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Патент USA US2132964

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Oct. 11, 1938.
A. E. NASH ET AL
,
2,132,964
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR HEATING HYDROCARBON OILS AND COMPONENTS THEREOF
Filed May 16, 1934
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Oct. 11, 1938.
A. E. NASH ET AL
2,132,964
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR HEATING‘HYDROCARBON OILS AND COMPONENTS THEREOF
Filed.v May 16, 1934
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INVENTORS
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Oct. 11, 1938.
A. E. NASH ET'AL_
2,132,964
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR HEATING HYDROCARBON OILS AND COMPONENTS THEREOF
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Filed May 16, 1934
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INVENTORS
'
BY
M 1 63M
WMATTORNEY.
I
Patented Oct. 11, 1938
2,132,964
V UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,132,964
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR HEATING
' HYDROCARBON OIL S AND COIVIPONENTS
THEREOF
Arthur E. Nash, Mount Airy, Philadelphia, and
Franklin E. Shelly, Jenkintown, Pa., assignors
to Alcorn Combustion Company, Philadelphia,
Pa., a corporation of Delaware
Application May 16, 1934, Serial No. 725,940
8 Claims. (Cl. 196-60)
Our invention relates to methods of and ap
step. By this arrangement only a single hot oil
paratus for heating ?uids, and especially oils;
pump is required for handling both components
and more particularly for heating petroleum or‘
hydrocarbon oils, or products or components or fractions of the heated oil, the pressure de
veloped by this single pump being sui?cient to
thereof, for re?ning, distilling, cracking or other
wise converting or treating the same.
‘
In accordance with our invention, a charging
stock of hydrocarbon oils, such as petroleum or
components thereof, comprising oils of substan
10 tially or Widely different boiling points or char
acteristics, to be cracked for procurement of
gasoline, motor fuel or other lower boiling hydro
carbons, is preliminarily heated, generally under
superatmospheric pressure, to a temperature at
‘ which the petroleum and/ or components are sep
arable into oils, generally in vapor or vaporous
and liquid phases, comprising components of
boiling ranges less than the boiling range of the
charging stock, and the oils so separated from
20 each other .are then individually heated under
conditions differing in one or more of the con
force the oil through the complete conversion
or treating system, and particularly to maintain
when desired on the several components pres
sure or pressures, generally superatmospheric,
suitable to the temperatures to which the com
ponents are raised while individually or separately
heated.
For a better understanding of our invention,
together with other and further features there
of, reference is had to the following description
taken in connection with the accompanying 15
drawings, and its scope will be pointed out in the
appended claims.
In the drawings, Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic
representation of a system for converting or
treating hydrocarbon oils, including our improved
heating system, and showing in cross-section a
ditions of temperature, pressure, rates of heat
ing and/or periods of time, to crack them or
effect their conversion into lower boiling hydro
furnace particularly suitable for heating hydro
carbons to better advantage or with better re
tional views, respectively, of a separating ap
paratus suitable for use in connection with our 25
improved system, while Fig. 3 shows a modi?ed
form of our invention employing two separators
and applied to a modified cracking or conversion
sults than if the hydrocarbon oils or charging
stock were as a whole subjected tothe same con
ditions; and more particularly in accordance with
our invention one of the aforesaid separated
components may be further separated into fur
ther components which are then individually
heated, generally under different conditions.
Further in accordance with our invention, the
components which have been separated and in
dividually heated under different conditions may
thereafter be separately further treated or, and
generally, they may be recombined and together
passed through the system for one or more fur
ther steps of treatment.
7 Further in accordance with our invention, the
separated components are individually heated in
different zones of a furnace or heating sys
tem, generally by radiation and/or radiation and
convection, and the heating preliminary to the
separation of the oil into its aforesaid components
is effected, generally, largely by convection, by a
combination of gas streams from the several zones
of the‘ furnace or heating system.
More speci?cally in accordance with our in
vention, the several steps ‘comprised therein, that
is, the‘ preliminary heating, the separation into
fractions or components, and the individual heat
- ing ‘of the‘ components, are all accomplished un
der pressure'to which the ‘oil or petroleum is
raised either before or after the ?rst heating
carbon oils in accordance with our invention.
