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Патент USA US2133177

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2,133,177
Patented Oct. 11, 1938
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,133,177
.
RAILWAY TRACK CIRCUIT‘ APPARATUS
George R. P?asterer, Swissvale, Pa., assignor to
The Union Switch & Signal Company, Swiss
vale, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania
Application May 11, 1935, Serial No. 21,020
30 Claims. (Cl. 246—41)
My invention relates to railway track circuit swung to the left, andcontact I Il—-I2 is closed
apparatus, and has for an object the provision of when the armature is swung to the right.
novel and. useful apparatus for improving the
Associated with relay B is an additional source
shunting sensitivity of the track circuit,
of current designated by the reference character
5’
I will describe four forms of apparatus embody
l3 and here shown as a battery. A device I4,
' ing my invention, and will then point out the
novel features thereof in claims.
In the accompanying drawing, Fig. l is a dia
grammatic view illustrating one form of track
circuit apparatus embodying my invention. Fig.
2 is a diagrammatic view illustrating a modi?ed
form of the apparatus shown in Fig. l, and also
here shown as a resistor, is provided »-to control
the current ?ow from battery I3.
The ampere-turn energization of the relay A
usually will be so adjusted that the relay will
be receiving suificient energy from battery 5 to
hold it up but not su?icient energy to cause the
relay to pick up. ‘That is, the resistor 5 will be
embodying my invention. Fig. 3 is a diagram- ~ so adjusted that the ampere-turn energization
matic view illustrating another form of appara
of. relay A will be at some point above the release
tus embodying my invention wherein improve
value of. the relay but below the pick-up value. 15
ments have been applied to the battery end of It follows, therefore, that a train shunt of rela
the track circuit rather than at the relay end. tively high resistance will release the relay A.
Fig. 4 is still another form of apparatus embody
Furthermore, when section 3—4 is occupied by a
ing my invention wherein improvements have train and contacts 9 and ID of relay B move to
9.0 been applied to the relay end of the track circuit the left, as will be explained more in detail here
when utilizing a track relay of a form different inafter, an auxiliary shunt path across the track
circuit will be closed by the closing of contact
from those shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3.
In each of the several views similar reference 9—II. When the train leaves section 3-4, the
characters refer to similar parts.
relay B will move its armature to the right, as
Referring to Fig. 1, the reference characters I will be explained more in detail hereinafter, so
and IA designate the rails of a stretch of railway that contact Ill-I2 will become closed. When
track which are formed by insulated joints 2 contact ID-—I2 is closed, the relay A will receive
into a track section 3-45. The track section 3-4 additional energy from the battery I3 which,
is provided with a track circuit which comprises together with the normal holding current from
30 as its essential elements the rails bonded in the battery 5, will be suf?cient to pick up the relay
' customary manner, a source of current connected
across the rails at one end of the section, and
a track relay receiving energy from the rails at
the other end of the section. As here shown, the
_ source of current for the track circuit is a track
battery 5 which has one terminal connected with
the rail IA and its opposite terminal connected
with the rail I through a current-limiting device
6 here shown as a resistor. The reference char
40 acter A designates a relay here shown as a direct
current neutral relay of the usual type and which
is connected across the rails I and IA in series
with the primary l of a transformer T. The sec
ondary t of the transformer T is connected with
45 the operating winding of a device B.
The de
vice B is here shown as a relay and is referred
to at times, hereinafter, as an impulse or auxiliary
relay.
Relay B may be of the polarized type having
polar armature contacts 8 and I0 which are
normally biased to a center or neutral position.
The‘ contacts 9 and Ill cooperate with ?xed con
tacts II and I2, respectively, in such manner
5‘ that contact 9-I I is closed when the armature is
50
A. The resistor I 4 will usually be so adjusted
that the current from battery I3 will be just
su?icient to pick up the relay A provided it is
also receiving its normal holding current from
the battery 5. Thus relay A is provided with a
holding circuit which includes‘ resistor 6, rails
I and IA and primary ‘I, and with a circuit which
aids pick up which circuit includes resistor I4,
contact I2 and primary ‘I.
'
i
The operation of the track circuit apparatus is
as follows: When'section 3-4 is unoccupied, con
tacts 9 and I!) of relay A are in their neutral
position, as shown in the drawing, and relay A
is held up by current from battery 5.
