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Патент USA US2133216

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Oct. 11, 1938.
Filed March 7, 1936
Patented Oct. 11, 1938
Edward E. Taliaferro, Jackson, Tenn.
Application March 7, 1936, Serial No. 67,707
i6 claims.
This invention relates to clocks and in par
ticular to an improvement in the time escape
(Cl. 58-123)
Figure 6 is a perspective view of a modified
scape wheel.
ment mechanism and has for its primary object '
Figure ’l is a view similar to Figure 2 but show
the provision of an escape means for prolonging ing the spread of the teeth as less than the width
5 the life and for improving the time keeping quali
ties of pendulum type clocks.
Another object is the provision of a scape Wheel
which improves the time keeping qualities of
clocks employing less accurate forms of verge.
For example, the recoil escapement used in the
average mantel clock is recognized as not being
as accurate as the dead beat escapement and it
is an object of my invention to improve the
accuracy of the recoil type of escapement while
at the same time increasing the useful life of
the clock and at almost no increase in the cost
of manufacture.
Briefly speaking I carry out the above objects
of my invention by staggering the teeth on the
f2'0 scape wheel so that the contact with'the verge
is spread over a much greater area than is
possible with the teeth in one plane as used in
the prior practice. By oppositely offsetting the
successive teeth I prevent the active surfaces of
25 the verge from being Worn and pitted in one
spot and instead cause the Wear to be spread
over as much of the locking and impulse faces as
desired or as warranted by the expected life of
the other mechanism in the clock. In other
30 words, my invention brings the life of the escape
ment mechanism more in line with the life of the
other parts of the clock and this is accomplished
at a negligible cost and without changing the
basic design of the parts. This will be appre
ciated by reference to the following specification
and the attached drawing.
In the drawing:
Figure l is a front View showing a standard
dead beat escapement altered in that the teeth
40 -of the scape wheel are bent 0r offset right and
Figure 2 is a sectional View of the mechanism
shown in Figure 1 and taken on line 2---2.
Figure 3 is a diagrammatic layout showing
45 the points of contact of the locking and impulse
faces of the verge with the teeth as bent in
Figures 1 and 2.
Figure 4 is similar to Figure 3 but showing a
modification in Which a straight tooth remains
50 between each two right and left teeth.
' Figure 5 is similar to Figure 3 but on half as
large a scale showing a further modification in
which the teeth appear to be sinusoidally ar
of the pallet.
Figure 8 is an edgewise view of a thin scape
wheel having a sinusoidal Wave in the rim.
In Figures 1 and 2 the verge I0 and the scape
wheel l2 are shown associated in the usual man
ner on their respective axes I4 and I6. The verge
is of any well known shape having on both its
receiving pallet R and on its discharge pallet D
a locking face I8 and an impulse face 20, Altho
I have shown a dead beat escapement this is
purely for illustra-tive purposes as it will readily
be appreciated that my invention is equally
adapted to recoil type escapements commonly
used in clocks, in fact it will probably have its
greatest use in the recoil type.
In the preferred form of my invention the
alternate teeth 22 are offset to the right of the
plane of the scape Wheel (see Figure 2) while
the other teeth 24 are oiîset to the left of the
plane whereby the successive teeth engage the
surfaces of the verge in different spots as shown 25
diagrammatically at 22’ and 24’ in Figure 3.
Thus the wear on the verge in effect is reduced
one-half with the result that the clock should
keep running and keep accurate time twice as
long as is now possible with clocks equipped with 30
the present day scape where the teeth are all
in one plane. As the individual teeth of the
preferred form of the Wheel are viewed edge
wise each tooth appears to have a bayonet shape
as clearly shown in Figure 2. To facilitate the
description, the front or working faces of the
teeth will be called the active faces to distinguish
them from the back and side faces of the teeth
which are inactive in that they are never en
gaged by the verge.
As usual with these types
of escape wheels the front or active face of each
tooth intersects the inactive back face 0n a line
at the tooth “point” which line is substantially
parallel to 'the wheel axis. The scape wheel
shown in Figure '7 is almost exactly like that in
Figure 2 except that the teeth 22 and 24 are not
offset so far from the plane of the wheel and in
fact the teeth engage overlapping surfaces on
the pallets.