Figs. 2 and 2a are longitudinal and cross-sec
process.
Referring now more particularly to Fig. 1 of 30
the drawings, there is shown a complete oil con
version system embodying our invention, the flow
of oil through the system being as indicated by
the arrows. Fresh oil stock is supplied to an 35
inlet l0 and passes therefrom through suitable
storage tanks or receivers II from which it is
drawn by a pressure booster pump I2 and passed
through a heat exchanger, indicated schemati
cally at I3, to be referred to hereinafter. The
oil, after preliminary heating in the exchanger
!3, is drawn by the hot oil pump I4 and forced‘
under pressure to the main heating apparatus or
furnace of the system. This heating furnace may
be of any of the several well-known types, al 45
though we have illustrated a furnace particularly
suitable for use ‘in our invention and comprising
side-wall and roof structures l5 of suitable re
fractory material. Associated with the outer side
walls l5 are a pair of independently adjustable 50
or controllable burners. l6 and I1 and cooperat
ing auxiliary combustion chambers l8 and I9,
respectively, having walls and/or top plates of
highly refractory material, such as silicon car
bide. It will be understood that any desired type
2,132,964
2
of fuel, such as oil, gas, or pulverized solid fuel
may be supplied to the burners I6 and II. The
housing structure of the furnace comprising the
walls and roof structure l5 de?nes a plurality of
pressure-reducing valve 35 is connected in the
outlet from the bank of tubes 30. In addition, it
may be desirable to include a pressure-reducing
of refractory material.
the cracking or re?ning system.
The combined vapors and fluid thus subjected
to preliminary heating may be further cracked,
re?ned or converted in accordance with any de 10
sired method or system. By way of example only,
we have shown one such system in which the
common outlet for the combined vapors and fluid
is connected to the inlet 38 of an evaporating
valve 36 in the common outlet of the banks of
compartments, ?re chambers, or zones A and B ' tubes 39 and 33 before passing the combined va
separated by upright barriers or ba?les 20 also pors and fiuid through the remaining stages of
The baffles 23 may de
?ne, also, a third heating compartment or zone
C.
The currents of hot combustion gases from
10 the chambers I8 and I9, passing outwardly and
upwardly through the zones A and B, combine
and pass downwardly through the zone C.
In the zone C is disposed a heat-absorption
structure, such as a bank of oil-conducting tubes
15 2I, connected, as illustrated, to the hot oil pump
Ill. The tubes 2| are washed or swept by the
currents of hot combustion gases and are adapted‘
to be heated preponderantly by convection, al
though, in some instances, a certain amount of
20 radiant heating may be effected, particularly in
the upper portion of the zone C, by virtue of the
baffles 23 reaching radiant temperatures.
After a mechanical preliminary heating in the
bank of tubes 2 I, the oil is conducted to a sepa
25 rating apparatus S which may be of any several
well-known types, although I have shown in Figs.
2 and 2:1, by way of example only, one structure
suitable for this purpose. As shown in detail in
these ?gures, the separator comprises a substan
tially cylindrical casing 22 with a top plate 23.
The lower portion of the housing 22 converges
into a conical chamber 22a connecting with, a
liquid outlet 24. Depending from the top plate 23
are a‘series of baiile plates 25 arranged in stag
35 gered relation, as shown clearly in Fig. 2a, pro
viding a tortuous path for the combined vapors
and liquids from the bank of tubes 2| in passing
from the inlet 23, through the separator S and to
the vapor outlet 21 and liquid outlet 24.