I shall now assume that a train enters section
3—4. When this occurs, the shunt afforded by
the‘ wheels and axles'of such train willsuddenly
reduce the amount of current ?owing in primary
1 of transformer T, and this sudden change of“
current will induce an impulse of current in
secondary 8 of such polarity as to cause arma
ture contact 9 to move to the left so that contact
S—-I I will become closed. When contact 9-I I
is closed, a shunt path will be closed across the
rails of section 3-—4 which shunt path will in
55.
2
2,133,177
sure the release of relay A and will still further
reduce the current in primary 1. This further
reduction of current in primary 1 will induce
an additional impulse of current in secondary 8
of such polarity as will tend to mointain arma
ture contact 9 in its left-hand position. When
the impulse of current induced in secondary 8
has been dissipated, the armature contact 9 will
return to its neutral position.
It will be noted that the rails l and IA, in
addition to being shunted by the wheels and
axles of the train, will also be momentarily
shunted by the closing of contact 9;“ of relay
B. Since relay A is normally energized by cur
rent of a value much lower than is usually pro
vided for this type of track relay, the dual shunt
of the train and the auxiliary shunt path just
described will insure a more positive release of
the relay A.
When the train leaves section 3—4, there will
20
be a sudden increase in the amount of current
supplied 'to the primary 1 of transformer T and
this sudden change in the primary current will
cause an impulse‘ to be induced in secondary l
25 of such polarity as to cause the armature contact
NJ to move to the right. When the armature
contact H! moves to the right, contact l0—l2
will become closed to apply energy from battery
closed. The apparatus illustrated in Fig. 2 oper
ates in a manner similar to that just described
for the apparatus shown in Fig. 1. That is, when
a train enters section 3-4, the decrease of cur
rent in primary 1 will induce a current in relay
B of such polarity that armature contact 9 will
move to the left and momentarily close contact
9--l I. When contact 9—I l is closed an auxil
iary shunt path will be closed across the rails
of the track section. This shunt path will aid 10
the train shunt in releasing relay C and will
also induce an additional impulse of current in
relay B such as will tend to maintain contact
9—ll closed. When the train leaves section
3-4, the impulse of current of opposite polarity 15
induced in relay B will cause armature contact
I0 to move to the right thus closing contact
Ill-l2. When contact l0—l2 is closed, a circuit
which aids pick-up of relay C will be closed
which circuit includes battery l3, resistor l4, 20
pick-‘up winding l6 and primary H. The closing
of contact l0--|2 will also induce an additional
impulse of current in relay B such as will tend
to maintain contact I 0-12 closed. As long as
contact Ill-I2 is closed, the pick-up winding 25
It will be energized from battery [3 by current
of su?icient magnitude to cause relay C to pick
up provided the relay is receiving its normal cur
it to the operating winding of relay A through rent from the track battery 5 through the hold
30 primary 1 of transformer T. This increase in
ing circuit.
30
current in primary 1 will induce another impulse
Referring now to Fig. 3, it will be noted that
of current in secondary 8 of such polarity as will the impulse relay B has been applied to the bat
tend to maintain armature contact In in its right tery end of the section '3—4 rather than to the re
hand position. As hereinbefore explained, the lay end of the section. The reference character
current from battery l3 ‘will be so regulated D designates a slow-acting device here shown as
that the combined currents received by relay A a relay having a slow-pick-up characteristic. 36
from battery I 3 and from battery 5 will be of The relay D may be controlled over a circuit in
sufficient magnitude to pick up relay A. When cluding a‘ front contact l8 of relay A which circuit
the impulse induced in primary 8 has been ex
may be connected to a suitable source of‘ energy
40 pended, the armature of relay B will return to
the terminals of which are designated by the ref
its neutral position and all parts will again erence characters X and Y. The relay D may be
be in the normal condition.
.
