Патент USA US2132778код для вставки
0a. 11, 1938. ; A, R, COLE 2,132,778 KNITTED FABRIC AND THE PRODUCTION THEREOF Filed Nov. 8, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 ll 172155.10. Oct. 11, 1938. ' A. R. COLE 2,132,778 KNITTED FABRIC AND THE PRODUCTION THEREOF Filed Nov. _8, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 @(33 111N117???’ ~ XWQL Oct. 11, 1938.. ' _ - A. R. COLE' - 2,132,778v KNITTEDFABRIC AND THE PRCDUCTI'ON THEREOF ' Filed Nov. 8, 1955‘ 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Fig. 20. awfékw. _ Oct. 11, 1938. - A. R. CO'LE 1 ' 2,132,778 KNITTED FABRIC AND THE PRODUCTION THEREOF Filed Nov. 8, 1955 ' 4 Sheets-Sheet 4' ‘ 2,132,778 Patented Oct. 11, 1938 UNITED STATES. PATENT OFFICE ' 2,132,778 ‘ . KNITTED FABRIC- AND THE PRODUCTION . \ THEREOF Alfred Reymes Cole, Mountsoml, England Application November 8, 1935, Serial No._ 48,913 In ‘Great Britain November 8,1934 20 Claims. This invention is for improvements in and re lating to knitted fabric and the-production there of, and has for an ‘object the production of knitted fabric which is strongly resistant to laddering. 5 In particular, the invention aims at the produc tion of ladder-resistant weft knitted fabric, the appearance of which is similar to and the elasticity of which is equal to that of plain knitted fabric. 10 The invention may be viewed from several aspects, but it is based upon the use of multiple ' - (01. 66-189) ‘ . Figure 2 shows another form of fabric ac cording to this invention, and Figures 2A to 211 show the stages in the manu facture thereof, while vFigures 3 and 4 illustrate two forms of the 5 novel needle. Turning first to Figure l, the fabric there illus trated is composed of compound loops. The courses‘are numbered} 3, 4' and 5. Considering any one wale, a compound loop in course 3 may 10 be viewed as comprising a main loop_2s and a or compound loops, such loops being de?ned for ' locking thread loop 2L. the purpose of this speci?cation as comprising two component loops, viz. a main or ordinary ll loop which may be formed of a ground or main yarn, and a second or locking loop, at least twice the length of the main loop and formed preferably of a ?ner yarn. - . As viewed from one aspect, the vinvention pro 20 vides a, knitted fabric having multiple or com pound loops, each comprising component loops that are of different lengths, are formed by dif ferent threads and extend from and/or ~into dif ferent courses. Hence should either of ‘the com Hence these two com ponentv loops may be viewed as extending into dif ' ferent courses. I Conversely, if the compound loop is viewed as comprising say a main loop 2s and 15 .a locking loop 2L the said component loops ex tend from differen courses. The locking thread loop 2L is intertwined with a locking thread loop IL of the preceding course and- extends into'the ' succeeding course 3 where it is entwined with the 20 locking thread loop 3L, which itselfextends into the succeeding course 4 and is entwined with the locking thread loop 4L. Hence along each course the heads of two loops coincide, for ex 25 ponent loops of a compound loop be severed, the ' ample along course 3 the head of the main loop adjacent stitches of that wale do ‘not run for is-extends alongside or is coincident with the they are held by the other component loop. As head of thelocking loop IL. Similarly along course I, the heads of loops 3s and 2L are sub viewed from another aspect, the ‘invention pro vides a knitted fabric wherein at each wale or stantially coincident. Down the wales in each 30 certain wales each or every loop is drawn through course legs of three loops coincide. Thus along a plurality of preceding loops and has drawn . course 3, the legs of the main thread loops 3s are through it a plurality of suceeding loops of the coincident with the legs of the locking thread 2L and 3L. same wale. The invention also includes a weft loops That this fabric is resistant to laddering will knitted fabric composed of stitch loops vof one readily be appreciated. Assuming, for example, 35 thread locked by stitch loops of a weft thread that the heads of the loops 3s and IL are com that is interlaced with the'ilrst said thread in the pletely broken; the-main thread loop 2s and the direction of the wales. ' locking thread loop IL are not released, however, “The fabric according to this invention maybe because they have drawn through them the lock produced by a method of knitting which com- » ing thread loop 3L. Similarly the main thread ‘10 prises forming two loops of unequal'len'gth and loop is and the locking thread loop 3L are not passing them through a preceding loop or loops, released because the loops 5s and 5L extend forming a further loop in another course, and through them. Moreover the locking thread loop passing it through the unequal loops of the preced IL is not released because it is passed through ing course, and forming at least one further loop and closely around the locking thread loop 4L. 45 in a third course and passing it along the longer Neither is the face appearance of this fabric loop of the ?rst course andjthe loop of the second radically different from'ordinary plain knitted 25 30 35 40 45 fabric such as is employed for ladies’ stockings, for although it is built up of compound loops the In order that this invention may be better un ‘50 derstood, referencewill now be made to the ac- ‘ component loops thereof are of substantially nor- 50 course. ' companying drawings in which . 