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Патент USA US2133064

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Patented Oct 11,1938
‘ ’
comasfr?xgr morr
- .David G.'Ulrey,'l‘ampa,Fla.,asaignortoH.Grady
Application July as. me.
Serial No. 93,311
3 cum.) v(cl. 00-10:)
This invention relates to the coloration‘ of
fruit, more particularly ,to an improved method
of treatingcitrus fruits to enhance their varietal
continuous or it may constitute a discontinuous
phase by being emulsi?ed in water with suitable
emulsifying agents. In either case, the fruit is
‘ "
It is well known in the art that the color 0!
, fruits, especially citrus fruits, is one of the‘more
important factors which govern the price of such
products. In‘ view of this it has been proposed
According to the present method a suitable
certi?ed water insoluble, oil soluble-dye is em- 10
One commercial method which has been
employed consists
natural preserving agents of the skin obtain.
7 in the past to'enhance the varietal color of citrus
10 fruits,'such as oranges, by applying a dye there-
inv and
amount of a solvent for the oily and wan con- 5
stituents of the fruit. In these circumstances,
therefore, excess leaching or removal of the
ployed in dry powdered form and this is applied
essentially in dissolving a
to a ‘fruit, such as an orange, which has been
water insoluble, oil soluble dye in a relatively
strong non-aqueous‘solvent and applying this ve15 hicle, consisting ofthe solubililzed dye,to the fruit.
when the fruit'is contacted with such a dye bath
subjected to such a preliminary treatment that
the fruit itself contains a thin extenuated iilm of
solvent or dispersing medium. In these circum- 15
stances, therefore, the fine the particles are
the solvent, having a solubilizing action upon the
dusted on or applied to the him of solvent or dis
oily and'waxy constituents of the skin, tends to parsing medium and are dissolved or dispersed
dissolve these‘ and ultimately to deposit the‘ ‘dye ‘uniformly through the iilm. Since the film is of
20 in the peel of theftuit.
_ , '
‘ such character that it has a penetrating or dis- 20
A disadvantage of this older method is ‘that
the' fruit is contacted with a relatively‘ large
quantity of the solvent vehicle for _a protracted
period of time. Due to this the solvent tends to
25 solubilize and extract or leach out" a considerable quantity of the naturaljpreserving agents of
the fruit,'namely the waxes and/or oiis._ , v _‘
with this type of operation a minimal quantity
or the solvent or dispersing agent may be em
ployed, thus limiting to a considerable degree the 25
amount of solubilizing and removal of the‘ oily
and waxy constituents of the fruit.
The object of the present ‘invention is to provide a process of vtreating fruit to accentuate or
30 enhance‘ its natural color without too great a
removal of the .natural oleaginous preserving
solving action on the-skin, the dye is thus car
ried into and‘ transferred to the peel oi the fruit.
In operating the invention the fruit, such as
oranges,‘ may be subjected to a preliminary treat
ment. as for example by immersion in a clean- 30
ing or detergent solution. This may be eifected
in the well known manner by utilizing apparatus
, Another object isto-provide an improved 'm'eth-
now available in the m-
0d of coloring citrus fruits.
tank the oranges may be passed, either continu
A Iurther object is to‘ provide a method for
coloring citrus fruits whereby a dye ‘is dissolved
in avehicle coating on the surface "of the fruit; I
, A'still further object is to provide an improved
method of coloring citrus iruit'whereby a water
40 insoluble, ‘oil soluble dye is dissolved in situ on
the peel of the fruit.
With these and other equally important and
related objects in view, the invention comprises
From the ‘788111118
ously or intermittently, to'a rinsing tank to re- 35
move any adherentwashing solution. The thus
washed and rinsed fruit is then passed through
a tank containing a solvent for the dye which is
to be employed. _8uch solvent may comprise any
suitable organic solvent for the dye, such as light 40
hydrocarbon fractions. alcohols. ketones, vege
table oils and the like.
The oranges or other fruit which are immersed
the treatment, of fruits, particularly oranges,
45 with a powdered water insoluble, oil soluble dye
in the dye bath may rapidly be removed there
from by‘ suitable conveying mechanism and 45
under such circumstances that the dye is uniformly dissolved in a surface him of solvent or
dispersing medium preliminarily applied to they
50 - As has been indicated hereinbefore, the typical
method of dyeing-citrus fruits comprises the im-
passed over a series of transverse rollers where
on they are rapidly rotated to establish a con
mersion of the fruit in a dye bath. This dye
bath itself comprises a water insoluble, oil soluble dye dissolved in a solvent. According to pro55 posals in the past the solvent dye phase may be
tinuous thin film of the solvent over the sur
race of the fruit. When such thin film has been
established the fruit may be passed into and 50
through a dye applicator. In this element dry
powdered dye is deposited on‘ the fruit and pref
erably while the latter is substantially continu
ously rotated. The dye may be applied to the skin
_ of the fruit by means 0! a suitable sifting mech- s5
anism. ‘In these circumstances the ?ne par
nuded of the waxy layer and containing a thin
ticles of dye deposit on and adhere to the liquid’ extenuated ?lm of solvent .or soap solution, are
?lm onrjthe skin of the fruit. The dye then is passed through the dye applicator in the manner
dissolved and/or dispersed through this ?lm and herelnbefore described. In thisparticular oper-I
5 is diffused or otherwise transferred to the epi-.
