purpose of this speci?cation as comprising
two component loops, viz. a main or ordinary
ll loop which may be formed of a ground or main
yarn, and a second or locking loop, at least twice
the length of the main loop and formed preferably
of a ?ner yarn.
- .
As viewed from one aspect, the vinvention pro
20 vides a, knitted fabric having multiple or com
pound loops, each comprising component loops
that are of different lengths, are formed by dif
ferent threads and extend from and/or ~into dif
ferent courses.
Hence should either of ‘the com
Hence these two com
ponentv loops may be viewed as extending into dif
' ferent courses. I Conversely, if the compound loop
is viewed as comprising say a main loop 2s and 15
.a locking loop 2L the said component loops ex
tend from differen courses. The locking thread
loop 2L is intertwined with a locking thread loop
IL of the preceding course and- extends into'the
' succeeding course 3 where it is entwined with the 20
locking thread loop 3L, which itselfextends into
the succeeding course 4 and is entwined with
the locking thread loop 4L. Hence along each
course the heads of two loops coincide, for ex
25 ponent loops of a compound loop be severed, the ' ample along course 3 the head of the main loop
adjacent stitches of that wale do ‘not run for is-extends alongside or is coincident with the
they are held by the other component loop. As head of thelocking loop IL. Similarly along
course I, the heads of loops 3s and 2L are sub
viewed from another aspect, the ‘invention pro
vides a knitted fabric wherein at each wale or stantially coincident. Down the wales in each
30 certain wales each or every loop is drawn through course legs of three loops coincide. Thus along
a plurality of preceding loops and has drawn . course 3, the legs of the main thread loops 3s are
through it a plurality of suceeding loops of the coincident with the legs of the locking thread
2L and 3L.
same wale. The invention also includes a weft loops
this fabric is resistant to laddering will
knitted fabric composed of stitch loops vof one readily be
appreciated. Assuming, for example,
35 thread locked by stitch loops of a weft thread that the heads of the loops 3s and IL are com
that is interlaced with the'ilrst said thread in the pletely broken; the-main thread loop 2s and the
direction of the wales.
locking thread loop IL are not released, however,
“The fabric according to this invention maybe because they have drawn through them the lock
produced by a method of knitting which com- » ing thread loop 3L. Similarly the main thread
‘10 prises forming two loops of unequal'len'gth and loop is and the locking thread loop 3L are not
passing them through a preceding loop or loops, released because the loops 5s and 5L extend
forming a further loop in another course, and through them. Moreover the locking thread loop
passing it through the unequal loops of the preced
IL is not released because it is passed through
ing course, and forming at least one further loop and closely around the locking thread loop 4L.
45 in a third course and passing it along the longer
Neither is the face appearance of this fabric
loop of the ?rst course andjthe loop of the second
radically different from'ordinary plain knitted
fabric such as is employed for ladies’ stockings,
for although it is built up of compound loops the
In order that this invention may be better un
‘50 derstood, referencewill now be made to the ac- ‘ component loops thereof are of substantially nor- 50
companying drawings in which .
Figure 1 shows one form of fabric according
to this invention.
Figures 1A to U show the stages in the manu
55 facture thereof by the aid of a novel needle.
mal form.
Thus, it will be noted, there are‘incorporated
into the fabric non-laddering wales, whether the
fabric be of the form shown in'Figure 1 or that
v of Figure 2 (to be later described .more in de- 55
tail) wherein the needle loops are of plain or
loop Is and the preceding locking thread loop
IL while the new locking loop 2L is drawn
through the preceding locking oop IL. The stage
normal form, though of compound construction
and formed from different threads, which threads
are shaped respectively into longer and shorter
loops, the bights of which needle loops in any
course , are
shown in Figure 1F is, there ore, reached, and
it will be noted that looking thread loops IL
and 2L are entwined. Next the coincidentloops
threads thereof come from di?erent courses of
the fabric; and that the sinker loops between '
the wales are also of normal form and of com
pound construction, the threads of such sinker
loops coinciding in their courses where they
cross from one wale to the next.
Thisfabric is produced by the aid of a needle
having two hooks, a main hook“ and, inside
15 it, a minute subsidiary hook, I2.
are spaced su?lciently apart lengthwise of the
2s and IL and the loop 2L are cleared below
the latch and new threads 38 and BL fed to the
needles see Fig. 1G.