In order to further prolong the time keeping 50
qualtities the teeth of the scape may be arranged,
as diagrammatically indicated in Figure 4, with
ranged when the scape wheel is viewed edge
every third tooth 26 left in the plane of the wheel
and with the teeth 32 and 34 offset to the right
and left of the plane respectively. InA operation 55
2 .
the staggered teeth of the wheel successively en
ness but this terminology is used to mean that
gage a face of the verge, for example the locking
the working portion ofthe teeth, i. e., the portion
between the tip of the tooth and the point mark
face on overlapping areas with the result that the
total wearing surface is substantially three times
that engaged by the in-line teeth of the normal
escape wheel. A still further modification, in
dicated in Figure 5, consists in arranging the
teeth 36 in what appears to be a sinusoidal line
as the wheel is viewed edgewise so that the wear
ing surface extends continuously and almost
entirely across the contact faces of the verge.
This permits the use of a very thin scape in which
the wave can be set in the wheel rim the teeth
remaining straight. An edgewise View of such a
15 wheel is shown in Figure 8 but the rim of the
wheel illustrated in this figure is curved less than
indicated in Figure 5 so that the total spread of
the teeth 36’ is only about double the width of a
single tooth and is appreciably less than the
20 width of the pallets indicated by the two broken
lines l0’---l0’.
A still further modification of' my invention,
shown in Figure 6, consists in the use of a plu
rality of scape wheels for example, wheels 3l and
25 38 secured side by side on the same shaft 39. It
will be seen that the teeth on each wheel are twice
as far apart as required where a single wheel is
This modiñcation permits the use of
present stock by merely cutting oiï the alternate
30 teeth from the wheels and then pressing two on
each shaft in the usual manner but with the
teeth of one falling between the teeth of the
other. The front or pallet engaging faces of the
teeth are shown in Figurel as being radial and
35 some of the claims state that these faces are
substantially radial but it is well understood by
clock makers that the front faces are in fact
almost invariably cut away or sloped backwardly
from the tooth point to provide clearance for
40 the verge as it swings in and out.
My use of the
term radial is merely to distinguish from those
types of scape wheels in which the pallet engag
ing faces of the teeth are nearer tangential.
It will be obvious that in all modifications any
45 number of successive teeth may be offset in one
direction and the rest offset in the other direc
tion >but the successive staggered or zigzag ar
rangement is preferred as it gives a more
balanced movement.
The scope of my invention also includes the
method of repairing clocks bysetting the teeth
to the right and left of the normal plane of the
wheel or by setting the teeth in a zigzag or wavy
line. This gives the clock a new lease on life
in Ui and may well be worth thecost.
My invention should not be confused with
those rare escapement mechanisms used primarily
in watches and in which two sets’ of laterally
spaced teeth are provided on the scape wheel,
60 one set being used to impart power to only one
pallet of the verge or balance to swing it in one
direction and the other set being used to impart
power through the other pallet to the verge to
moveit in the opposite direction. In these rare
types the pallets oscillate in spaced parallel paths.
My invention is primarily for improving common
escape wheels of the type in which each and
every tooth imparts power to the verge inY both
directions of oscillation of the verge. Stated in
other words, each tooth engages the receiving
p_allet R' and each tooth likewise engages the
impulse pallet D.
In some of the >claims it is stated that the
teeth lie in “planes” which of course is not
strictly accurate because a plane has no thick
ing the depth of engagement by the pallet, lies
between two parallel planes which planes are
parallel to- the central plane of the wheel. In
other words, the “plane” in which the tooth lies
is assumed to have a thickness equal to the width '
of the front or active face of the tooth which
face is normal to the central plane of the wheel.
Some claims also state that the pallets of the
verge oscillate in the same plane which is in
tended to meanv that the pallets are not oifset
with respect to each other but are containd be
tween the same two planes.
What I claim is:
l. A toothed escape wheel of the type disclosed
having a set of outwardly pointing teeth, the end
portion of said teeth being V-shaped in side vieW
and each tooth having its front face intersecting 20
its back face on> a line substantially parallel to
the wheel axis characterized by the end portion
of some of said outwardly pointing teeth being
laterally offset with respect to other of said out
wardly pointing teeth.