4 Figure 1 shows one form of fabric according to this invention. .. Figures 1A to U show the stages in the manu 55 facture thereof by the aid of a novel needle. mal form. Thus, it will be noted, there are‘incorporated into the fabric non-laddering wales, whether the fabric be of the form shown in'Figure 1 or that v of Figure 2 (to be later described .more in de- 55 2 2,182,778 tail) wherein the needle loops are of plain or loop Is and the preceding locking thread loop IL while the new locking loop 2L is drawn through the preceding locking oop IL. The stage normal form, though of compound construction and formed from different threads, which threads are shaped respectively into longer and shorter loops, the bights of which needle loops in any course , are coincident while the shown in Figure 1F is, there ore, reached, and it will be noted that looking thread loops IL and 2L are entwined. Next the coincidentloops component threads thereof come from di?erent courses of the fabric; and that the sinker loops between ' the wales are also of normal form and of com pound construction, the threads of such sinker loops coinciding in their courses where they cross from one wale to the next. _ ' Thisfabric is produced by the aid of a needle having two hooks, a main hook“ and, inside 15 it, a minute subsidiary hook, I2. These'hooks are spaced su?lciently apart lengthwise of the 2s and IL and the loop 2L are cleared below the latch and new threads 38 and BL fed to the needles see Fig. 1G. Thereafter, as shown in Figs. 1H and H, the locking thread loop 2L is returned to the'needle hook, the loops 2s and IL are cast off over it and new loops 3s and 3L are drawn through the loops- IL, is, while loop SL is drawn through loop 2L. . As has been pointed out. and as is readily dis 15 tinguishable from Figure 1, a characteristic fea ture of the fabric thus produced is the intertwin ing of the locking thread loops in the direction of the wales. It is within the scope of this in vention, however, to produce fabric which is iden tical with the Said fabric in all respects with the needle that when‘ two threads are fed to the nee dle, the latter produces two loops, one substan tially twice the length of the other. The loop 20 formation may be assisted by sinkers of special shape. Such sinkers are not illustrated, but it may be mentioned that each sinker has in ad exception of the said characteristic feature. Such vance of its web-holding throat a short straight fabric is shown in Figure 2. As before, the top edge over which the needles draw sinker courses are numbered 3,- 4 and 5. Along course 25 loops from a main yarn and, immediately in ad 3, the head of the main thread loop 2s (produced vance of the point over which said loops .are - by thread fed in the course next preceding course drawn, a downwardly inclined top edge over 3) is coincident with-the head‘ of the locking which the locking thread loops are drawn, the loop IL formed by thread-fed in the preceding included angle between the two edges being very course-but-one. Along course 4, the head of the 30 obtuse, say in the neighbourhood of 160°. There main thread loop is is coincident with the head fore, the_apex‘between these two edges serves to of the preceding locking thread loop 2L. Simi divide the threads and, as will readily be under larly along course 5 the head of the main thread stood, by regulating'the advance of the sinkers loop produced in course 4 is- coincident with the so as to cause the locking thread loops to be head of the locking thread loop produced at the 35 drawn over different parts of the inclined edge, preceding-course-but-on'e. Down- the wales, the the length of saidloops may be controlled some leg vof any main thread loop is coincident with what. Such control is desirably in addition to the legs of the locking thread loops produced at the ordinary “stiffening” control provided in that and at the preceding course, but these legs seamless hose machines (as for example by rais of the locking thread loops are not intertwined. 40 ing and lowering. thev needle cylinder in relation This fabric is also produced by the aid of a to the cams) for varying the stitch length as needle having two hooks, and the stages in its knitting proceeds down the leg of a seaml production are shown in Figs. 2A to 2H. Com hose. . , - For convenience, it has been elected to- show in Figure 1A the shank of the needle II encircled by the single loop 0L. Two threads are fed into the needlehook in such manner that the main thread I: is taken by the main‘ hook II while the auxiliary or locking thread IL is taken by the subsidiary hook I2. The main-thread is'de sirably stouter than the locking thread and it may be mentioned, by way of example, that in the production of ladies’ hose, the former may be of four-strand silk and‘ the latter of single strand silk. The. needle then descends asshown in Fig. 13 to‘ draw loops from these threads through the old loop 0L and to cast the latter of! as in Fig. 1C. At the next stage shown in Fig. 1D, the needle is shown as having. been raised, so that the main loop Is and the lock-‘ ing thread loop IL are cleared below the latch. New threads 2.: and _IL are fed to the main and ' 25 ' 35 40 men'cing with Fig. 2A, the needle shank III is shown encircled by a loop 0L, cleared below the latch, and threads I: and IL are shown as being taken by the main and subsidiary hooks respec tively; In Fig. 2B, unequal loops Is and IL are drawn from these threads through the old loop 0L. At the next stage, Figure 2C, the loops Is and IL are cleared below the latch and new threads is and IL are fed to the needle hooks. So far the production stages are substantially