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Патент USA US2133279

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Oct. 18, 1938.
R. w. BRO-WN‘
2,133,279
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 5,‘ 1936
12 Sheets-Sheet l
.INVENTOR
Rog W4" Brown
ATTORNEY
‘Oct. 18, 1938.
R. w. BROWN _
2,133,279
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 5, 1936
'
12 Sheets-Sheet 2
£52
INVENTOR
R09 W Brown
WWW?
ATTO RN EY
Oct. 18, 1938.
R. w. BROWN
'
I 2,133,279
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE
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Filed Jan. 3, 1936
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INVENTOR
I Rog W Brown
ATTORNEY
Oct. 18, 1938.
R. w. BROWN
2,133,279
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 3, 1936
12 Sheets-Sheet 5
INVENTOR
Roy W. Brown
ATTORNEY
.
Oct. 18, 1938.
R. w. BROWN
2,133,279
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 3, 1936
12 Sheets-Sheet 6
INVENTOR
Roy W Brown
1
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MM %ATTORNEY
Oct. 18, 1938.
,R. w'. BROWN
PNEUMATIC
SUSPENSION
2,133,279
DEVICE
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Filed Jan.v 3, 1936
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INVENTOR
Rog W. Brown
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%RNEY
Oct. 18, 1938.
R, w. BROWN
2,133,279
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 5, 1936
>
12 Sheets-Sheet 8»
76 n4
_INVENTOR
R09 W. Brown
ATTO RNEY
Oct. 18, 1938.
2,133,279
R. w. BROWN
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 3, 1956
12 Sheets-Sheet 9
K90 3,9
£312
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INVENTOR
‘
R03 W.Browrz
ATTORN EY
‘Oct. 18, 1938.
R. w. BROWN
2,133,279
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 3, 1936
' 12 Sheets-Sheet 10
Rby W Broil/Sm“
Mex % 9%
ATTORNEY
Oct. 18,1938.
R. w. vBRO‘WN
‘ ’
2,133,279
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 5, 1936
12 Sheets-Sheet 11
STATIC LOAD'4OO POUNIDS
LENGTH OF BELLOW5 ‘7E!
-l4-I LBS.
LENGTH OF
BELLQWS ——<
IN INCHES
LOAD ON BELLOWS IN POUNDS (STATIC)
smmc LOAD ~4oo Pow»;
LENGTH OF BELLQWS ‘72 I
LENGTH OF
BELLOWS —<
IN INCHES
RATE \N POUNDS PERJNLH
'
.NVENTOR
R03 W. Brown '
FY
_ WK”?
ATTO RN EY
Oct. 18, 1938.
R. w. BROWN
'
2,133,279
PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE
Filed Jan. 3, 1936 _
l2 Sheets-Sheet 12
J .16
0F
:
SYPCHC, LOAD — 40° POUN D5
LENGTH OF BELLOWS Jimcmzs
BELLOW5 RATE
m POUNDS PER. ‘50
‘
men
~ RESERVOH'? CAPAC\TY \N CUBKL INCHES
0%.19
LENGTH OF
BELLOWS \N \
\NCHES
TIC LOAD — 4-00 POUND‘S
LENGTH OF BELLOW5-T§\NCH
RATE \N POUNDS PER- \NCH
|NVENTQR
_
BY
Roy W Brown?
W % %/
ATTORNEY
Patented Oct. 18, 1938
2,133,279
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
U PNEUMATIC 82331228101‘ nnvron
‘
. Rioyiw. Brown, Akron, Ohio
Application January 8, 1936, Serial No. 57,355
54 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in pneu
matic suspension devices of a type particularly
adapted for use on vehicles and has for its pri
mary object to provide such a device which is
(Cl. 267-15)
ing means therefor, wherein the shapes of sup
porting means and the bellows are such that as
the bellows progressively contacts different areas
of said supporting means during de?ection of the
simple in construction, inexpensive to manufac
bellows, the effective area “piston effect” of the OI
ture and eii‘lcient in operation.
latter will be changed to afford optimum riding
A further object of the present invention is to qualities, the shape and size of the supporting
provide a new form of bellows mounted upon the means being capable of change to meet the indi
vehicle to take the place of the standard metal. vidual requirements of load, rate and change of
10 spring at present employed, and to so mount the rate of different automobiles or of different rid
bellows without interference‘ with the emciency ing qualities on the same automobile, without
of the steering mechanism.
changing the bellows.