The vapor outlet 21 is connected to a bank of
roof tubes 28, a bank of wall tubes 29, and a bank
of ?oor tubes 30, all disposed in the zone A of the
heating furnace. The liquid outlet 24 is connect
ed to similarly arranged banks or groups of tubes
and 33. As stated above, the bank of tubes
is 32|I, is32 disposed
in the path of the combined cur
rents of gases from the combustion chambers I8
and I9, to be heated preponderantly or substan
tially solely by convection. On the other hand,
the banks of tubes 28, 29, 3| and 32 disposed adja
50
cent the roof and side walls of the furnace cham
bers may be partially
wholly outside of the
paths of the currents of gases through the fur
nace, and may receive heat preponderantly or
55 substantially solely by radiation, although, in cer=
tain instances, it may be desirable to so relate
these banks of tubes to the currents of gases that
they receive also a component of heat by con
vection from the gas streams. The banks of floor
tubes 30 and 33 are heated preponderantly or
substantially solely by radiation from the cur
rents of gases, which pass inwardly and upward
ly from the combustion chambers I8 and I9
sweeping or washing the banks of tubes 39 and
65 33 to an inconsiderable extent.
Ordinarily, it is desirable to conduct the sec
ond stage of heating of the liquid component of
the oil atia reduced pressure and, for this pur
pose, a pressure-reducing valve 34 is interposed
70 in the connection to the liquid outlet 24. The
vapor and liquid components orfractions, after
passing through the second stage of heat-absorp
tion structures just described, are recombined
into a common outlet.
In order approximately
75 to equalize their pressures before recombining, a
tower 39 to which is connected also a conduit
3'! leading to a supply of cooling oil. The tower
is provided with a live steam inlet 4!! connect
ed to a spray 4| disposed in the bottom thereof.
In addition, an inlet 42 for re?ux oil is provided
in the top of the tower 39 and connected to a
spray 43. An outlet 44
effective to draw o?
the unconvertible or tarry residues, this outlet
being connected to a coil 45 of the heat exchang
er I3.
The outlet 46 of the evaporator 39, through 25
which passes the combined vapors and liquids,
is connected through a conduit 41 to the inlet 48
of a fractionating column 49. The column 49 has
a re?ux oil inlet 50 connected to a spray 5| sit
uated in the top of the column. The lower out
30
let of the column 49, for the unconverted or un
cracked liquid or liquid components of the oil,
is connected to a cooling coil or condenser 52, the
outlet of which is connected to the oil stock inlet
III. The cooling coil ‘52 is connected also through 35
a re?ux pump 53 to the re?ux inlet 42 of the pre=
ceding evaporating tower.
The outlet 54 of the column 49, for the convert
ed or cracked vapors, is connected to a condenser
55 which, in turn. is connected to the inlet 56 of 40
a distillate receiver 51, in which the several com
ponents are separated by gravity or otherwise.
The receiver 5-‘! has an outlet 58 for gas, which
may be used for illumination, industrial or de
mestic heating, or the like, an outlet 59 for gas 45
oline, and an outlet 60 in the bottom thereof
for drawing off the water condensed from the
processing steam. A portion of the gasoline thus
produced may be drawn through the conduit ii!
by a reflux pump 62 connected to the reflux inlet
50 of the preceding fractionating column 49.
The operation of the above-described appa
ratus for conducting the preliminary heating of
the oil will be well-understood from the forego
ing description. In brief, the fresh oil stock,
together with any unconverted oil from the frac
tionating column 52, is passed through the heat
exchanger or economizer I3 by the booster pump
I2, the exchanger I3 being effective only to con
serve heat remaining in the tarry residues ?owing 60
from the evaporating tower 39. This preheated
oil is then drawn by the hot oil pump I4 and
forced through the bank of tubes 2| located in
the zone C of the furnace chamber. The oil is
heated moderately in this bank of tubes and 65
reaches a'temperature, for example, of 600 or
800° F. During this preliminary heating, certain
of the lighter fractions or components of the oil
are vaporized.
The combined vapors and liquid ?ow from the 70
bank of tubes 2| to the inlet 26 of the separator
S, the mixture impinging upon the staggered
baffles 25, which aid in separating the liquid from
the vapors, the liquid draining down the ba?ies
25, as indicated by the arrows in Fig. 2, and the 75
2,132,964
vapors passing threugh the tortuous path between
the ba?ies and to the outlet 21. As shown, the
separator S forms a neutral temperature and re
action zonesinceheat is neither added to nor sub
tracted from the stock which at this time is not
subjected to further treatment. As already indi
cated, the sole function of the separator S is to
separate mechanically the stock into its liquid
and vaporous components. From the outlet 21
the vapors are passed through the banks of
tubes 28, 29 and 30 where they are raised to their
?nal cracking temperature which, by way of ex
ample only, may be in the neighborhood of 1000°
F. The liquid component passes through the out
15 let 24 of the separator S, the pressure-reducing
Valve 34, and through the banks of tubes 3|, 32
and 33 in which it is heated to its ?nal cracking
or converting temperature, which, by way of ex
ample only, may be in the neighborhood of 900° F.