Thereafter, as shown in
Figs. 1H and H, the locking thread loop 2L is
returned to the'needle hook, the loops 2s and
IL are cast off over it and new loops 3s and 3L
are drawn through the loops- IL, is, while loop
SL is drawn through loop 2L.
As has been pointed out. and as is readily dis 15
tinguishable from Figure 1, a characteristic fea
ture of the fabric thus produced is the intertwin
ing of the locking thread loops in the direction
of the wales. It is within the scope of this in
vention, however, to produce fabric which is iden
tical with the Said fabric in all respects with the
needle that when‘ two threads are fed to the nee
dle, the latter produces two loops, one substan
tially twice the length of the other. The loop
20 formation may be assisted by sinkers of special
shape. Such sinkers are not illustrated, but it
may be mentioned that each sinker has in ad
exception of the said characteristic feature. Such
vance of its web-holding throat a short straight fabric is shown in Figure 2. As before, the
top edge over which the needles draw sinker courses are numbered 3,- 4 and 5. Along course
25 loops from a main yarn and, immediately in ad
3, the head of the main thread loop 2s (produced
vance of the point over which said loops .are - by thread fed in the course next preceding course
drawn, a downwardly inclined top edge over
3) is coincident with-the head‘ of the locking
which the locking thread loops are drawn, the loop IL formed by thread-fed in the preceding
included angle between the two edges being very course-but-one. Along course 4, the head of the
30 obtuse, say in the neighbourhood of 160°. There
main thread loop is is coincident with the head
fore, the_apex‘between these two edges serves to of the preceding locking thread loop 2L. Simi
divide the threads and, as will readily be under
larly along course 5 the head of the main thread
stood, by regulating'the advance of the sinkers loop produced in course 4 is- coincident with the
so as to cause the locking thread loops to be head of the locking thread loop produced at the
35 drawn over different parts of the inclined edge, preceding-course-but-on'e. Down- the wales, the
the length of saidloops may be controlled some
leg vof any main thread loop is coincident with
what. Such control is desirably in addition to the legs of the locking thread loops produced at
the ordinary “stiffening” control provided in that and at the preceding course, but these legs
seamless hose machines (as for example by rais
of the locking thread loops are not intertwined.
40 ing and lowering. thev needle cylinder in relation
This fabric is also produced by the aid of a
to the cams) for varying the stitch length as needle having two hooks, and the stages in its
knitting proceeds down the leg of a seaml
production are shown in Figs. 2A to 2H. Com
For convenience, it has been elected to- show
in Figure 1A the shank of the needle II encircled
by the single loop 0L. Two threads are fed into
the needlehook in such manner that the main
thread I: is taken by the main‘ hook II while
the auxiliary or locking thread IL is taken by
the subsidiary hook I2. The main-thread is'de
sirably stouter than the locking thread and it
may be mentioned, by way of example, that in
the production of ladies’ hose, the former may
be of four-strand silk and‘ the latter of single
strand silk. The. needle then descends asshown
in Fig. 13 to‘ draw loops from these threads
through the old loop 0L and to cast the latter
of! as in Fig. 1C. At the next stage shown in
Fig. 1D, the needle is shown as having. been
raised, so that the main loop Is and the lock-‘
ing thread loop IL are cleared below the latch.
New threads 2.: and _IL are fed to the main and
men'cing with Fig. 2A, the needle shank III is
shown encircled by a loop 0L, cleared below the
latch, and threads I: and IL are shown as being
taken by the main and subsidiary hooks respec
tively; In Fig. 2B, unequal loops Is and IL are
drawn from these threads through the old loop
0L. At the next stage, Figure 2C, the loops Is
and IL are cleared below the latch and new
threads is and IL are fed to the needle hooks. So
far the production stages are substantially similar
with those of the fabric illustrated in Figure 1.
