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Патент USA US2133088

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Oct. 11, 193s.
~ 2,133,088
Filed July 14, 1937
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Patented Oct. 11', 1938V '
- -_
, „2,133,038
lHerbert Alfred
July 14,
Serial VNo. -om»
1o> onims.
This invention relates to-roof'struct'ures.
face, and secured to the anchoring springs at
In particular, the invention relates to improve
each side of the roof. The rods serve to prevent
buckling of the surfacing material when the lat
ter is expanding in a direction perpendicular
ments in- means for securing preferably metallic
membrane ysurfacing material to a sub-structure,
5 a novel provision being made to secure the sur
facing material in a manner allowing for changes
`coefficient of expansion substantially equalÀto
The invention contemplates the use of relative
10 ly thin sheets of copper for the surfacing mate
that ofthe surfacing material.-
in long sheets of moderate Width, and substan
Characteristics vof the invention, therefore, are l0
the elastic quality ofthe surface-material hold
ing means, and the uniformity of contact of the
tially- non-corrosive under normal atmospheric
conditions. To provide for the accentuated di->
surface-material with theroof structure.
In the accompanying draWing:-
rial, this material being commercially obtainable
l5 Ímensional changes of the sheeting», unavoidable `
copper because of its relatively high coeflicient
of eXpansion,-said exaggerated expansion and
-contraction being a factorwhich hasY ’hitherto
deterred its general use as a roof surfacingv ma
or contraction of the copper. It is intended that
the roof spanning rods be of a material having a
in dimension thereof due to expansion or con
thereto, but do not Adeter the normal-expansion 5
VFigure 1 is a vertical section of a roof struc- l5
Figure 2 is an enlarged sectional view of the
structure near one rain gutter, showing a tensile
spring anchor and gutter stiiîening brace;
Figure 3 is a transverse section taken along 20
as by nailing or cementing, to the roof structure kil--3 of Figure 2, illustrating the corrugations of
itself. For securing the surfacing material, re-` the roof surface, with the transverse roof-span
ning rods lying in the valleys of the corrugations;
silient means are employed, preferably compris
ing coil springs of bronze or other non-corrodible
terial-the copper'sheet is not rigidly secured,
25 material, stationed at spaced locations along theV
margins of the copper sheets, and secured to
~suitable rigid anchors, which maybe spaced
~from the roof structure itself, but coextensive
Figure 4 is afragmentary plan view of the roof 25
structure illustrating the sub-structure, the
.spaced resilient anchors, and the connection of
vthe spanning rods therewith.
Referring'to Figure 1, l0 designates generally
Advantageously, the customary rain gutters , añatslab concrete roof sub-structure, provided 30
with suitable metallic rain ygutters Il, l2 ñrmly`
may be employed as the anchors, it beingunder
With the sides thereof. ~
stood that suitable spaced bracers or stiffeners . secured to the concrete slab I5 of the roof struc
maybe provided to strengthen the gutter struc
ture against the pull of Vthe aforementioned
In accordance with thisv invention, the metal
Sheets may be laid over the rooñng structure,
tureat the sides thereof, and coextensive with»
the sides. Building Walls are indicated at I3, 14.
The flat slab l5 is preferably overlaid with a bed 35
YI6 vof cinder-concrete, gypsum sawdust mixture,
or other material which can be bonded to the
which in modern house construction- may include _. concrete Vsub-base, andY worked, as by screeding,
a suitable flat concrete slab overlaid> with a bed. into Va Alow peaked or arched configuration as indi
40 of cinder concrete, gypsum sawdust mixture, or
cated‘ln'Figure 1,'to provide a Water shedding 40
other similar material. The saidmaterial is Ipref
erably screeded to provide a peak or arch, and
structure. It' is preferable also-that in screeding`
the _bed‘ I6,-it be given a shallowly corrugated
may preferably have shallow, broad corrugations.
form, the said corrugations extending trans'- '
The copper sheet is caused to follow the contour ver'sely of the roof as indicated in Figures 3 and 4.
Advanta'geously, the roof surfacing material 45
45 of the' corrugations, and may be provided» with
an undercoatingfof asphalticV cement, not for Ythe . may be copper sheeting or foil l'l, too thin to 'be
purpose of structurally securing the surfacing ~ used alone,VV but'adequate to‘provide a weather
material, or for rendering the roof structure tight, durable roof when laid on, and secured to,
Water-tight, but to cushion the copper sheeting » the supporting sub-structure in the manner here
50 and prevent or dampen vibrations'which may be Y in described.v The roof surface is preferably co- 50
induced in the copper of the> roof surface by the
play of wind thereon.