_
A further object of the present invention is to
A further object is to devise a pneumatic sus
provide an expansible and compressible bellows of pension device comprising a low-rate bellows and
?exible material adapted to be connected with a supporting means therefor for stabilizing the bel
reservoir for ?uid under pressure to establish a lows and supporting the central portion thereof
normally balanced condition therebetween and against excessive angular and ‘lateral displace
adapted to absorb shocks caused from irregulari
ties in the road without appreciably transmitting.
With the objects above indicated and other ob
the same to the chassis.
‘
jects hereinafter explained in view, the invention
Another object is to devise a construction consists in the construction and combination of
wherein the bellows is so located betweenthe elements hereinafter illustrated, described and
chassis and the wheel as most effectively to op
claimed.
pose torque reactions resulting from horizontal
Referring to the drawings;
ment.
accelerations.
.
A further object is to devise an automobile con
struction in which a ‘pneumatic suspension device '
is combined with a wheel positioning mechanism
for improving the riding qualities of the auto
mobile.
Another obiect is to devise an automobile con
struction in which a pneumatic suspension device
>
-
Figure 1 is a front elevational view of a por
tion of a motor vehicle showing a suspension de
vice embodying the present invention;
Figure 2 is a top plan view of the arrangement
shown'in Figure 1;
_
_
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view taken on
line 3-3 in Figure 2 and showing the preferred
construction of the suspension device embodying
is combined with independent wheel suspension
mechanism for improving the riding qualities of
the invention on an enlarged scale;
counteract the tendency for shifting of the forces
Figure i0 is a transverse sectional view taken
on line l0--l0 in Figure 9 and showing the de
~
Figure 4 is a vertical sectional view taken‘ on
I
35 the automobile.
_ line 4-4 in Figure 3 and on an enlarged scale;
35
Still another object is to devise an automobile
Figure 5 is a vertical sectional view similar to
construction in which a pneumatic suspension de
Figure 4 but showing a modi?cation of the valve
vice is combined with a parallelogram type of structure;
independent wheel suspension in such manner as
Figure 6 is a transverse sectional view taken on
line 6-6 in Figure 3 and showing the bellows and
40 to minimize the loading on the linkage.
A still further object of the invention is to pro-' center ring arrangement;
' '
‘
vide improved means actuated by horizontal ac- .
Figure 7 is a transverse sectional view taken on
celeration due to driving the vehicle around curves line 1-1 in Figure 4;‘
and from the application of brakes in checking
Figure 8 is a vertical sectional view of a modi?ed
45 the motion of the vehicle, which momentarily in
suspension but emboyding the present invention; as
terrupts the communication between the bellows
Figure 9 is a vertical sectional view of a still
and the reservoir and results in a building up of further modification of the suspension embodying
the pressure within the bellows suiliciently to the-present invention;
50 due to horizontal acceleration, and which tends
to dampen the same so that the reaction is mate
rially lessened, thereby resulting in improved rid
ing quality.
,
Another object is to devise a pneumatic sus
55 pension device comprising a bellows and support
tails of the valve mechanism;
Figure 11 is a vertical sectional view of ‘a modi-.
?ed form of suspension embodying the present in
vention;
‘
Figure 12 is a fragmentary vertical sectional
2
.
.
_
2,183,979
‘view of a still-further modification of the valve
structure;
opposite side from the bifurcated ends 38, which
projects through an opening provided in a later
-
Figure 13 is a fragmentary vertical sectional
al extension 4| on a link 42 and is secured there
to by a nut 43. The inner end of the link 42 is
iary tank or receptacle in the suspension;
keyed or otherwise secured to one end of a shaft
Figure 13‘ is a fragmentary top plan view of 44 which is journaled in a housing 45. A link
the tank shown in Figure 13;
'
46 has one end keyed or otherwise secured to the
, Figure 14 is a fragmentary top plan view of a’ other end of the shaft 44 and its opposite end se
‘view showing the use of an additional or auxil
modified form of the suspension wherein the
10 reservoir is attached to the top thereof;
Figure 15 is a front elevational view of that
shown in Figure 14;
,
Figure 16 is a chart showing the static load on
the bellows at di?erent lengths;
Figure 17 is a chart showing the rate in pounds
15
per inch at different bellows lengths;
Figure 18 is a chart showing the bellows rate
for any selected reservoir capacity in cubic
inches;
20
Figure 19 is a chart showing the characteris
tics of the four types of bellows shown in the
drawings;
-
Figure 20 is a fragmentary end view of the
Figure 21 is a transverse sectional view there
of.
