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Патент USA US2133043

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Oct. 11, 1938.
Filed Aug. 19, '1935
‘ 2,133,043
4 Sheets-Sheet 1
Oct. 11, 1938~
w. w. RoTHENHoEi-'ER
Filed Aug. 19, 1935
í ‘l
| :r-
~ 4 sheets-sheets
- ‘ Patented Oct. 11,1938v
- 2,133.043
uNlra-o STATES- PATENT-“OFFICE 7' 'i' _ Í'
_. f 2,133,943
' -
welter Avv.._lrotllenlloea'>l-,v st'. lool., Mo.
lllppllootlon August 19,- 1935, vserlol No. :am
'scam 4(cl. _ul-17)"
My invention relatesto improvements in aero-_' _ ~'Figure 11 is an inverted plan' viewusimilar to
planes and- the main object is to provide an im
Figure 9 but showing a Imodifiedforln~ of lift
proved.' supporting and sustaining means for
aeroplanes of the general type known as helicop
_ adjusting member.
Figure 12 is a cross- section through .the outer
5 ters and designed to permit vertical ascent and
end portion'of the blade shown in Figure 11. ‘_ 5
Figure 13 is an enlarged section _along the line
Another object isfto provide in a helicopter
type supporting means a rotor having elongated
Il-'ß in' Figure 3 showing one rotor blade tilted
upward at its leading edge.~
blades'and means for increasing the lift or ver- '
-_10 tical thrust of these blades during any part of
their rotation or orbital‘movement 'wherebythe
Figure 14 is a similar view showing the position .
of the parts when the rotor bladevis tilted .up- 10_
ward at its trailing edge.
aeroplane may be _tilted forwardly, rearwardly _ - Referring now with more particularity to the _ _
or laterally _to guide the aeroplane in' horizontal
15 - Another lobject'is to provide a> helicopter type
supporting means comprising a rotormad'e up'
of ' aplurality o_f-elongated airfoils or winglike
blades and` means _at the outer_ends thereof for
drawings my invention comprises a rotondesig
_nated 'generally at Il mounted abovethefuseé
lage lIl _ of the aeroplane or substantially the 15
center of gravity of the structure. ,The rotor
comprises a'hubjdrum ,I2 secured at Il atop a
drive shaft Il Í'whi'eh extends vertically up
varying the cross sectional shape o'r area of the Íthrough the upper surface I5 of the- fuselage . '.
. 20 «blades at periodic intervals during their. orbital - and is :driven by a conventional vengine Eïlo- 20
motion and any points around the circumference. _ cated in any suitable position; As herein shown '
thereof whereby the lift' will be -periodically _in_-'
_ creased t'o guide and `control the ñight of the,
aeroplane. -
the engine' E is of `the air cooled radial _type _
placed in theA nose oi' 'the fuselage Içl and con
- nected to the drive shaft I4 throughs propeller »
'25' Another _object is to provide novel and- positivel shaft .IQ _and gears I'l. A clutch (not shown) 2&5-meansfor controlling-boththe degree and the
~ of any suitable kind may be used
-.horizontal position of the aforesaid increased '_ l6.'_ -Some distance below the drum I2 the drive 'i ‘
-lift ofthe blades.
' - i_»»With'th'ese _and other objects in view the in
Í 30 vention resides in the novel construction and
shaft u is supported and ,ioumaled through .a
bearing block I8 which is rigidly mounted above
the fuselage ‘il by a streamlined turret» I i as 30
arrangement of parts as hereinafter fully set " shown. Also at the point‘where the drive'shaft
‘ forth and claimed, referencebeing had to thev
Il enters the upper fuselage surface II the shaft _ ’
~ accompanying drawings wherein:
is placed- through al thrustbearing 2l secured at
_Figure 1 is a side _elevation of an aeroplane
35 constructed in `accordance with' my invention.
- Figure‘Zis a plan view.
_Figure 3 is anenlarged cross' section through
to the fuselage.À
The hu'b drum l2 has an annular upstanding 35
wall >22 turnedl inward to form an annular
-mounting flange 234 at its .upper end and. a
the fuselage and rotorof the aeroplane s_hown - circular mounting plate 241s screwed at 25'._to _
40' ~-Figure 4 is a; horizontal section through the ' ~_ 4Four rotor blades or wings 26, 2id., Ziband 2te, 40 vrotor along the line 4--4 in Figure 3. _
are provided and are -of any suitable length
Figuretâ is a section along the line 5-5 -in v>land chordfand are fabricated ~_similar tothe'
.usual wing structure of aeroplanes with a frame
Figure 6_ is Van lenlargedfperspective view'of - work 21 and covering 28.-- At their predetermined-
45 one of _the »cam pluri-gers alone.
o ‘Figure 7 is a section-alongv the line ‘1_-‘1 in
mgul'e 3.