'
provided to prevent circuits which may be con
The operation of relay B is independent of
the energy level at the right-hand end of the sec
tion 3--4, and is dependent only on the change
in the amount of current supplied to trans
former Tv when a train enters or'leaves the sec
tion. It follows that changes in the character
istics of the track circuit due to variations in
weather or other conditions will not affect the op
eration of this relay. During dry weather‘ con
ditions when good shunting action is necessary
to‘ cause relay A to release in response to‘a
train entering the section, relay B will be actu
55 ated by a relatively poor train shunt to place an
auxiliary shunt on the track circuit because of
the relatively large change in the amount ‘of
current supplied to this relay as the train en
ters the section; Whereas, during wet weather
60 conditions when relay B may not be so sensitive,
relay Awill be released by a'relatively ‘poor shunt.
The combination of the two relays A and B
provides, therefore, for more reliable shunting
under all possible conditions of track.
Referring now to Fig. 2, the‘ reference char
65
acter C designates a track relay having a holding
winding l5 and a pick-up winding l6. The‘hold
ing winding i5 is connected across the rails l
and EA in series with primary 1 and is ener
70 gized from track battery 5' with sufficient energy
to hold up the relay but not suf?cient energy to
cause the relay to pick up. The pick-up winding
[6 is connected in series with another primary ll
of transformer T and is energized by auxiliary
75 battery l3 when contact Ill-12 of relay B is
trolled by the track relay from becoming closed
during possible momentary losses of shunt while
the section 3—4 is occupied by a train. It is 45
contemplated that such circuits, not shown in the
drawing, as may be controlled by the track re
lay A wiil be controlled by the slow pick-up re
lay D, ‘or by both relays A and D, so that if relay
A picks‘ up momentarily with the section 3--4
50
occupied by a train, such circuits will not be im
mediately closed. Although I have shown the re
lay D in Fig. 3 only, this relay may also be ap
plied in a similar manner to the apparatus
shown in each of the other ?gures.
55
The apparatus shown in Fig. 3 operates in a’
manner similar to that just described for the
apparatus illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. That is,
when a train enters section 3-4, an impulse of
current is induced in relay B which will cause 60
armature contact 9 to move to the left so that
contact 9--ll will become closed. When contact
9-H is closed, an auxiliary shunt path will be
closed across the track rails l and IA.
This
shunt path will aid the train shunt in releasing 65
the relay A and will induce another impulse of
current in relay B of such polarity as will tend
to‘maintain contact 9-] I‘ closed.
I When the train leaves section 3-—4, the im
pulse of current induced in the relay B will cause 70
armature contact H} to move to the right so
that contact Ill-l2 will become closed. When
contact Ill-l2 is closed so that the circuit which
aids pick-up of relay A is established, the relay
A will be picked up and the relay B Will receive
3.
2,133,177
an additional impulse of current of such po
larity as will tend to maintaincontact III-I2
closed. This circuit for relay‘ A includes the
branch path through the resistor I4 which re
sistor will be so adjusted that the current
from battery 5 through the resistor I 4 when
added to the normal current supply to the,
relay A through resistor 6, will be sufficient
Having thus described my invention, what I
claim is:
said section, a track relay and an impulse relay
both receiving energy from said rails, means for
controlling the ampere-turn energization of said
track relay in such manner that normally vthe
energization is suf?cient to hold up the relay but
is insu?icient to cause the relay to pick up, means 10
2, the relay A will normally receive from battery
5 only su?icient current to hold up the relay but
not su?icient to cause the relay to pick up. Thus,
relay A is provided with a holding circuit which
15 includes the resistor 6 and the rails I and IA,
and with a pick-up circuit which includes, in
addition, the resistor I4 and the rails I and IA
Referring now to Fig. 4, the reference charac
20 ter E designates a track relay of the type where
in the ampere-turn energization of the relay may
be controlled by regulating the number of turns
in the operating winding of the relay rather than
by regulating the current supplied to the relay.
25 The relay E is pro-vided with a holding circuit
which includes the rails I and IA of the section
and one winding I9, as well as a portion 20~of
the other winding and a resistor 22; and also with
a pick-up circuit which includes the rails I and
30 IA and one winding I9 as well as both portions
29 and 2i of the other winding. The resistor 22
and the winding 29 will usually be so chosen that
the relay E will normally receive su?’icient ener
gization to hold up the relay but will not receive
, su?icient energization to cause the relay to pick
up. The relay E, therefore, will be released by a
train shunt of relatively high resistance.