a bolt 41. The housing 45 is secured to the cross
member 22 by a plurality of bolts 48, more clear
ly shown in Figure 2. With this arrangement
of parallelogram linkages, the wheel 23, while
heldin proper position, does nevertheless have
independent movement with respect to the
chassis as well as with respect - to the other
wheels which may be similarly mounted. So
much of the disclosure is standard construction
on some types of vehicles at the present time,
except that heretofore such assemblies have re 20
quired the use of hydraulic shock absorbers, and
therefore forms no part'of the present invention
except as the same may be included in combina
tion with the pneumatic suspension device here
'- bellows; ,
25
cured to the end vof the lateral extension 4| by
'
In the drawings, I have shown for purposes of
exempli?cation a pneumatic suspension device
embodying _the present invention applied to a
30 motor vehicle replacing the standard type of
steel leaf .or spiral coil spring, but it should be
understood that the device is capable of adap
tation for many other purposes, replacing elastic
load-carrying or shock absorbing mechanisms,
35 and the invention is not therefore to be limited
in this respect.
Referring to Figures 1 and 2, a chassis 20 is
shown of the usual type having longitudinally
extending side channel members 2! spaced apart '
40 and rigidly connected by a front cross member
22 in any well known manner. While only the
left-hand front portion of the vehicle is shown,
_ it should be understood that the right-hand por
tion is substantially identical therewith so that
45 any further showing is believed unnecessary in
order to clearly understand the invention.
A wheel 23 is rotatably mounted upon a stub
shaft, the inner end being'bifurcated at 24 and
provided with aligned" openings 25. The said
50 stub shaft is connected to the chassis 20 in any
desirable manner, but preferably by the conven
tional parallelogram linkage comprising an up
right member 26 having an integral tubular ex
tension 21 movably positioned between the bi
55 furcated ends 24 and vsecureditherebetween by
a pin or bolt 28 in the usual manner. A mem
ber 29 has bifurcated ends 30 which are posi
tioned on opposite sides of the lower end of the
upright member 26 and pivotally connected
thereto by a bolt 3|. The member 29 is further
provided with a screw-threaded extension 32,
on the opposite side from the bifurcated ends
inafter described in detail.
'
25
In Figure 3 a detailed arrangement of the
preferred form of pneumatic suspension is shown '
wherein a bellows 49, which will be designated
as the #6 type, is provided which is substantial
ly circular in plan as more clearly shown in Fig 30
ure 6. This bellows 49 is made of rubber and
cotton cords, two plies being shown herein, al
though not restricted thereto, vulcanized into an
unusually strong, composite structure, which as
shown has an integral inner covering of rubber 35
material,‘ similar to that used in making inner
tubes, to prevent any leakage of air there
through.
_
1
,
The bellows 49 is of tubular form being con
stricted at its central portion 50 for a consid
erable distance, thus providing two expansible
and contractible-portions 5i and 52, the former
above the central portion and the latter below
the central poriton._ A girdle ring 53 encircles
the outer surface of the central portion 50 pre 45
venting any expansion thereof. This ring com
prises cooperating half sections ‘preferably
formed of steel stampings and having when as
sembled a cylindrical inner wall 54 coextensive
with the central portion 50 of the bellows. The 50
opposite ends 55 are rounded outwardly and por
tions 56 extend inwardly .and then outwardly to
form grooved mating ?anges 51 terminating in a
peripheral bead 56 disposed substantially midway
between the portions 5| and 52 of the bellows. 55
The rounded ends 55 are adapted to be engaged
by the adjacent portion of the bellows and are
shaped so as to prevent sharp bending of the
latter during compression or expansion.