similar with those of the fabric illustrated in Figure 1. In casting 03, however, precautions are taken to prevent the loop IL 'being trans?xed by the open latch‘ and returned immediately to the, open needle so that the loop Is is cast off over it. For this purpose, the sinkers may be advanced to tighten the loops around the needle shank. The result is that both the loops Is and IL are cleared on to the closed latch. Further descent results subsidiary hooks respectively and the needle ' in the main loops Is being completely 'cast off the needle. Precautions are taken, however, either to thereupon descends. In ~its descent the open . prevent the loop IL from being cast 01! or to re- . latch (e. g. held‘ open by a latch guard) enters turn it to the needle immediately it has been cast the preceding locking loop IL, for because of off. For this purpose at the knocking over point a the additional length of the latter the bight of rotary brush may be provided with its axis of roe the loop projects beyond the needle shank. This‘ tation substantially radial, which brush is driven locking thread loop IL is, therefore, returned to by contact with the sinkers or the needle heads so 70 the needle main hook and as the latch closes the that its bristles brush the locking loops down main thread loop Is is cast off over it. In other wards and prevents them from slippingjo? the words, .the locking thread loop IL ‘is drawn heads of the needles. When such a-b‘rush is em 70. through the main thread loop‘ is. Simultaneous ployed, it is desirable that the needle head shall be ly, new main and locking thread loops is and 2L substantially of a pointed nature instead of being are drawn through the preceding main thread semi-circular, the" point being approximately 75 3 . 2,182,778 midway in the width of the main hook. Alter natively, the material of the hook may extend at the front edge thereof substantially straight up from the point of the hook (instead of curving back in a semi-circle) until it reaches its highest level (the front of the hook being the open or ‘ latch side and the back being regarded as verti " cal) whence it extends obliquely backwards and ' downwards to the needle shank. Such a con- ' 10 struction is shown in Figure 3. By reason of the straight front edge of the hook, the danger that the locking thread loop will slip off is minimized. Alternatively, insteadof ensuring that the lock ing thread loop is not cast off, the said loop is 15 cast off and the needle is raised to re-enter it, as is possible by reason of the increased length of the locking loop. For this purpose, needles of another modi?ed shape shown in Figure 4 may be employed. In these needles the rear edge of the 20 hook extends up substantially straight from the shank (instead of curving forwards in semi circle) until it reaches its highest level, whence it extends obliquely forwards and downwards to the point. - The main thread loop having been cast oil, the new'loops 2s and 2L are drawn through it (but not through locking loop IL) and the needle’ is then raised to clearthe three loops IL, 2s and 2L below‘ the needle latch, Figure 21-‘. New 80 threads 3s, 3L are then fed to the needle hooks," and the needle is lowered to cast of! the loops is and IL. These two loops are cast off simultane ously because their loop heads coincide, but as previously, the loop 2L is either‘ not cast-off or is subsequently returned to the needle, Figure 2H.\ Thereafter the cycle of operations is repeated. As in both forms of fabric it is desirable that. the locking thread loops shall be substantially twice the length of the main thread loops, ac cording to the present invention the distance between the top of the interior of the main hook , and the top of the interior of the subsidiary hook is substantially equal to and preferably somewhat greater than the mean distance between succes sive courses of the fabric that it is desired to qualities are due to a definite lock of the inter meshing constituent loops and are not entirely due to frictional resistance. Such fabric is suit able for many purposes, but is particularly suit able for ladies’ stockings because its appearance does not differ from and its elasticity is the same as that of ordinary weft knitted fabric. I claim:— ' . l. A knitted fabric having multiple or com pound loops of plain or normal form, each com each other, are formed by different threads, and extend from different courses. I 2. A knitted fabric having multiple or com prising component loops that are of different lengths, and are formed from different threads that extend into different courses of the wale formed of such compound loops. 3. A knitted fabric having non-laddering wales incorporated therein, such wales formed of com pound plain loops formed of different threads, the needle loops comprising a longer and a shorter loop, the bights of which coincide in a course, and the component threads forming these com pound loops coming from different courses of the fabric, and the sinker loops between wales being also compound and formed of component threads that coincide in their courses where they cross from one wale to the next. 4. A knitted fabric formed of compound loops each of which consists of a stitch loop that is drawn through a loop of the preceding course of the wale in’which it occurs and has a loop of the succeeding course of that wale drawn through it, and of a locking loop which is drawn through a loop of the preceding-course-but-one in said wale and has a loop of the succeeding-course 40 _but-one of said wale drawn through it. 5. Knitted fabric