By this means, the original oil stock is con
verted into two components, each of which is
more homogeneous than the entire stock, and
each of which may be cracked or re?ned at a
temperature better suited to its particular physi—
25 cal and thermal characteristics. Thus, a maxi
mum cracking or converting takes place without
over-cracking or coking of the heavier compo—
nents, which might take place if they were sub
jected to the higher temperatures to which the
lighter components are heated, or without the
under-cracking or incomplete conversion ‘of the
lighter components, which would result from
treating the whole stock at the lower tempera
ture of the liquid component.
35
‘
It will be understood that the particular con
nections and arrangements of. the several banks
' or groups of oil-conducting tubes in the zones of
the furnace chamber are purely illustrative, and
40
that any other arrangements or combinations
of banks of tubes may be utilized for the several
heating stages; that is, the initial heating of the
whole oil stock and the ?nal heating of the two
components. It will be understood, also, that
.the disposition of the several banks of tubes
45 within the furnace may be such as to transfer
heat thereto‘in the several zones by radiation,
convection, or combined radiation and convec
tion, in accordance with the requirements of the
particular furnace and the particular oil stock
which is being treated. Further, the several
stages of heating may be effected by any other
suitable apparatus, that illustrated in Fig. 1 being
merely one apparatus which, by virtue of the
separate control of the two currents of hot com
bustion gases by the burners I6 and I1, is par
ticularly adapted to the practicing of our inven
tion.
The vapor and liquid components, after pass‘
ing through the heating stages just described,
are recombined and, since the pressure of the
liquid component has been reduced by the valve
34, it may be advisable to include a pressure
reducing valve 35 in the path of the vapor com
,ponent before recombining the two fractions.
65 Also, a pressure-reducing valve 36 may be desir
able for reducing the pressure of the recombined
components before subjecting them to the re
maining stages in the cracking, re?ning, or con
verting process.
The subsequent stages of the process for com
70
pleting the conversion of the oil stock forms no
part of our invention but, by way of example
only, the operation of the particular system de
scribed above will be brie?y explained. The re
combined vapor and liquid components passing
3
from the heating furnace are conducted to the
inlet 38 of a fractionating tower where they are
combined with a component of cooling oil, which
may be fresh oil stock or any uncracked or un
converted fraction from an intermediate stage in
the converting process. In the tower 39 they are
subjected to live steam from the spray 4|, to
gether with a reflux spray from the nozzle 43,
which sprays are effective to aid in the separa
tion of the vapor and liquid components. The 10
unconvertible or tarry residue passes off through
the outlet 44 in the bottom of the tower, pre
heating the fresh oil stock in the heat exchanger
i3,
and > passing on to any suitable storage
chamber.
The converted components in a vapor state
pass through the upper outlet 46 of the tower 39
and into the inlet 48 of a fractionating column
where they are subjected to a re?ux spray from
15
the nozzle 5|, which is effective to condense in 20
completely converted components or fractions.
These unconverted fractions pass out through an
outlet in the bottom of the column 49 and
through a suitable cooling coil 52 to be added to
the fresh oil stock. A portion of this uncon 25
verted oil may form the re-cycling or re?ux ?uid
for the preceding evaporating tower. The con
verted or cracked fractions in a vapor state pass
through the upper outlet 54 of the fractionating
column 49 and through a condenser 55 where
they are lique?ed, the liquid condensate or dis
'tillate passing into the receiver 51. In this re
ceiver the condensed liquids are separated by
gravity, or otherwise, from entrained vapors
which are supplied to a suitable gas conduit 58. 35
The gasoline is drawn off from the outlet 59 while
water, condensed from the treating steam, is
drawn off through the outlet 60. A portion of
the converted gasoline may be used for the re?ux
spray 5| of the preceding fractionating column, 40
as illustrated.