2. In a pendulum clock escapement, a toothed
escape wheel and a cooperating verge pivoted on
spaced but substantially parallel axes, a plurality
of the teeth of the wheel positioned to engagé the
same pallet of the verge as the wheel rotates, 30
some of said plurality of teeth being out of aline
ment with respect to other of< said plurality of -
teeth as the wheel is viewed edgewise thereby
utilizing a total wearing surface on said pallet
of the verge greater than that acted on by a 35
single tooth.
3. An escape wheel having teeth projecting pe
ripherally from 'the rim, thefactive face of each
tooth being substantially radial, the working por
tion of some of said teeth being offset laterally 40
with respect to the working portion of other of>
said teeth.
4. The method of making a scape wheel from a
plurality of normal scape wheels which comprises
removing certain teeth from said wheels and then 45
fixing said wheels on a shaft with the remaining
teeth in registry with the spaces left by the re
moved teeth.
5. A scapeV wheel comprising two scape wheels
set side by side on a Shaft, the wheels having
spaces due to alternate teeth in each wheel being
absent and the wheels being positioned on the
shaft with the teeth of each in registry with the
spaces left by the missing teeth of the other.
6. A time escapement mechanism comprising a 55
verge, a scape wheel having a plurality of teeth
in the plane of the wheel, a plurality of teeth to
one side of said plane and a plurality of teeth to
the other side of said plane, the width of the con
tacting surfaces of the verge being substantially
equal to the total spread of the teeth whereby the
area of the wearing surfaces of the vergeV engaged
by said teeth extends substantially across said
surfaces and is greater than the wearing area of
a single tooth.
'7. In a pendulum clock escapement, a verge and
a cooperating toothed scape wheel veach tooth of
which is adapted to impart power to the verge in
both directions of oscillation, the verge having
tooth engaging faces adapted to oscillate in the 70
same plane, and certain teeth of the scape wheel
being offset laterally with respect to other teeth
whereby to engage said verge faces on areas dif
ferent from the areas of the same faces engaged
by said other teeth.
- ~
8. 'I'he device of claim ’7 in which the oifset of
the teeth is such that said areas overlap.
9. The device of claim 2 in Which some of the
said non-alined teeth lie to one side of the central
plane of the wheel and some of the teeth lie to
the opposite side of said plane.
10. The device of claim 2 in which the rim of
the Wheel is curved as the wheel is viewed edge
11. The device of claim 2 in which some of the
teeth lie in the central plane of the Wheel and
some of the teeth lie to one side of said plane.
12. In a pendulum clock, an escapement com
prising a verge of the type disclosed, a toothed
15 scape Wheel in which the active faces of the teeth
are substantially radial, characterized by the
teeth being arranged in zigzag relation as the
wheel is viewed edgewise whereby the total area
of each Wearing surface on the verge is greater
than that acted on by a single tooth.
13. A scape wheel for pendulum clocks, said
Wheel having peripheral teeth of sharp V-shape,
the active faces of which appear to project radi
ally outward as the wheel is viewed axially but
25 in which the active ends of some of said teeth are
adapted to move in annular paths parallel to but
different from the annular paths of the ends of
other teeth and the plane of the Wheel.
14. A toothed scape wheel as described in claim
13 in which said teeth appear to be bayonet
shaped as viewed edgewise.
15. In a clock escapement, a verge and a toothed
scape Wheel, the verge having tooth engaging
pallets adapted to oscillate in the same plane and
each pallet adapted to engage each tooth of the
Wheel, the active faces of said pallets being wider
than the cooperating faces of the individual teeth
of the scape wheel, certain teeth of the scape
Wheel being arranged to engage said pallet faces
on areas different from the areas engaged by
other teeth of the wheel whereby increasing the 15
Wearing area on said active faces.
16. A clock escapement comprising a verge of
the dead beat type and a cooperating escape
Wheel, said verge having a pair of pallets adapted
to oscillate in a single plane parallel to the plane
of the escape Wheel, and peripheral teeth on said
wheel, each tooth adapted to engage each of said
pallets, some of said teeth being out of alinement
with respect to others as the wheel is viewed edge
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