according to claim 2 com posed of compound loops, wherein the head of each stitch is composed of a plurality of loop heads and the legs of each stitch are each com to the inch (as is desirable at the top of the leg of a seamless hose knitted on a circular machine having 300 needles and a needle circle diameter ' length of the main thread loops ‘and extend over of 31/2":-i. e. '70 gauge) the said distance be 50 tween-the hooks should be in the neighbourhood of .032"-.039". Hence the locking thread loops are drawn approximately twice the length of the main thread loops, as is necessary if they are to 55 extend alongside the loops of the next course. The latch of the needle (when such'needles are employed) should be so arranged that it does not close on the thread and cut it with a scissor action, being formed for example as is shown in 60 the speci?cation of Patent No. 396,705. Both of the fabrics hereinbefore described are 15 pound loops of plain ordinary form, each com posed of a‘greater number of loop- legs. 6. Knitted fabric composed oflmain thread loops and locking thread loops, wherein the look produce. ‘ Thus if the fabric is to have 64 courses 10 prising component loops that are of different lengths, the bights of whichlloops coincide with ing thread loops are substantially twice the two courses, and wherein the heads oflthe look ing thread loops appertaining to one course ex- ' tend alongside or are coincident with the heads of the main thread loops of the next course and have the main and locking thread loops of the next-course-but-one drawn through them. ’ 7. Weft knitted fabric according to claim 6, wherein along the courses heads’ of two loops coincide while down the wales legs of three loops coincide. . 8. Weft knitted fabric according to claim 6, wherein at alternate courses the heads of two ladderproof because the head or bight of any loops coincide, while down the wales legs of two stitch consists of two thread loops extending» loops coincide in each course. 9. Knitted fabricaccording to claim 1, where from different coursesz-the locking thread loop in the legs of thread loops produced in succes 65 from the preceding course but one and the main thread loop from the preceding course. Even sive courses are entwined. 10. Knitted» fabric according to claim 1 and were, say, the bight of the compound loop com prising the main thread fed at course 3 and the comprising main thread loops and locking thread locking thread fed at the next preceding course ‘loops, wherein successive locking thread loops are passed through and closely around each 70 completely broken a ladder could not form be cause the loop of locking thread fed at course 3'extends through the compound loop comprising the main thread fed at said next preceding course and the locking thread fed at the second pre other. 11. A method of knitting which comprises forming in a course two loops of unequal length and passing them through at least one preceding ceding course.) In other words its ladderproof _ loop, forming a further loop in a succeeding 75 4 2,182,778 course and passing it through the, unequal loops of the ?rst mentioned course, and forming at least one further loop in a-third course and pass ing it through the longer loop of the ?rst men tioned course and the loop of the aforesaid suc ceeding course.- , 12. A method according to claim 11,,which comprises ‘forming two unequal loops at each course and passing them through the shorter 10 _loop of the preceding course and the longer loop of the preceding~course-but-one. 13. A method according to claim 11, which also comprises passing loops, formed at succes sive- courses, through and around each other. 15 14. A method according to claim 11, in which the longer loop of each course is passed through and around the longer loop of a succeeding course. 15. A method of producing knitted fabric which comprises forming at successive vcourses com pound loops each of .which consists of two com ponent loops of unequal length, passing each compound loop through component loops from two preceding courses, passing a compound loop of a succeeding course through one component loop of each compound loop and passing through the other component loop thereof a compound loop 0! a'nother succeeding course. 16. A method of knitting on ‘a hooked needle, / which comprises drawing a compound loop through a preceding loop, casting the latter on’, drawing a further compound loop through the preceding compound loop, casting oi! only the shorter loop of said, preceding compound loop, drawing a third compound loop together with the longer loop of the ?rst compound loop through the second compound loop, castingo? the longer loop of the ?rst, and only the shorter loop of the second, compound loop, and so on in repetition. 17. A method according to claim 16, which comprises casting oi! the shorter loop of a com pound loop over the longer loop thereof. ' 18. A method according to claim 16, which 15 comprises clearing each compound loop prepara~ tory to casting oi! the shorter loop thereof but then restoring the longer loop to the needle hook. 19. A method of knitting according to claim 16, on a latch needle, which comprises causing or v20 permitting'the open latch to enter said longer ’ loop when cleared below it and to close on said loop while the shorter loop is cast 01!. g 20. A method according to claim 16, which comprises e?ecting casting ‘of! movement between 25 preventing the longer component loop thereof the needle and the compound loop and either from being cast 01! or restoring it to the needle. 7 ALFRED REYMES COLE.