In Fig. 3 is shown a modification of the heat
ing system of Fig. 1, employing two series
connected separators. The oil from the heating
system is shown, also, as applied to a slightly dif
ferent cracking or re?ning process. As in the 45
arrangement of Fig. 1, the oil stock supplied to
the inlet I0 is raised to an elevated pressure by
the hot oil pump l4, which forces it through bank
of tubes 2| for a stage of preliminary heating.
In this instance, the bank of tubes 2| is con
nected to a bank of roof tubes 63 which, in some
instances, may be desirable to raise the oil to a
satisfactory temperature before it is conducted
to the inlet 64 of the separator S|. The vapor
component from the separator SI passes from the
outlet 65 through the banks of tubes 66 and 61,
arranged similarly to the banks of tubes 28 and
30, respectively, of the apparatus of Fig. 1. The
liquid component passes from the lower outlet of
the separator Sl, through a bank of roof tubes
68 in the chamber B, thence to the inlet of a sec
ond separator S2. The vapor component outlet
10 of the separator S2 is connected to a bank of
floor tubes ‘H, while the liquid component outlet
12 is connected to a second bank of ?oor tubes
13. The outlets ‘l4, ‘l5 and 16 of the vapor com
ponents from the separators SI and S2 and the
liquid component of the separator S2, respec
tively, are connected to a common conduit or
outlet 11. As in the system of Fig. 1, pressure 70
reducing valves 18 and 19 are connected in the
liquid component outlets of the separators SI
and S2, respectively, while the pressure-reducing
valves 80 and 8| are connected in the outlets 14 75
4
2,132,964
and 15 of the vapor components from the sepa
rators SI and S2, respectively, before recombining
the several components in the common outlet 11.
The operation of the heating apparatus just
described is substantially similar to that of Fig 1
with the exception that, in this instance, an addi
tional separating and heating stage is added, thus
separating the oil stock into three fractions or
components, each of which is substantially more
homogeneous as regards its physical and ther
mal characteristics than the fresh oil stock. For
example, the vapor component from the sepa
rator SI, heated in the banks of tubes 69 and 61,
may comprise a mixture of only the lightest frac
tions, which may be cracked or re?ned at a rela
tively high temperature. The liquid component
from the separator Si, passing through the bank
of tubes 68, is raised to a somewhat higher tem
perature, vaporizing slightly heavier or interme
20 diate fractions which are separated in the sepa
rator S2 from the heaviest fractions, these inter
mediate fractions, in a vaporized state, being
?nally heated in the bank of tubes ‘H at an inter
mediate temperature. The heaviest fractions,
passing from the liquid outlet 12 of the sepa
rator S2, may be heated more moderately to
avoid overcracking or coking thereof. The sev
eral components are then recombined in the com—
mon outlet T‘! from which they pass to the
remainder of the cracking or re?ning process.
It will be understood that the arrangements
and connections of the particular banks or groups
of tubes utilized'in the several heating stages
just described above are subject to wide varia
35 tions to suit the requirements of the particular
heating furnace and the particular oil stock being
treated. It will be clear, also, that while the
banks of tubes 63, 96 and 88 are arranged simi
larly to the banks of tubes 28 and 3| of Fig. 1,
40 and receive heat preponderantly by radiation,
while the tubes 61 and 13 are disposed similarly
to the banks of tubes 30 and 33 of Fig. 1 and
receive heat substantially solely by radiation, the
disposition ofthese several banks or groups of
tubes may be varied to vary the mode of heat
transfer, as by radiation, convection or com
bined radiation and convection, in accordance
with the requirements of the particular system.
It will be clear, also, that, while we have illus
trated the use of two separators for breaking
down the fresh oil stock into three components
or fractions for separate heating to cracking or
converting temperatures, the system may be ex
tended to employ any desired number of sepa
rators to separate the oil stock into a correspond
ing number of fractions, each having a homo
geneity within any desired limits.
.