When a train enters section 3—4, the relay B
will receive an impulse of current which will
cause contact 9-H to become closed so that an
auxiliary shunt path will be closed across the
track rails which shunt path will aid the train
shunt in releasing the relay E. When the train
ieaves the section, the relay A will receive an im
pulse of current of opposite polarity so that con
tact i§—i2 will become closed. When contact
I6~i2 is closed, the full operating winding in
V
a source of current connected across the rails of
to cause the relay A to pick up. As ex
10 plained for the apparatus shown in Figs. 1 and
as well as the contact IIl-—I2 of the relay B.
.
1. In combination, a section of railway track,
controlled by said impulse relay e?ective when
a train entersthe section for closing a shunt path
across the rails of said track section to aid the’
release of said track relay, and other means also
controlled by said impulse relaye?ective when 15
the train leaves said section to increase the ener
gization of said ‘track relay to cause pick-up
‘
thereof.
‘
2. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of current connected across the rails of, 20
said section, a track relay and an impulse relay ~
both receiving energy. from said rails, means for
controlling the ampere-turn‘energization of said
track relay in such manner that normally the
energization is su?icient to hold up the relay but is
insui?cient to cause the relayto pick up, means
including a contact of said impulse relay effective
to close a shunt path across the rails of saidrsec
tion when a train enters the section to aid the
release of said track relay, and means including 30
another contact of said impulse relay effective
when the train leaves said section to increase the
energization of said track relay to cause pick-up ’
thereof.
,
7
3. In combination, asection of railway track, 35
a source of current connected across the rails
of said section, a track relay receiving energy
from said rails, means for controlling the ampere‘
turn energization, of said track relay in such man
ner that normally the energization is su?icient to 40
hold up the relay but is insufficient to cause the
relay to pick up, a device also receiving energy
from said rails and having a normal condition but
capable of assuming one or another of two differ
ent conditions according as a train is entering 45
or leaving said section respectively, means for
shunting the rails of said section effective when
cluding coils I9, 29 and 2! will be connected across said device is in said one condition, and means for
the rails so that the ampere-turn energization of increasing the energization of said track relay
relay E will be sufficient to cause the relay to pick to cause pick-up thereof effective when said de
up. As soon as contact Ill-I2 becomes opened, vice is in said other condition.
7
the winding 2! will be disconnected so that the
> 4. In combination, a section of railway track,
resistor 22 will be effective for limiting the ener ' a source of current connected across the rails of
said section, a track relay receiving energy from
gization of the relay to its holding Value.
, From the foregoing description of track circuit
apparatus embodying my invention, it is apparent
that I have provided a track relay so controlled
that it will be released by a train shunt of rela
tively high resistance. Furthermore, I have pro
60 vided apparatus which will apply an auxiliary‘
shunt to the track circuit in addition to the usual“
train shunt, when a train enters the track cir~
cuit. An important feature of my invention is
the provision of shunting apparatus which is
highly effective during dry weather conditions
when it is usually difficult to obtain release of the
said rails, means for controlling the ampere-turn 55
energization of said track relay in such manner
that normally the energization is su?icient to
hold up the relay but is insufficient to cause the _
relay to pick up, a device having contacts nor
mally biased to a neutral position but operable to 60,
one or another of two di?erent positions depend
ing upon whether a train is entering or leaving
said section respectively, means for shunting the
rails of said section effective whensaid contacts
are in said one position, and means for increasing 65
the energization of said relay to cause pick-up
thereof effective when said contacts are in said
track relay.
Although I have herein shown and described
other position.
only a few forms of apparatus embodying my in
vention, it is understood that various changes
and modi?cations may be made therein within
the scope of the appended claims without de
parting from the spirit and scope of my inven
said section, a track relay receiving energy from
said rails, means for controlling the ampere
tion.
,
50'
-
5. In combination, a section‘ of railway track,
a source of current connected across‘ the rails of 70
turn energization of said track relay in such
manner that normally the energization is su?i
cient to hold up the vrelay but is insu?icient to 75
4
2,133,177
cause the relay to pick up, a path for shunting
the rails of said section, means for momentarily
when a train leaves said section to momentarily
increase the energization of said track relay su?i
closing said path when a train enters said sec
cient to cause pick-up thereof.
tion, and means e?ective when the train leaves
(R, said section to increase the energization of sai
relay to cause pick-up thereof.