In casting 03, however, precautions are taken to
prevent the loop IL 'being trans?xed by the open
latch‘ and returned immediately to the, open
needle so that the loop Is is cast off over it. For
this purpose, the sinkers may be advanced to
tighten the loops around the needle shank. The
result is that both the loops Is and IL are cleared
on to the closed latch. Further descent results
subsidiary hooks respectively and the needle ' in the main loops Is being completely 'cast off the
needle. Precautions are taken, however, either to
thereupon descends. In ~its descent the open . prevent
the loop IL from being cast 01! or to re- .
latch (e. g. held‘ open by a latch guard) enters turn it to the needle immediately it has been cast
the preceding locking loop IL, for because of off. For this purpose at the knocking over point a
the additional length of the latter the bight of rotary brush may be provided with its axis of roe
the loop projects beyond the needle shank. This‘ tation substantially radial, which brush is driven
locking thread loop IL is, therefore, returned to by contact with the sinkers or the needle heads so
70 the needle main hook and as the latch closes the that its bristles brush the locking loops down
main thread loop Is is cast off over it. In other wards and prevents them from slippingjo? the
words, .the locking thread loop IL ‘is drawn heads of the needles. When such a-b‘rush is em
through the main thread loop‘ is. Simultaneous
ployed, it is desirable that the needle head shall be
ly, new main and locking thread loops is and 2L substantially of a pointed nature instead of being
are drawn through the preceding main thread semi-circular, the" point being approximately 75
3 .
midway in the width of the main hook. Alter
natively, the material of the hook may extend at
the front edge thereof substantially straight up
from the point of the hook (instead of curving
back in a semi-circle) until it reaches its highest
level (the front of the hook being the open or
‘ latch side and the back being regarded as verti
" cal) whence it extends obliquely backwards and
' downwards to the needle shank.
Such a con- '
10 struction is shown in Figure 3. By reason of the
straight front edge of the hook, the danger that
the locking thread loop will slip off is minimized.
Alternatively, insteadof ensuring that the lock
ing thread loop is not cast off, the said loop is
15 cast off and the needle is raised to re-enter it,
as is possible by reason of the increased length of
the locking loop. For this purpose, needles of
another modi?ed shape shown in Figure 4 may be
employed. In these needles the rear edge of the
20 hook extends up substantially straight from the
shank (instead of curving forwards in semi
circle) until it reaches its highest level, whence
it extends obliquely forwards and downwards to
the point.
The main thread loop having been cast oil,
the new'loops 2s and 2L are drawn through it
(but not through locking loop IL) and the needle’
is then raised to clearthe three loops IL, 2s and
2L below‘ the needle latch, Figure 21-‘. New
80 threads 3s, 3L are then fed to the needle hooks,"
and the needle is lowered to cast of! the loops is
and IL. These two loops are cast off simultane
ously because their loop heads coincide, but as
previously, the loop 2L is either‘ not cast-off or is
subsequently returned to the needle, Figure 2H.\
Thereafter the cycle of operations is repeated.
As in both forms of fabric it is desirable that.
the locking thread loops shall be substantially
twice the length of the main thread loops, ac
cording to the present invention the distance
between the top of the interior of the main hook
, and the top of the interior of the subsidiary hook
is substantially equal to and preferably somewhat
greater than the mean distance between succes
sive courses of the fabric that it is desired to
qualities are due to a definite lock of the inter
meshing constituent loops and are not entirely
due to frictional resistance. Such fabric is suit
able for many purposes, but is particularly suit
able for ladies’ stockings because its appearance
does not differ from and its elasticity is the same
as that of ordinary weft knitted fabric.
I claim:—
l. A knitted fabric having multiple or com
pound loops of plain or normal form, each com
each other, are formed by different threads, and
extend from different courses.
2. A knitted fabric having multiple or com
prising component loops that are of different
lengths, and are formed from different threads
that extend into different courses of the wale
formed of such compound loops.
3. A knitted fabric having non-laddering wales
incorporated therein, such wales formed of com
pound plain loops formed of different threads,
the needle loops comprising a longer and a shorter
loop, the bights of which coincide in a course,
and the component threads forming these com
pound loops coming from different courses of
the fabric, and the sinker loops between wales
being also compound and formed of component
threads that coincide in their courses where
they cross from one wale to the next.
4. A knitted fabric formed of compound loops
each of which consists of a stitch loop that is
drawn through a loop of the preceding course of
the wale in’which it occurs and has a loop of
the succeeding course of that wale drawn through
it, and of a locking loop which is drawn through
a loop of the preceding-course-but-one in said
wale and has a loop of the succeeding-course
_but-one of said wale drawn through it.