_ '
Preferably,ïthe roof» surface may be spanned
extensive with the said structure, and maybe
assembled of moderately wide sheeting, suitably
renderedf water-tight by overlapping jointsand
soldering where necessary. `As` illustrated in Fig
by rods or strips of >.copper or bronze-.preferably
55 lying in the valleys of the corrugated roof sur- ' ure3,` the-sheeting is >causedto follow the corru- 55
gations of the bed I6; and as shown in Figure 4,
rugations per se;fand buckling of the? surfacing
may be laid on a cushioning coating I8 of non
material by its expansion in this direction is
effectively resisted by the spring-induced down
resonant adhesive material, such as asphalt, to
prevent or dampen wind-induced vibrations.` The
sheeting I'I preferably overlies the gutters, see
Figs. 2 and 4, and is provided at such overlying
edges with reinforcement I9, thus affording
strong marginal surfaces |911.. It is a feature of
this invention that the sheeting is not rigidly*y
10 secured to the roof structure at any point.y
To hold the sheetingY I 'I in contact with the roof
structure, and yet permit movement thereof rela
tive to the structure toV allow for expansion and
contraction of the copper in any direction and
15 in any degree, resilient anchoring means, prefer
' ably in the form of bronze springs 2l, are pref
erably hookedthrough the margins Isa at spaced
stations in registry with the valleys of the roof
corrugations; said springs being swivelly secured
20 by hooking their outer ends to a wall of 'each’rain
gutter Il, I2. It will be understoodY that the
springV anchors at each side of the roof are in
mutual registry, to, insure an even, unbiased, ten
sile pull on the surfacing material. To stiffen
25 the gutters II, I2 against the pull of the springs,
compressionmembers 22 may be lprovided as in
dicated in Figures 2 and 4. ,
Preferably, additional securing means are pro
vided, in the form of rroof-spanning rods 23 having
30 eyelets 23a through which mutually >registering
springs 2l may be hooked at each side of the roof.
It isobviously preferable that the rods 23; be of a
material having acoefûcient of expansion equal
to that of the roof surfacing material.
ward pressure of the rods.
« Whereas I have described my invention by 5
reference to specific forms thereof, it will be
understood thatmany'changes and modifications
may be made without departing from the spirit of
the invention.
I claim:
1. A roof structure, including, in combination,
a structural base, a Weather-exposed unitary me
tallic sheet overlying- said baseand coextensive
therewith, and resilient means arranged to urge
the said sheet into contact with vsaid structural 15
2. A roof structure, including, in combination,
a structural ' base, anchoring means associated
therewith, a weather-exposed unitary metallic
sheet overlying said base and coextensive there
the said sheet and to said anchoring means, for
urging the said sheet into contact with said base.
3. A roof structure, Vincluding inçcombination,
a structural base, a `weather-'exposed metallic
sheet overlying said base and ccextensive there
with, anchoring means spaced from the said base,
and resilient'means having extremities -respec
tively secured to the marginal edges of said sheet
and to the said‘anchoring means, said resilient
means exerting a'tensile pull on the said sheet
and thereby urging it into Vcontact with theY said
As previously stated, the'cinder-concrete bed
I5 is preferably convex or peaked. As indicated
in Fig. 2, the arrangement of the springs 2i with
respect to the gutters II, I2 andthe roof struc
ture I!) brings the longitudinal axes of the springs
40 into conformity with the slope of theV roof-’struc
ture, thus exerting a tensile pull in the plane of
theoppositelysloping sides of thereof, if peaked;
or;V substantially tangential `to the curvature
thereof, if arcuate as shown in Fig. 1. The tend
45 ency of the springs, and likewise ofY the Yrods 23,
to “flatten” they contour of the roof serves to
maintain the sheeting I'I in evenly tensicned con
tact with the bed ‘I6 over the entire surface
With, and resilient 'means having extremities re
spectively secured to opposed marginal edges of
4. A roof structure, including, in combination,
a structural base, a weather-exposed metallic
sheet overlying said base and coextensive there
with, water gutters coextensive with the sides of
said base and secured thereto, and tensile springs
having ends respectively secured to the marginal 40
edges of the said sheet and to the said gutters,
said resilient means exerting a tensile pull on said
sheet'and thereby urging it -intocontact with said
5. A roof structure, including, in combination, 45
a vstructural base, a weather-exposed metallic
sheet overlying said base and coextensive there
With, anchoring means .coextensive with opposite
sides of said base and spaced" therefrom, and
paired, tensile springs secured to the marginal 50
to'expand readily, as contraction of the metal '
surface of said sheet and to saidanchoring means
y Vshortens Ythe overall span thereof, without impos
ing-van undue strain on the margins I 9a ofthe
sheeting, or on Ythe rods 23. "The springsalso
shouldbe suflìcientlyexpanded under anyigiven
U and arranged to exert a downward pull on said
sheet, said tensile springs being at spaced stations
at each of the opposite sides of the said base, each
of said springs being in registry with a similarly
Ltemperature condition to be contractile under
acting spring on the opposite side, 'said springs
' conditions of increasing temperatur-.eend conse'
thus exerting La localized, transverse tensile ^pull
on, the metal sheet, whereby the said ,sheet may
quent expansion of the sheeting Il, Itis funda
mental that -at all times, suñicientftens'ion ‘be
60 exerted on the sheeting to urge it into
gagernent with the bed i6.