‘
'
6. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of current connected across the rails
of said section, a track relay receiving energy
from the rails of said ‘section and normally ener
gized by current of suf?cient magnitude to hold
the relay up but not su?icient to cause the relay
to pick up, means for closing a shunt path across
the rails of said section'when a train enters'the
w. L: section, and means including another source of
current e?ective when the train leaves said sec’
tion to increase the energization of said relay to
its Dick-up value.
'
7. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of current connected across the rails of
said section, a track relay connected across the
rails of said section and normally receiving en
ergy of suf?cient magnitude to hold the relay up
but not sufficient to cause the relay to pick up,
means for closing a shunt path across the rails
of said section when a train enters the section,
and means also receiving current from said
11. In combination with a track circuit having
a source of current and a track relay normally
receiving current from said source of su?icient
magnitude to'hold ‘the relay up but insufficient
to cause" said relay to pick up, an auxiliary relay
also receiving current from said track circuit
and having a normal condition but‘capable of
assuming one or another of two different condi
tions according as a train is entering or leaving
said track circuit respectively,‘ means controlled
at
by said'auxiliary relay for shunting said track
circuit when said auxiliary relay is in said one
condition, and means controlled by said auxiliary
relay for increasing the energization of said track
relay to cause pick-up thereof when said auxil
iary relay is in said other condition.
12; In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of current connected across the rails at
one end of the section, a track relay receiving
energy from the rails at the other end of the
section, means for limiting the energization of
said relay to a normal value above the release 25
value of the relay but below the pick-up value of
the relay, an auxiliary relay receiving energy
source for increasing the energization of said
relay to cause pick-up thereof effective when
from said rails and having one contact which be
comes closed when a train enters the section and
the train leaves said section.‘
another contact which becomes closed when the 30
train leaves the section, means including said
one contact for shunting the rails of said section,
and other means including said other contact
and another source of current for increasing the
energization of said track relay to its pick-up 35
>
8. In combination, a section of railway track,
a track relay connected across the rails at one
end of said section, a source of current connected
across the rails at the other end of said section,
Li means for limiting the energy supplied to said
rails to a value above the release value ‘of said
relay but below the pick-up value of the relay,
a device having one contact which becomes
momentarily closed when a train enters ‘the sec
tion and another contact which becomes momen
tarily closed when the train leaves ‘the section,
means including said one contact for shunting
the rails of said section, and other means re
ceiving energy from said source and including
; said other contact for increasing the energy sup
plied to said rails to cause pick-up of said track
relay.
'
9. In combination, a section of railway track,
a track relay receiving current from the ‘rails
~ of said section, a holding circuit for said‘ track
relay including the rails of said section and nor—'
mally of such resistance as to limit the supply
of current to a value su?icient to hold said track
relay in its picked-up condition but insui?cient
to cause the relay to ‘pick up if once released,
means for momentarily closing a shunt path
across the rails of said section when a train
enters the section, means for momentarily de
creasing the resistance of said holding circuit to
" permit the pick-up of said track relay effective
when the train leaves said section, and a source
value.
1
13. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of ‘current connected across the rails at'
one’ end of said section, a track relay connected
across the rails at the other end of said section, ,'
means for normally limiting the energization of
said track relay to a value above the release value
of the relay but below the pick-up value of the
‘clay, an auxiliary relay receiving energy from
said source’ and having one contact momentarily
closed when a train ‘enters the section and an
other contact momentarily closed when the train
leaves the section, means including said one con
tact for shunting the rails of said section, and
other means receiving energy from said source 50
and including said other contact for increasing
the energization of said relay to its pick-up value.