5. Knitted fabric according to claim 2 com
posed of compound loops, wherein the head of
each stitch is composed of a plurality of loop
heads and the legs of each stitch are each com
to the inch (as is desirable at the top of the leg
of a seamless hose knitted on a circular machine
having 300 needles and a needle circle diameter
' length of the main thread loops ‘and extend over
of 31/2":-i. e. '70 gauge) the said distance be
50 tween-the
hooks should be in the neighbourhood
of .032"-.039". Hence the locking thread loops
are drawn approximately twice the length of the
main thread loops, as is necessary if they are to
55 extend alongside the loops of the next course.
The latch of the needle (when such'needles are
employed) should be so arranged that it does not
close on the thread and cut it with a scissor
action, being formed for example as is shown in
60 the speci?cation of Patent No. 396,705.
Both of the fabrics hereinbefore described are
pound loops of plain ordinary form, each com
posed of a‘greater number of loop- legs.
6. Knitted fabric composed oflmain thread
loops and locking thread loops, wherein the look
produce. ‘ Thus if the fabric is to have 64 courses
prising component loops that are of different
lengths, the bights of whichlloops coincide with
ing thread loops are substantially twice the
two courses, and wherein the heads oflthe look
ing thread loops appertaining to one course ex- '
tend alongside or are coincident with the heads
of the main thread loops of the next course and
have the main and locking thread loops of the
next-course-but-one drawn through them.
7. Weft knitted fabric according to claim 6,
wherein along the courses heads’ of two loops
coincide while down the wales legs of three loops
8. Weft knitted fabric according to claim 6,
wherein at alternate courses the heads of two
ladderproof because the head or bight of any loops coincide, while down the wales legs of two
stitch consists of two thread loops extending» loops coincide in each course.
9. Knitted fabricaccording to claim 1, where
from different coursesz-the locking thread loop
in the legs of thread loops produced in succes
65 from the preceding course but one and the main
thread loop from the preceding course. Even sive courses are entwined.
10. Knitted» fabric according to claim 1 and
were, say, the bight of the compound loop com
prising the main thread fed at course 3 and the comprising main thread loops and locking thread
locking thread fed at the next preceding course ‘loops, wherein successive locking thread loops
are passed through and closely around each
70 completely broken a ladder could not form be
cause the loop of locking thread fed at course
3'extends through the compound loop comprising
the main thread fed at said next preceding course
and the locking thread fed at the second pre
11. A method of knitting which comprises
forming in a course two loops of unequal length
and passing them through at least one preceding
ceding course.) In other words its ladderproof _ loop, forming a further loop in a succeeding 75
course and passing it through the, unequal loops
of the ?rst mentioned course, and forming at
least one further loop in a-third course and pass
ing it through the longer loop of the ?rst men
tioned course and the loop of the aforesaid suc
ceeding course.-
12. A method according to claim 11,,which
comprises ‘forming two unequal loops at each
course and passing them through the shorter
10 _loop of the preceding course and the longer loop
of the preceding~course-but-one.
13. A method according to claim 11, which
also comprises passing loops, formed at succes
sive- courses, through and around each other.
14. A method according to claim 11, in which
the longer loop of each course is passed through
and around the longer loop of a succeeding
15. A method of producing knitted fabric which
comprises forming at successive vcourses com
pound loops each of .which consists of two com
ponent loops of unequal length, passing each
compound loop through component loops from
two preceding courses, passing a compound loop
of a succeeding course through one component
loop of each compound loop and passing through
the other component loop thereof a compound
loop 0! a'nother succeeding course.
16. A method of knitting on ‘a hooked needle,
which comprises drawing a compound loop
through a preceding loop, casting the latter on’,
drawing a further compound loop through the
preceding compound loop, casting oi! only the
shorter loop of said, preceding compound loop,
drawing a third compound loop together with
the longer loop of the ?rst compound loop
through the second compound loop, castingo?
the longer loop of the ?rst, and only the shorter
loop of the second, compound loop, and so on in
17. A method according to claim 16, which
comprises casting oi! the shorter loop of a com
pound loop over the longer loop thereof.
18. A method according to claim 16, which 15
comprises clearing each compound loop prepara~
tory to casting oi! the shorter loop thereof but
then restoring the longer loop to the needle hook.
19. A method of knitting according to claim 16,
on a latch needle, which comprises causing or v20
permitting'the open latch to enter said longer ’
loop when cleared below it and to close on said
loop while the shorter loop is cast 01!.
20. A method according to claim 16, which
comprises e?ecting casting ‘of! movement between 25
preventing the longer component loop thereof
the needle and the compound loop and either
from being cast 01! or restoring it to the needle.
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