' By way of further example, there is disclosed
a modi?ed system for completing the conversion
of the oil. In this system, the oil, heated as just
described, is passed from the common outlet 11
tarry residues, which are drawn off from the
lower outlet of the chamber 84. The converted
and vaporized fractions pass upwardly through
the outlet 86 and combine with fresh cooling oil
from the inlet 81 connected with the inlet 88 of
a fractionating column 89. A reflux inlet 90 is
connected to a spray 9| disposed in the top of
the column 89, while a liquid outlet 92 receives
the unconverted or heavier fractions, which are
recombined with the fresh oil stock. The lighter
converted or cracked fractions 'pass upwardly
through the outlet 93 to a condenser 94, and the
condensed liquids therefrom flow through an in
let 95 of a condensate or distillate receiver 96,
where they‘are separated into gas, gasoline and 15
water, as in the system of Fig. 1.
While we have described what we at present
consider the preferred embodiments of our in
vention, it will be obvious to those skilled in the
art that various changes and modi?cations may
be made without departing from our invention
and we, therefore, .aim in the appended claims
to cover all such changes and modi?cations as
fall within the true spirit and scope of our inven
tion,
What we claim is:
1. An oil-heating system comprising a heating
chamber, means for passing therethrough a plu
rality of independently controllable currents of
hot combustion gases, said chamber comprising 30
a zone traversed by the combined currents of
gases, oil-conducting heat-absorption structure
disposed in said zone to be heated substantially
by convection, means connected with said absorp
tion structure for separating the oil therefrom 35
into liquid and vapor components, oil-conducting
heat-absorption structure connecting the liquid '
component outlet of said separating means and
disposed below and without one of said currents
of gases and absorbing heat substantially solely 4.0
by radiation from said one of said currents of
gases, other oil-conductingv heat-absorption
structure connected to the vapor component out
let of said separating means and disposed below
and Without the other of said current of gases 45
and absorbing heat substantially solely by radi
ation ‘from said other of said currents of gases,
said last-named heat-absorption structures being
directly connected to a common outlet for imme
diate mixture of said vapor and liquid compo- .
nents after their passage through said structures,
pressure-producing means individual to the sys
tem connected to said ?rst-named structure for
producing ?ow under pressure of charge-oil and
its said components through said oil-conducting
structures.
2. In an oil-heating system,'the method of
cracking oil which comprises burning fuel at
separate points to generate heat, passing the cur
rents of hot combustion gases through a plu
rality of zones, certain of which are individual
to said currents and one of which is common
to a reaction or digesting chamber 82 where the I to all of said currents of gases, elevating charge
vapor and liquid mixture reaches a state of equi
oil to an initial pressure suflicient to produce flow
librium and the cracking process proceeds with
thereof through the system, passing oil through ,1
out the addition of further heat. The combined heat absorption structure located in said com
liquid and vapors pass from outlet of the reac
mon zone, transferring by convection a portion
tion chamber 82 into the inlet 83 of a ?ash cham
of the generated heat to said structure in said
ber 84, a supply of cooling oil from the conduit
common zone to convert the oil into liquid and
85 also being connected to the inlet 83. The cool
ing oil may be supplied from the fresh oil stock vaporous components, separating the heated oil
into liquid and vapor components, utilizing said
or from any other intermediate stage of the con
pressure separately to pass all of said components
version process.
through heat absorption structures located in
In theflash chamber, the vapor and liquid mix
other of said zones, individually transferring heat
ture under high pressure expands rapidly, vapor
izing, all of the components except the heavy,
substantially solely by radiation from said gases
2,132,964
to said structures located in said other zones to
elevate the components to their respective con
version temperatures, and while at their said
conversion temperatures recombining all of said
components for further treatment.