close en- '
'It will be seen, thatpursuant vto this construc
beV resiliently .held on said base.
6. A roof structure, including, in combination,
a structural base, weather-exposed surfacing ma
terial overlying said base, anchoring» means co
extensive with opposite `sides of said base, said
tion; expansion, and contraction. of the copper
surfacing material inany direction and -in any ~ anchoringV means additionally serving as Water
65 degree are provided for in a manner which'does
not imposeL a. strain on thereof sub-structure,
' and which precludes tearing .or otherwise ruptur
ling the surfacingV material. The springs 2l yield
' to the movement of the copper under its expan-r
70 sion or contraction, and thus, with the rods 23,
maintain the surfacing material in >intimate con
tactY with the underlying bedV I5.. Expansion or
contraction in a direction longitudinally of theY
conductors for the'said roof, and means for re
siliently holding said surfacing material into con
- tact with said structural base, including tensile
springs secured to the marginal'edges of the said
surfacing material Vand -to the> anchoring means
roof, that is, atright angles .to Athe corrugations
and paired with springs disposedV on the loppo 70
site side of said roof structure, and transverse
tension members spanning said `sl‘irfacing mate
rial and in contact therewith, saidk members jse
cured at their terminalV ends to the said springs.
of the roof. structure, is accomodated by. the cor.
. 7. A roof structure, including, inV combination, ,
a structural base, weather-exposed surfacing ma
and secured to said roofing material along oppo
terial overlying said base, anchoring means co- '
sitely located marginal portions thereof, and rods
spanning said roofing material and lying in con
tact therewith, said rods joined at their terminal
extensive with opposite sides of saidïbase, said
anchoring means additionally serving as rain
Water conductors for thesaid roof, and meansk
ends to the said springs, whereby expansion and
for holding said surfacing material in contact -contraction of the said rooñng material is ab
sorbed by the ilexing of the said springs, said
with said structural base while permitting move'
nient relatively thereto, including tensile springs
secured to the marginal edges of the said sur
roofing material being held thereby under uni
form tension.
10 facing material and to the anchoring means and ’
l0. Means for holding a membrane roof sur
substantially equivalent to said surfacing mate
said roofing material, said springs being located
paired with springs disposed on the opposite side
facing material in contact with a structural sur
of said roof structure, and rods secured at their` -face against the movement of said material in
terminal ends to said springs and transversely duced by expansion and -contraction thereof, in
spanning said roof structure in contact'there-~ cluding, in- combination, springs having one end
swivelly anchored and another end secured to 15
15 with, said rods having a coeflicientof expansion
8. Means Afor securing a membrane weather
prooñng material in slidable `contact with a. rela
tively ñat structural surface, includingy springs
on oppositely disposed side-surfaces thereof, said
springs exerting a downwardly directed tensile
pull at the opposite sides of said material, and
transverse rods spanning said roofing material in 20
anchored to said structural surface and to said Y contact therewith and secured to said oppositely
disposed springs, wherebyV movement of the said
tions thereof, said springs arranged tovexert a material in the line of action of said springs is
downwardly directed tensile pull on said weather » taken up by the ñexing thereof, and the expan
25 proofing material and thereby urging it into con`-V , sion or contraction of the surfacing material in
a direction perpendicular to said line of spring
tact with said structural surface.
9. Means for resiliently holding a. membrane action is substantially unopposed by said springs
or by said transverse rods, the said rods serving
roofing material in contact with a structural sur
face, said roofing material having a relatively Vto prevent buckling or otherwise separation of
great coeiñcient of expansion, including springs the said surfacing material from the said surface. 30
having their ends respectively swivelly anchored
Weatherprooiing material alongV marginal por
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