‘i j
« "
Figure 8 is an enlarged longitudinal section
through the outer end portion of one rotor blade
inner ends the blades are securedto elongated- 45 '
_leaf springs 2l, 29a, 2lb and 29e each made up
of several leaves and formed at their inner ends
îwith bearing balls 3L
,~ `
2 _ These blades 26, 26a, 26h and _20c are arranged -
50 showing the'adjustable member as adjusted to1 ' 'with their‘mo’unting springs`29,- 29a, 28h and 29c 50
increase the lift- of the blade.
4v Í
4in crossing overlapping arrangement latop the
Figure 9 isan inverted plan Vview of 'the strucf _ mounting'plate 2l>as shown in Figure 4 4andarel
ture shown in Figure 8. » .
rnounted'irl- Vsuch position’ by four b__earing blocks >
Figure _10 is a cross section along the 1111€ 3|` secured at 32 to the mounting plate 2l and _
55 .I0-I0 in Figure 8.-
having rounded-sockets Il receiving the-bearing _ß
2, 138,048
balls 30 at the ends of the springs. 'I'he blades
thus .extend radially but eccentrieally from the
rotor I0, that is each opposed pair of blades are
axially parallel but not in exact alignment even
though the structure as a whole is nicely bal
anced as will be understood. 'I'hrough the ball
mounting of their inner ends the blades may
swing upwardly and downwardly at their free
ends and may also twist or turn on their axes.
10 Adjacent the point where each spring 29, 29a, 29h
and 29e extends from the rotor IIl inverted U
shaped brackets or shackles 34 are set astraddle
the springs and secured at 35 te the mounting
plate 24 to limit the aforesaid upward and down
15 ward swinging c-f the blades at their free ends.
Rocker plates 36 are secured on the upper and
lower faces of the springs where they pass through
the brackets 34 and viewed from the ends theseplates 36 are of wide V-shape with their apices
20 31 turned outward from the said faces of the
springs whereby diverging angular faces 38 are
formed running out to the lateral margins of the
springs. Pressure bloei-:s 39 are slidably keyed
at 40 in the parallel vertical legs 4| of the bracke
25 ets 34 and are normally urged upward against
the lower _rocker plates 36 by expansion coil
springs 42 .braced between the pressure blocke
and the adjacent supporting plate 24. Thus the
springs 29, 29d, 29h and 29e are normally and
.e resiliently urged upward _against the bights 43
of the brackets 34' and dueto the shape of the
angular faces 38 of the rocker plates 36 the blades
will stand not in a true horizontal plane but at
an angle to the horizontal so that the blades will
35 tilt upwardly either at their intended leading
edges 44 or their trailing edges 45 as shown in
' Figures 13 and 14. At the same time the blades
may swing upward or downward within limits
at the free ends as described due to the resiliency
of the springs 29, 29a, 29h and 29c and oi': their
mounting through the brackets 34'.
The structure as so far recited is completein
that rotation of the -blades 26, 26a, 26h and 25e
is calculated to raise and lsustain the aeroplane
in flight. Tl'ae normal direction of rotation for
this purpose is indicated by the several arrows
in the drawings and of course the leading edges
44 of the blades move forwardly around the cr-`
bital path of the blades. During tl-ds rotation
the air pressure on the blades tends tc- rock them
50 back on their axes so that the said leading edges
44 are tilted upwardly (Figure 13). Now should
the -engine E fail the pilot may disengage the
rotor from the engine allowing the rotor to turn
free. The natural result of the falling of the
55 plane thus `brought about is to reverse the direc
tion of rotation of the rotor blades 26, 26a, 26h
and 26e and the air pressure thus being reversed
on the blades rocks them back _so that their trail
60 ing edges 445 are inclined upwardly and now an
upward thrustv is~again previded bythe blades
tending to lower the `aeroplane slowly and safely
to the ground. This is the ~purpose and function
of the rocker supports for the blades in the
65 brackets 3€.