3. In an oil-heating system, the method of
cracking oil which comprises burning fuel at sep
arate points and different rates to produce in
oil-conversion zones independently controlled
temperatures, passing the currents of hot com
bustion gases through a plurality of said zones
certain of which are individual to said currents
and, one of which is common to all of said cur
rents of gases, the temperature of one of said
15 currents of gases being higher than the temper
ature of the other, passing oil under substantial
initial pressure through heat absorption struc
ture located in said common zone, transferring
by convection a portion of the generated heat
20 to the structure in said common zone to convert
the oil into liquid and vapor components, under
pressure mechanically separating the heated oil
into said liquid and vapor components, utilizing
said pressure to pass said vapor component
25 through heat absorption structure exposed to and
substantially out of the path of the higher tem
perature combustion gases, utilizing only a part
of said pressure to pass said liquid component
through heat absorption structure exposed to and
30 substantially out of the path of the lower tem
perature combustion gases, individually transfer
ring heat substantially solely by radiation from
said gases of differing temperature to said liquid
and vapor containing structures individually to
35 elevate them to their conversion temperatures,
and under pressure recombining said components
while at their said conversion temperatures for
further treatment.
4. An oil heating system comprising a single
40 heating compartment, baffle structure forming
within said compartment separate ?re chambers,
lected vaporous and liquid components commingle
while at their conversion temperatures.
5. A system of heating oil and components
thereof to conversion temperatures comprising
a single heating compartment, ba?le structure
forming within said compartment separate ?re
chambers and a convection chamber between
said ?re chambers, adjustable fuel-burners for
producing currents of hot gases individual to said
?re chambers, the combined currents of gases ,10
passing through said convection chamber, oil
conducting heat-absorption structure within said
convection chamber, means producing a substan
tial initial pressure upon charge-oil to force its
passage through said structure, said structure 15
absorbing heat from said gases-to convert the
oil into vaporous and liquid components of sub
stantially different boiling ranges, a separator for
dividing said vaporous and liquid components,
means connecting said structure to said sepa 20.
rator for passage of the oil thereto, oil-conduct
ing heat-absorption structure in each of said ?re
chambers disposed along the floor thereof and
without the current of hot gases individual there
to, means connecting an absorption structure in 25
one ?re chamber to said separator for passage
of a liquid component therethrough, and for con
necting an absorption structure in the other ?re
chamber for the passage of a vaporous compo
nent therethrough, said initial pressure produc
ing means alone producing passage of said oil
and its components through said structures and
said separator, the burners individual to each
?re chamber being adjusted to control the tem
perature rise of said components further to con
vert the respective vaporous and liquid compo
nents without over-cracking thereof, and means,
forming a common outlet to said structures, with
in which said liquid and vaporous components
commingle While at their respective conversion 40
temperatures.
and a convection chamber, adjustable fuel-burn
ers for producing currents of hot gases individual
heating compartment, ba?ie structure forming
to said ?re chambers, the combined currents of
within said compartment separate ?re chambers
45 hot gases passing through said convection cham
ber, oil-conducting heat-absorption structure dis
50
5
posed within one of said chambers and absorbing
a part of the generated heat to convert the oil
into vaporous and liquid components of substan
tially different boiling ranges, means for subject
ing charge-oil to substantial initial pressure, a
mechanical separator connected to said heat ab
sorption structure for separating said components
from each other, oil-conducting heat absorption
55 structures disposed within said ?re chambers and
without the currents of gases individual thereto,
and individual means connected to said separator
for conducting selected vaporous and liquid com
ponents of the oil to said last-named heat ab
60 sorption structures, the components of the oil by
said initial pressure ?owing through said struc
tures, each of said last-named structures absorb
ing substantially solely by radiation generated
heat in amounts su?icient further to convert the
65
respective components into additional compo
nents of still other boiling ranges without over
cracking thereof, the amounts of heat generated
in each ?re chamber being dependent upon the
70 setting of the adjustable burners individual
thereto, to provide a wide range of temperature
control of said oil-conducting heat absorption
structures disposed in said ?re and convection
chambers and a common outlet, directly con
75 nected to said structures, within which said se
6. On oil heating system comprising a single
and a convection chamber between said ?re 45
chambers, adjustable fuel-burners for producing
currents of hot gases individual to said ?re
chambers, the combined currents of gases pass
ing through said convection chamber means for
producing a substantial initial pressure upon the
charge-oil, oil-conducting heat-absorption struc
50
ture connected to said pressure producing means
and disposed within said convection chamber for
absorbing heat from said gases to convert the
oil into vaporous and liquid components of sub
stantially different boiling ranges, separating
means connected to said structure for dividing
said converted oil into at least one liquid com
ponent and at least two vaporous components,
heat absorption structures in each of said ?re
chambers, individual means connecting said last
named structures for passage of the vaporous
component having the lowest boiling range to
heat absorption structure disposed along the ?oor
of, and without the path of gases in, one ?re
chamber, and for passage of other of the vapor
ous components and said liquid component to
said other structures disposed without the cur
rent of hot gases within said other ?re chamber,
said pressure producing means alone being effec
tive to produce under pressure, ?ow of said
charge-oil and its said components through the
system, and said fuel-burners being adjusted for
production of a substantially higher temperature
in one ?re chamber than in the other for fur
75
ther conversion of said components without over
cracking thereof, and means forming a common
outlet to at least said structures through which
pass said, vaporous components for: mixture of at
least said vaporous components while at their
conversion temperatures?