ation, since the repellentwaxy constituents have
dermis of‘ the fruit to deposit thereon.
largely been removed; the dye contained either
After treatment in the dye applicator the treat-7 ' in the solvent or soap vehicle: rapidly penetrates‘
ed fruit may be, remotiedv and subjected to ‘a and is deposited’in the peel'of the fruit. After
builing action to mechanically yvork the ‘liquid .suchdyeing operation the oranges may be rinsed,
10’ ?lm, containing the dissolved or dispersed dye, vwaxed, dried?and polished, or subjected to any 10
into the .skin. Thereafter the fruit may be, otherldesired type of subsequent treatment.
rinsed with water to remove excess dye and may:
It will be understood that the essential treat
be subfected to any suitable type of treatment. ment according to the present invention involves
Thus the fruit which has been dyed in the manner the use of a dry dye and theestablishment of a
15: described may be passed into ;,a tank contain-. thin ?lm of liquid on the surface of the fruit,
ing a wax emulsion so as to deposit the desired which ?lm of liqui<f presents the capability of
quantity of wax on the peel, andsueh waxed fruit, absorbing the dye and transferring it to the peel
may thereafter be polished in the manner wellv of the fruit; Thlstype of operation thereiore
lmown in the art.
avoids the necessity of using a dyev bath contain-,
In another method of operation the fruit, such ing large amounts of solvent and permits a more 20
as oranges, may be washed with the detergent accurate control of the tinctorial e?ect of the dye
solution and then passed into a tank containing treatment.
‘ if
an aqueous soap solution maintained at relatively
It will be understood thatfwitlnn the scope of
elevated temperatures of the vorder of from BOto
25 120° F. or more. The fruit may be maintained in
the soap solution for a relativeiyshort period of
time or for aprolonged period of time. If the
treatment in the 'soap'solution is orshort dura
tion, the solution acts upon the waxy constituents
30 of the skin to remove‘ such waxy constituents to
some extent and to thus permit more rapid penef
tration of the dye. After a short treatment in the
soap solution the oranges are removed end passed
over. a’ series of conveyor rolls-ito the dye appli
35 cator. The fruit entering the dye application, as
will be appreciated, is covered with a thin ?lm'of
the invention various modi?ed processes mayv be
employed. 1 Thus, if desired, the fruit to be treated
may'be dewaxediniione tank with one type of
s0lvent,>.may: then be rinsed and then immersed
in or sprayed; by yet another type of solvent which
hasja preferential‘solubilizing- action ‘upon thegdye
to be employed. With this type of treatment, 30
therefore, optimum conditions of washing, partial
or completeifdewaxing ordyeing may be estab
While preferred modi?cations of the invention
have been described, it is to be understood that
these are given ‘as exemplifyingthe underlying
the soap solution. The dry powdered dye is ap.-_ ' principles involved ‘and not as limiting the inven
‘ plied uniformly to theTTruit and preferably while tion; to thesev particular methods.
' Y
the latter is rapidly rotated so as to insure a uni
40 form deposition of dye on the ?lm. The thiis _ . l7.v A process of enhancing the varietal color of
dye adheres
to the ?lm During
and is taken
the me
chanical working 'action e?'ected by the rollers
‘ the dispersed dye is transferred to and deposited
in the peel of the fruit.
After treatment in the dye applicator, the
oranges may be treated, as by rinsing'with water,
to remove excess dye and maythenbe passed to
a waxing tank and'clried and polished in the
b0 manner well Known to those skilled in the art. 7; l
. .Infanotherimethod of operation the organges,
whole citrus fruitwhich comprisesewashing the
fruit,applying to the skin of the washed fruit a
thin continuous ?lm of an aqueoussoap solution,
applying to the fruit a quantity'of dry powdered
'o'il soluble, water‘v insoluble dye which is dispers 45
ableby said soap solution.,
2. A‘ process of enhancing’ the varietal color of
whole citrus fruit ‘which comprisesapplying to
the skin, of:the', fruit a thin ?lm of an aqueous
soap solution, uniformly'depositin'g on such liquid
?lm adry ipowderediwaterr insoluble, oil soluble
dye, washing the fruit to, remove excess‘ dye and
then waxing and polishing the fruit.v
which may first be subjected to a preliminary
cleaning, as by‘a detergent solution, are passed
into a tank containing a solvent or soap solution , ,3. A process of enhancing thevarietal colorof
65 maintained at relatively elevated temperatures. whole citrus fruit Ewhich comprises washing the
The oranges may belretained in this ,tank for a fruit, applying to the skin oflthe washed fruit a
period of time su?lclently prolonged to insure sub ' thin continuous ?lm of an aqueous soap solution,
stantially complete removal of the oily or waxy applyinglto the fruit a quantity of dry powdered
' constituents. This period of contact, as wilkbe oil: soluble, water insoluble dye which is dispers
appreciated, ,will vary depending upon the par
able bysaid soap solution, washing the fruit to
},ticular type of solvent or soap solutionemployed, remove excess dye, and subsequently waxingrthe
the concentration of the solution and the tern‘: vdyed fruit.
perature. After treatmentin this dewaxing tank
the oranges, now substantiallycompletely 'de
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