The opposite ends of the bellows 49 have out 60
wardly extending, circular, ?anged portions 59
terminating in laterally extending peripheral
30, which projects through an opening provided I beads 60 vsimilar to the beads on tire casings.
at the apex of a pair of angularly extending
65 links 33, being secured thereto by a nut 34. The
inner ends of the links 33 are pivotally connect
Bead rings 6|, preferably of rust-proof stamped
steel, have ?at portions 62 provided with a plu 85
rality of openings adapted to receive attaching
bolts 63 and a hook portion 64 extending in
wardly and engageable with the beads 60. In~
verted U-shaped rings 65 are positioned upon the
inside of the bead rings 6| and have their outer 70
ends in engagement with peripheral ?anges 66 at
the outside of the flat portions and their inner
upright member‘ 26 and pivotally connected ends resting upon ?anges 61 provided on the
hook portions. The rounded portions of the U
thereto by a bolt 39. The member 31 is also pro
75 vided with a screw-threaded extension 46 on the / shaped rings are adapted to contact with the 75
ed at 35 with adjacent portions of a sub-struc
ture 36 in turn connected to the cross member
22, more clearly shown in Figure 2.
A member 31, similar to the member 29, is also
70
provided with bifurcated ends 38 which are posi
tioned on opposite sides at the upper end of the
2,133,279
adjacent'portions of the bellows and should be
shaped so as to prevent any sharp ‘bending tak
" ing place in the latter during compression and
expansion. The ends of the bellows 49 are pro
vided with a plurality of circular ribs 59' spaced
apart axially, there being four shown in Figures
20 and 21, although any desired number may be
provided. These ribs 59' engage the end plates
68 and ‘I4 and when the bellows 49 is secured
10 therebetween' they are compressed and function
as a seal to prevent any air from escaping from
the interior of the bellows.
'
'
The lower end of the bellows 49 has a plate 68
extending thereacross to effectively close the same
15 and its outer portion is provided with openings to
receive the bolts 63. An end casting 09 is pro
vided and has openings in its outer portion to
receive the bolts 63 which are provided with lock
washers ‘I0 and nuts 1| to secure the same and at
20 the same time lock the beads 60 securely. The
casting 69 has an offset portion ‘I2 provided with
an opening to receive the screw-threaded upper
end of the upright member 26 and a nut ‘I3 is.
provided to prevent disengagement.
25
The upper end of the bellows 49 is connected by '
the bolts 03_ directly to the top portion" of a
housing ‘I5. Lock washers ‘I6 and nuts 11 like
wise secure the bead ring BI in place and the
bead 00 against displacement. The housing ‘I5
30 has a depending arcuate portion ‘I8 extending
part way around the bellows 49 and adjacent its
mid portion the lower end is ?ared outwardly at
‘I9. Openings are provided in the ?ared‘ portion
’ ‘I9 in alignment with the openings in the housing
35 45 and receive bolts 80 by which it is rigidly
secured. At the outer ends of the depending
portion ‘I8 extensions 8| are provided which like
wise have openings in alignment with openings in
the chassis and receive bolts or rivets 82 to pro
40 vide a rigid structure. The relative position of a
fender is shown in dot and dash lines in Figure 1.
The top portion ‘I4 of the housing ‘I5 ‘has an
opening therein which is substantially coaxial
with the axis of the bellows 49 and a ?ange 83
45 surrounds the same on the outer side but is
spaced slightly therefrom to provide a seat 84.
A tubular valve casing 85 of suitable diameter
' has its upper end positioned in the opening in the
top portion ‘I4 and its lower end projecting into
A portion of the casing 85 ex
tends beyond the top portion ‘I4 and is exteriorly
screw-threaded. 'A cover member 86 has an in
50 the bellows 49.
teriorly screw-threaded opening to receive the
screw-threaded end of the valve casing 85 and a
55 lateral ?ange 8'I resting upon the ?ange 83, there
being aligned openings in both to receive bolts 88.
The cover member also has a depending ?ange 89
which securely engages a rubber washer or gasket
90 positioned upon the seat 84 to seal the same.