"
'7. In an oil heating system, the method of
heating charge-Veil to ‘cracking temperature
which ccmprisesrinitially raising the charge-oil
to a pressure suf?cient to produce ?ow of the
10 oil from 'inlet to outlet of the systemfi'n one
some of the system transferring heat toffthe oil
to produce conversion thereof into liquid and
vapor components, in a neutral temperature and
reaction zone mechanically separating the heat
15 ed oil in a plurality of successive stages into liquid
and vapor components of respectively differing
conversion temperature, in different zones of the
system transferring heat to said respective vapor
components individually to elevate them to their
20 respective conversion temperatures, reducing the
. pressure of the liquid component of each stage
and thereafter transferring heat to each’saidv liq
uid component before enteringthe next succesi
sive stage, and in a neutral temperature and
25 reaction zone recombining the vapor components
of the several iistages with the liquid component
of ther?nal stage for further treatment.
8. Ai system’; of heating oil and components
thereof to conversion temperatures comprising
two separate ?re chambers and a convection
chamber between said ?re chambers, adjustable
fuel burners for producing currents of hot gases
individual to said ?reichambers, the combined Cl
currents of gases passing through said convection
chamber, tubular oil-conducting heat-absorption
structure within said convection chamber, tubu
lar oil-conducting heat-absorption structures lo:
cated adjacent the roof and ?oor of eafch of said
?re chambers, means for passing elharge-oil
through said ?rst-named structure to convert
the oil into components of substantially diiferent
boiling ranges, means for simultaneously passing
one of said components in series through the
structures adjacent the roof and floor of one of
said ?re chambers, and the other of said com
ponents in series through the tubular structures
adjacent the roof and floor of thefother ?re
chamber, thereby to procure by adjustment'of
said fuel burners independentipontrol of the tem
perature rise of, said components during their
passage through said' separate ?re chambers, and
means forming a common outlet to said struc
tures within said ?re chambers for immediate
mixture therein of said components after passage
through said last-named structures.
'1
Y
'ARTHUR E. NASH.
i
' FRANKLIN EFSHELLY.
.
v
CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.
Patent‘Noy. 2,152,961“
'
‘
'
ARTHUR
»
'
_
_
october 414, 1958‘.
‘NASH, Erin.
It is hereby dert'ified th'gt 'eri'or appear; in the Brinted specification
of the abéve numbered patent requiring 'Qoi-reétipn as follows: Page 2,'firét
“ columh, line 25 , striké out the word. "mechaziiéali"
insert the 'sanievafter
the’ article Tj'a", line 21;; page 5,~second“‘co1mnn,_11ne h2,_c_laim 6,, for "Oh"
r'ead An;v line 14.9, )same claim, after fi'chaYnbeh" inseht a’comma; and that the
said. Lette‘hs Patent Shouidbe read with vthi'é, corruectioin thére'inl that the
same" may 'conformto the rercor'cl‘gfv the? caé'e in 15115 Patent Office. '
Signed and. sealed v_th_i',s" 6th day of Decenfxbver, A. D.-_ ;L958._ v’ - 1
"
Henry Van Arsdale
(Seal);
I
Acting Cpmmissionef of'Patentm:
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