14. In combination, a section of railway track
having a track relay receiving energy from the
rails of ' said section, a holding circuit including 55
the rails of said section and normally supplying a
holding current to said relay, a pick-up circuit for
said track relay also including the rails of said
section, means for momentarily shunting the rails
of said section when a train ‘enters the section, 60
means for momentarily closing said pick-up cir
of current connected across the rails of said sec
cuit when the train leaves the section, and a
tion for energizing said holding circuit.
source of current connected to the rails of said
10. In combination, a section of railway track, section for said holding and said pick-up circuit.
a source of current connected across the rails
I5. In combination, a section of railway, a 65
of said section, a track relay and-an impulse source of ‘current connected across the rails of
relay both receiving energy from said rails, means ' said section,'a track relay connected across the
for controlling the ampere-turn en'er'giz‘ation of rails of said section, means for normally limiting
said track relay in such manner that normally the energization of said track relay to a value
the energization is sufficient to hold up the relay above the release value of the relay but below the 70
but is insufficient to cause the relay to pick up, pick-up value of the relay, an‘ auxiliary relay re
means controlled by said impulse relay effective ceiving energy from said source 7and having one
when a train enters the section to momentarily‘ contact momentarily closed when a train enters
shunt the rails of said section, and other‘meajns the section and’another contact closed when the
‘1 also controlled by said impulse’ relay effective train leaves the section, means including said one 76
,5,
2,133,177
contact for shunting the rails of said section,
armature normally in a neutral position but which
other means receiving energy from said source
moves to one position or another in response to a
and including said other contact for increasing
the energization of said relay to its pick-up value,
and a slow acting device controlled by said track
momentary impulse of normal or reverse polarity
relay.
16. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of current connected across the rails at
one end of the section, a track relay normally
receiving holding energy from the rails at the
other end of the section, an auxiliary relay also
receiving energy from the rails at the other end
of said section and having one contact which be
comes momentarily closed when a train enters
the section and another contact which becomes
momentarily closed when the train leaves the sec
tion, means including said one contact for shunt
ing the rails or“ said section, and other means
receiving energy from said source and including
20 said other contact for picking up said track relay.
1?. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source or" current connected across the rails of
said section, an auxiliary relay receiving current
from said source and having a normal condi
25 tion but capable of assuming one or another of
two different conditions according as a train en
ters or leaves said section respectively, a track re
lay having a pick-up winding and a holding wind
ing, said holding winding receiving energy from
the rails of the section, means for closing a shunt
path across the rails at said section effective
when said auxiliary relay is in said one condition,
and means for energizing the pick-up winding
effective when said auxiliary relay is in said other
35 condition.
18. In combination, a section of railway track,
source of current connected across the rails of
the section, an auxiliary relay receiving current
from the rails of said section‘and having a nor
mal condition but capable of assuming one or an
other of two different conditions according as a
train enters or leaves said section respectively, a
track relay, a resistor, a holding circuit for said
track relay receiving energy from the rails and
including a portion only of the track relay wind
ing and said resistor, means for closing a shunt
path across said holding circuit effective when
said auxiliary relay is in said one condition, a
pick-up circuit for said track relay also receiving
50 energy from the rails and including the full wind
ing of the track relay, and means for closing said
pick-up circuit effective when said auxiliary relay
occasioned by a decrease or increase in the cur
rent supplied to said transformer when atrain
enters or leaves said section respectively, a track
relay normally receiving holding energy from the
rails of said section. a path effective to shunt the
rails of said section when said polar armature
occupies said one position, and means including a 10
second source of current effective to cause pick
up of the track relay when said polar armature
occupies said other position.
21. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of direct current connected across the 15
rails of said section, a transformer energized
from said rails, an impulse relay receiving energy
from a winding of said transformer and having a
polar armature normally in a neutral position
but which moves to one position or another in 20
response to a momentary impulse of normal or
reverse polarity occasioned by a decrease or in
crease in the current supplied to said transformer '
when a train enters or leaves said section re
spectively, means effective to shunt the rails of 25
said section when said polar armature occupies
said one position, a track relay normally receiv
ing holding energy from said source, a resistor,
and means including said resistor effective to
cause pick-up of said track relay when said polar 30
armature occupies said other position.
22. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of current connected across the rails of
said section, a track relay receiving energy from
said rails, means for controlling the ampere-turn 35
energization of said track relay in such manner
that normally the energization is suf?cient to‘
hold up the relay but is insu?icient to cause the
relay to pick up, means for momentarily closing
a shunt path across the rails of _ said section 40
when a train enters the section, means effective
when the train le'aves said section to increase the
energization of said relay to cause pick-up there
of, and a slow pick-up relay controlled by said
track relay.