To guide the aeroplane in horizontal flight I
provide means for varying the lift or upward
thrust of the blades 26, 26a, 26h and 26o during
ably made of some ñat spring metal and are se
cured by screws or rivets 41 to the framework 21
of the blades leaving the trailing edges 4'8 and
inner edges 49 ef the leaves free. Normally the
leaves then lie flat beneath the blades to> offer
no obstruction to the air. Bell crank pressure
levers 5I) are fulcrumed at 5| within the outer
ends of the blades and have pressure feet 52
which bear on the free corners of the leaves 46
but which are normally held upward by retractile 10
coil'springs 53 stretched between the pull arms
54 of the levers 50 and screw eyes 55 affixed with
in the wings as shown. Operating cables 56 are
secured to these pull arms 54 and extend inward
longitudinally through the blades through bear 15
ing sleeves 51 in the framework 21 and flnallj.J
emerging from the inner ends of the blades nearl
the trailing edges 45 thereof and led across the
drum I2. It will be readily understood that a
pull on these cables 56 swinging the pressure feet 20
52 of the bell crank levers 50 downward will
spring or iiip the free corners of the leaves 45
downward as shown in Figures 8 and 10 and the
obstruction t'nus offered to the air ñow beneath
the blades will result in a great increase in the 25
lift afforded by the blades in well known man
At their inner ends the cables 56 are se
cured to bell crank operating levers 58 which
are fulcrumed between bearing ears 53 near the
center of the mounting plate ’24 and each having 30
a draw arm 68 disposed in line with its associated
cable to which it is attached at 6l. These bell
crank levers 58 are placed through4 slots 62 in
the said plate 24 and the legs 63 drop down into
the drum I2 where they are pivotally connected
at 64 to push rods’65 slidably mounted vertically
through guides 66 in the bottom of the drum.
Suiilcient play is provided in the connections 64'
to allow the push rods when urged upwardly to
swing the levers 58 and exert a pull on the cables 40
56 and flex the leaves 46 downward as described.
Of course each cable 56 has its own operating
lever 58 and separate push rods 65 are provided
for each lever, the said push rods being evenly
spacedand dropping down into contact with the 45
upper end face of the bearing block I8 suppcrted
in the turret I9. The lower ends of these push
rods 65 carry rollers 61 as shown.
~ A cam mechanism and operating means are
provided for operation of the push rods 65 com
.prislng four hydraulic cylinders 68- secured up 50
into the lower end of the bearing block I8 in
alignment with the push rods and equally spaced
fore and aft and laterally relative to the line of
flight of the aeroplane. Pistons 69 are slidably
mounted in the cylinders 68 and have their pis
ton rods 10 extended upward through apertures
1I` in the cylinder ends and aligned bores 12 in
the bearing blocks. Arouate cam heads 13 are
rigidly attached to the upper ends of the piston 60
rods and normally rest in enlarged sockets 14
at the upper ends of the bores 12 so that the
rounded upper or working edges 15 of the cam
heads normally stand ñush with the upper- end
face of the bearing block 'I8. In this positinîn 65
the push rods 65 run free without any upward
or downward movement but when any one of the
cam heads 13 is projected upwardly the push rods
any part of their orbital path or movemeet as as they run around over the rounded edges 15
`thereof will be ñrst raised and then dropped 70
now be described.
As shown in Figures 8, ‘è and 10 substantially - downward again resulting in a pull on the cables
triangular ñexible and- resilient ñaps or leaves
46 are secured to the undersides of the blades 26,
26a, 26h and 26o adjacent the-trailing edges and
75 cuter ends thereof. These leaves 46 are-prefer
56 and the ñexing of the leaves 46 downward dur
ing a sbort'portion of the travel of each blade
26, 26a, 26h and 2'6c. When the cam heads 13
drop downward into their sockets -14 the parts 75
return to normal positionvof their own weight
and under influence ofthe air pressure on the
leaves 46 and the pull of the springs 53 on the
bell crank pressure levers 58 as will be under
'I'he pistons 68 are urged upwardly as described
by the pressure beneath of hydraulic fluid in the
cylinders 68,'this fluid being carried separately
to each cylinder by lines 16 through the lower
10 -end caps 11 of the cylinders as shown.
lines 1'6 pass downwardly within the turret I8
and alongside one wall of the fuselage _I I to four
driver cylinders 18 arranged in equally spaced f
relation about the control stick 18 and supported
15 on a ring 80 and bracket 8|. ' The said control
stick 19 may be swung forwardly, rearwardly or
to either side by its ball and socket mounting -82
and is connected by a spider 83 to the piston rods
84 of the pistons 85 in the cylinders 18 so that
20 when the stick is moved by the pilot toward any
cylinder the piston therein forced out the hy
draulic ñuid under pressure and exerts an equal
pressure in the corresponding cylinder 68 and
moves the piston 68 therein an equal> distance.