The cover member 88 has a hooded portion 9I
60
provided with a tubular projection 92 within
which one end of a tube 93 is secured. The op
posite end of the tube 93 is secured to a connec
tion 94 provided upon a ?uid reservoir or recep
65 tacle 95 which is secured by bolts 96 to the side
of the frame member 20 or at any other desirable
location. This reservoir is of any desired size
Although various-‘types 'of- valve mechanism
may be employed, the preferred construction is
shown in Figures 3, 4 and 7. At the bottom of
the valve casing 85 is a cap 98 removably se
cured thereto by bolts 99. ‘The cap has a cen
tral opening I00 and complementary recesses
are provided in the adjacent portions of the
cap and casing to provide a circular chamber
IOI positioned concentrically and outwardly of
the opening I00. This provides an. upper valve
seat I02 on the casing and'a lowervalve seat
I03 on the'cap which are spaced apart and in
parallelism. ~A light-weight, hardened steel, disc
valve I03 is freely positioned in the space be
tween the valve seats I02 and I03 and is adapted 15
to be moved into engagement with either so as
to interrupt the free communication between the
bellows 49 and reservoir 95 in a manner to be
later described. One or more small openings I05
are provided in the outer portion of the cap to
by-pass a small quantity of air around the disc
valve I04 when ‘engaging the lower valve seats
I03. This‘ disc'valve I04 has a raised central‘
portion I04’ of de?nite size. ‘
20
_
A valve control member I06 is mounted within
the casing 85 and in this instance is of the
pendulum type. It consists of a lead weig'ht body
portion I01 of approximately frusto~conical
shape with the smaller end disposed downward
ly and in coaxial alignment with the valve seats 80
when in normal position as ‘shown in Figure 3,
it being also spaced from the inner wall of the
casing. The body I0‘I has an ‘axial opening ex
tending therethrough within which one end of
a rod I08 is disposed. A cup-shaped rubber 35
member I09 has a brass ferrule IIO secured axi
ally thereof and is mounted upon the lower end
thereof. the end of the rod extending through
the ferrule and being exteriorly screw-threaded
to receive a clamping nut II I.
‘The
lower end
.
40
of the rod I08 has an extension II2 which is ‘
adapted to engage the raised portion I04’ of the
disc valve I04 to hold the valve out of engage
ment with the upper 'valve seat IP02 when the
valve member I06 is in normal-vertical position.
The upper end of the rod I08 is formed with 45
a spherical knob II3 disposed within a tubular
extension I I4 projecting inwardly from the cover
88. This tubular extension is interiorly screw
threaded to receive an exteriorly screw-threaded 50
split plug II5 which has a conical opening II6
therethrough through which that portion of the
rod I08 below the spherical knob II3 extends.
The plug H5 is adjustable to retain the spheri
cal knob H3 in position, but such adjustment
should permit free and easy movement of the
weighted body I0‘I about the knob as an axis.
The ?aring edge of the rubber member I09 sur
55
rounds the lower end of the weighted body I01
and thereby functions as a noiseless bumper when 60
the body swings into engagement with the inner
wall of the casing 85 as shown by dotted lines
in Figure 4. A pin III has its ends secured in
the wall of" the casing 85 and is positioned to "
prevent the weighted body I01 from swinging ‘in
its direction as more clearly shown in Figure 7. 65
In the operation of the pneumatic suspension
device it will be assumed that a su?icient air
pressure has been established in the reservoir
95 and that therefore the same air pressure
is established in the bellows 49 inasmuch as the 1.0
and is provided with a valve 91 through which
?uid, such as air, may be introduced into‘ the
reservoir and from which the ?uid is prevented
from escaping. The reservoir 95 is in communi
cation with the interior of the bellows 49 and pendulum valve I06 is normally in verticalposi- '
consequently the latter is in?ated in this manner tion with the result that the disc valve I04 is
to the desired static pressure, depending upon the ' held out of engagement with the upper valve
75 load which it is required to support.
seat I02, thereby establishing free communica 75
>
4
tion between the reservoir and bellows. Fur
thermore, the air pressure established in the
bellows should be su?lcient to support the static~
load of the vehicle body which, for purpose of
example, is'approximately 400 pounds, although
this load naturally differs on di?erent makes
of cars, and with the normal overall height of
the bellows under this load about equal to the
difference between its maximum and minimum
10
positions of expansion and contraction.