23. In combination, a section of railway track,
45
a source of current connected across the rails of
said section, means including two contacts con
trolled by energy received from said rails in such
manner as to close one contact upon a rapid de 50
crease in the energy received by said means oc
curring when a train enters said section and
pulse relay receiving energy from the secondary
to close the other contact upon a rapid increase
in the energy received by said means occurring
when .a train leaves said section, a relay receiving 55
holding energy from said rails, means including
said one contact for shunting the rails of said
section to aid the release of said relay, and means
of said transformer and having a polar armature
including said other contact effective for aiding
is in said other condition.
19. In combination, a section of railway track,
55 a source of direct current connected across the
rails of said section, a transformer the primary
of which receives energy from said rails, an im
60 normally in a neutral position but which moves
the pick-up of said relay.
.
60
to one position or another in response to a mo
24. In combination, a section of railway track,
mentary impulse of normal or reverse polarity
a source of current connected across the rails of
said section, means including a contact controlled
by energy received from said rails in such man
ner as to close said contact upon a rapid de 65
occasioned by a decrease or increase in the cur
rent supplied to the primary of the transformer
65 when a train enters or leaves said section respec
tively, a track relay normally receiving holding
crease in the energy received by said means oc
energy from said rails and shunted if said polar
armature occupies said one position or picked up
curring when .a train enters said section, a track
relay receiving energy from said rails, and means
including said one contact for shunting the rails
of said section to aid the release of said track 70
if said polar armature occupies said other posi70 tion.
20. In combination, a section of railway track,
relay.
-
.
.
a source of direct current connected across the
25. In combination, a section of railway track,
rails of said section, a transformer energized from
said rails, an impulse relay receiving energy from
75 a winding of said transformer and having a polar
of said section, means including two contacts con
trolled by energy received from said rails in such
a source of current connected across the rails
6
2,133,177
manner as to close one contact upon a rapid
decrease in the energy received by said means
occurring when a train enters said section and
to close the other contact upon a rapid increase
in the energy received by said means occurring
when a train leaves said section, a relay receiv
ing holding energy from said source, means in
cluding said one contact for shunting the rails
of said section, and other means including said
other contact and another source of current for
supplying additional energy to aid the pick-up of
said relay.
26. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of current connected across the rails of
said section, means including two contacts con
trolled by energy received from said rails in such
manner as to close one contact upon a rapid de
crease in the energy received by said means oc
curring when a train enters said section and to
close the other contact upon a rapid increase in
the energy received by said means occurring
when a train leaves said section; a relay having
two windings, one of which receives holding en
ergy from the rails of said section; means in
cluding said one contact for shunting the rails
of said section, another source of current, and
other means including said other contact and
other source of current for energizing said other
winding for aiding said relay to pick up.
2'7. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of current connected across the rails of
said section, a track relay receiving energy from
said rails, means for controlling the ampere-turn
energization of said track relay in such manner
that normally the energization is suiiicient to hold
up the relay but is insufficient to cause the relay
to pick up, a device responsive to the departure
of the rear of a train from said section, and
means including a contact controlled by said
device for increasing the energization of said
track relay to its pick-up value when the train
leaves said section.
28. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of current connected across the rails of
said section, a track relay receiving energy from
said rails, means for controlling the ampere
turn energization of said track relay in such
manner that normally the energization is suffi
cient to hold up the relay but is insui?cient to 10
cause the relay to pick up, a device responsive to
the departure of the rear of a train from said
section, and means for aiding the pick-up of said
relay controlled by said device.
29. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of energy supplying current to the
rails at one end of said section, a relay receiving
current from the rails at the other end of said
section, means also receiving current from the
rails at said other end of the section and includ 20
ing a contact which becomes closed upon a de
crease in the current received by said means oc
curring when a train enters said section, and
means including said contact for shunting the
rails at said other end of the section to aid the
release of said relay.
30. In combination, a section of railway track,
a source of energy supplying current to the rails
at one end of said section, a relay receiving cur
rent from the rails at the other end of said 30
section, a transformer having its primary wind
ing also receiving current from the rails at said
other end of the section, and means governed by
the secondary of said transformer effective upon
a decrease in the current ?owing in said primary 35
occurring when the section becomes occupied
to apply a shunt across the rails at said other
end of the section to aid the release of said relay.
'
GEORGE R. PFLASTERER.
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