This ofcourse makes it possible for the pilot by
manipulation of the control stick 18 to move any
of the cam heads 13 upward and so vary the side
or place during the orbital rotation of the blades
26, 26a, 28h and 26o where the `lift of these blades
is increased by flexing the leaves "downward
as described.
Y This controllable- and variable lift of the
blades act to guide the aeroplane during flight
as will 'now be described.
Assuming thatthe
aeroplane has risen horizontally from the ground
to the desired height and the pilot desires to
ñy forwardly in a horizontal line, he simply
pushes the control stickk 18 in the proper direc
tion (preferably forwardly but depending on the
40 hookup of the cylinders 88 and 18) and the cam
head 13 at the rear of the drive shaft I4 is.elevated into the path of the push rods 65. Now as
the blades 26, 26a, 28h and 26e rotate carried
~ around by the drum I2 these push rods 65 as they
45 pass over the raised cam head will be raised and
their trailing edges as shown at 88 and the leaves
88 then> arranged to refill this space when the -
cables are pulled. Springs 88norma11y swing the
leaves 86 forwardly clear of the space 88 as
shown. It will be evident that to increase the
lift of the blades the small amount necessary a
very slight movement of the leaves 46 or 86 is
needed and also that the increase in lift may be
obtained in`a number of ways that is by varying
the area of the blade, by varying the cross sec
tional shape or by a combination-of both and all
are considered within the scope of my invention.
The mounting plate 24 and the parts mounted
therein are enclosed by an inverted cup-shaped
cover 88 which is screw threaded at 8I down
over the upper margin of the wall 22 of the drum
I2 and has openings 82 to clear the springs 28,
28a, 28b and 28o aswell as 'bearing sleeves 83
clearing the cables 66.
While I have herein set forth a certain pre
ferred embodiment of my invention, it is under
stood that I may vary'A from the same in minor
structural details, so as best to construct a practi
cal device for the purpose intended, not depart
ing from the spirit of the invention and within
the scope of the appended claims.
I claim:
1. In a 4rotor for helicopters, a rotatable hub
member, blades extended radially from the hub
member, a bearing block beneath the hub mem 30
ber, cams arranged in thebearing block at spaced
points around a circle having as its axis the axis
of rotation of the hub member, a flap fastened by
one margin to each blade, and control means
whereby elevating any one of the said, cams will 35
cause a flexing of the ñap on each blade as it
passes a point in radial alignment with thel
raised cam to increase-the lift of the blade.
2. In a rotor for helicopters, a rotatable hub
member, blades extended radially from the hub 40
member, a bearing block beneath the hub mem- ber, cams arranged in the bearing block at spaced '
points around a circle havingas its axis the axis
of rotation of the hub member, a flap fastened
by one margin to each blade, and control means
then dropped downward as described hereinbe
whereby elevating any one of the said cams will 45
fore. This results in the leaves 46 being ñexed cause a ñexing of the ñap o_n each blade as it
downward each time a blade passes through the passes a point in radial . augment with the
rear portion of its orbital path and the-lift or raised cam to increase the lift of the blade, the
50 upward thrust of the rotor blades is thus in
said control means including push rods depended '
creased at the rear tilting the aeroplane up
from the hub member for engagement with the
wardly at the rear and gliding »it forwardly. By cams, bell crank levers connected to the push
nicely adjusting this lift by the position oi’ the rods and flaps, and cables connecting the bell
control, stick 18 a balance can be obtained at crank levers.
55 which the aeroplane will glide forwardly at sub
3. In a rotor for helicopters, the same includ
stantially even keel meanwhile being sustained ing a rotating hub and a plurality of blades radi 55
in the air by the whirling blades. The same ac
ally extended therefrom, flexible ñaps attached
tion may be employed to guide the aeroplane of! to the blades and normally standing flush there
to the side or evento the rear by suitable ma
with but capable of being- ñexed downwardly to 5
60 nipulation of the stick 18 and by moving the "lift” increase the lift of the blade, means at the hub
around the path of the blades as will be under
for periodically flexing the flap of each blade 60
stood. In lieu of the leaves 46 at the outer ends downwardly as it passes a point around the axis
of the blades 28, 28a, 2Gb and 26e swinging or >of the rotor, the said means comprising a plu,-~
hinged flaps or leaves 86 may be employed and rality of cam located around the axis of the rotor,
pivotally mounted at 81 be arranged by a pull controlling means actuated by the cams and con
on the cables 66 to swing rearward and increase nected to the said ñaps, and remotely located
the chord of the blades at that point and hence means for selectively actuating the said cams.
increase the lift. The blades may be cut away at
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