With
this relationship the parts assume the shape and
appear as shown in full lines in Figure 3, where
in the experimental development the bellows 49
was slightly over 8" in diameter and 71/2" in
15 length under a pressure of 14.1 pounds per square
inch.
-
'
Now, suppose that the wheel of the vehicle
hits an obstruction in the road while travelling
and compresses the bellows from the normal
20 length of ‘71/2 inches to a length of 5 inches.
Assuming that the bellows is connected to a 300
cubic inch reservoir, reference to the curves in
Figure 17 shows that at a length of 71/2 inches
the suspension will have a rate of approximately
108 pounds per inch while at a length of ,5
inches the rate is approximately 160 pounds per
inch under static conditions, that is, when the
bellows is compressed and elongated very slowly
so that there is no appreciable resistance to flow
of the air between the bellows and reservoir.
It is to be understood, however, that under dy
namic conditions as when the bellows is com
pressed quickly, as when the wheel passes over
an irregularity in the road at high speed, the
rate will be considerably greater due to the re
sistance to the transfer of the air from the bel
lows to the reservoir. The recoil movement will
be greatly retarded because the valve I04 will
seat on the lower valve seat I03 and the return
of the air from the reservoir to the bellows will
40
be limited to the small by-pass ori?ces I05. This
effectively retains a portion of the energy of the
- impact force which caused compression, in the
reservoir and releases it slowly to the system to
establish a. condition of equilibrium again.
45
It will be understood that the damping char
acteristic of such a system for different fre
quencies of oscillation will be largely determined
by the transfer of the compressible ?uid be
tween the reservoir and bellows through the re
50 stricted conduit and valve openings and that
this will change for different frequencies of vi
bration or relative acceleration between the run
ning gear and body or frame.
By taking advantage of the characteristic of
55 increasing rate with de?ection, “bottoming" can
be eliminated while still retaining extremely
“soft” rides on all lesser deformations.
when a wheel .~hits a road obstruction which
would ordinarily cause complete compression of
the bellows to the point of bottoming, the com
pression of the bellows is increasingly resisted
by engagement of the latter with the grooved
?anges 51 and bead 58 of the girdle ring 53 with
the result that rate of resistance to the com
pression of the bellows is built up rapidly enough
to stop the complete compression and thus pre
vent bottoming.
It will be further noted that the movement of
the bellows 49 during the compression stroke is
not in a vertical direction along the normal axis. 15
This is because of the unequal length of the upper
and lower parallelogram arms and the relative
positions of points of rotation which results in
the bottom casting 69 moving from the position
shown in full lines in Figure 3 about an arc IIO 20
to the position shown in dot and dash lines. Due
to this arcuate movement, the bellows 49, in
the suspension, during its compression stroke
has the lower right side of the portion 5| en
gageable with the upper adjacent portion of the 25
?ange on the girdle ring 53 while the upper left
hand side of the portion 52 is engageable with
the lower adjacent portion of the flange on the
girdle ring 53, or in other words the engage
ment is on diagonally opposite sides of the ?ange 30
on the girdle ring 53,- as viewed in Figure 3. This
engagement, however, builds up pressure suffi
cient to retard and resist the relative movement
between
chassis
“bottoming.”
and
wheels
to
prevent
The smooth dampening characteristic of mov
ing air through a closed system effectively aug
ments the natural functional dampening of the
chassis, thus further reducing the need for shock
absorbing devices;
Of course when the bellows 49 is compressed
35
40
under ordinary operating conditions, the pendu:
lum valve I06 is substantially perpendicular as
shown in Figures 3 and 4 with the result that the
disc valve I04 is prevented from engagement with
the upper valve seat I02 and communication be
tween the bellows and reservoir is maintained,
the movement being increasingly resisted and the
shock absorbed. Upon the rebound stroke, the
disc valve I04 is moved into engagement with the
lower valve seat I03 which shuts off communica 50
tion and the movement is. likewise retarded, but
in this instance ports I05 permit the passage of
some of the air from the tank to the bellows so
as to control the rate of retardation. If the
initial compression of the bellows, under the con
55
ditions set forth, is so great and sharp as to cause
In the
extreme rebound, the bellows will elongate to
suspension shown in, Figure 3, this is obtained
such an extent that its volumetric capacity is
by providing a diameter of the constricted por
60 tion 50 of the bellows slightly less than the diam
65
cessive compression such as is shown in dot and
dash lines in the upper portion of Figure 3. Thus
progressively reduced, thus exerting pressure
upon the air therein sufficient to lift the valve
eter of the beads 60 and then providing rounded
portion 65 on the bead rings and rounded por
tions 55 on the girdle ring 53 which progressively
engage adjacent portions of the bellows during
disc I04 and thereby again to place the bollows
directly in communication with the reservoir 95,
de?ection of the latter so that the rate increases
on compression or extension from some mid
The overturning movement occurring in round
ing curves has been heretofore determined. The
“soft” independent front suspension placed on
passenger cars recently aggravated the condition
to such an extent as to result in de?nite unfavor 70
able reactionsto the driving public. The inser
tion of a valve between the bellows 49 and tank 95,
arranged to close when a pendulum above the
length the exact value of which is determined
as indicated in Figure 1'7 by the size reservoir
used.
To increase this rate to an even greater
degree to prevent “bottoming”, the girdle ring
53 has the lateral circumferential ?ange pro
vided with grooved ?anges 51 and the periph
eral bead 58 positioned so as to be engaged by
75 the adjacent portions of the bellows upon ex
with the result that the rate is not increased so
rapidly as to cause discomfort.
valve swings outwardly by centrifugal force from
rounding curves, makes available for resisting
65
,
2,133,279 '
' the overturning movement the much higher rate
of the bellows alone. For example, referring to
5
provision of ?at spring members II8, of which
there are four in number, positioned approxi
Figure 3, when the vehicle rounds a curve, the , mately 90° apart around the pendulum, the lower
pendulum I06 swings to one side as indicated in ends being connected by screws I20. The upper
dotted lines, thus moving the extension II2 out ends of the‘ springs are free and extend outwardly
of engagement with the raised portion I04’ on into engagement with the inner wall of the valve
the disc valve I 04, permitting the latter to engage casing, being under suf?cient tension to minimize
the upper valve seat I02 to shut off communica
the tendency of the pendulum to deviate from
tion between the bellows 49 and tank“. The the perpendicular due to vibration from road ir
10 angular rotation of the chassis is therefore re
regularities. The springs should, however, be 10
tarded by the higher compression rate of the bel
resilient enough to permit the pendulum‘ to swing
lows without reservoir in the manner heretofore about its axis under the action of centrifugal and
explained.
This same valve is employed to counteract the
15 nosing down of the body front resulting from
braking the vehicle and which is much more no
ticeable with the present type of independent
front wheel suspension of low rate. The opera
tion of the valve is much more clearly shown in
20 Figure 4. Assuming that the right hand side of
Figure 4 is toward the front of the vehicle, as
the vehicle is braked the pendulum I06 moves to
the right as shown by dotted lines, thus moving
the extension II2 out of engagement with the
raised portion I04’ on the discvalve I04 which
30
35
40
45
50
other forces resulting from driving the vehicle
around curves and also to oscillate under the
impetus of inertia/when the brakes are applied 15'
to stop the vehicle. The operation of this valve
is identical with the operation of the valve shown
in Figure 4 heretofore explained. As stated, this
construction has the advantage of normally main
taining the pendulum against free movement.
20
In Figure 8 a modi?ed construction of the sus
pension is shown, many of the parts, however,
being the same as the parts heretofore explained
in connection with the construction shown in
Figure 3. In this construction a portion of the 25
causes the disc valve I04 to be moved into engage
chassis I2I has a spherical cap I22 connected
ment with the upper valve seat I02, thus shutting thereto by means of bolts I23. These parts are
off.communication between the bellows- 49 and provided with a spherical chamber I24 to which
tank 95. In this manner the nosing down move
a rubber gasket I25 is secured. A stem I26 has a
ment of the body is retarded and checked by the spherical end I 21 which is disposed within the 30
high compression rate of the bellows without spherical chamber I24, the rubber gasket being
reservoir within which an increasing pressure is disposed therebetween. The, stem I26 projects
built up. As an example, the momentary rate of outwardly through an opening-in the bottom of
the suspension without reservoir is 160 pounds the cap and chassis. and its lower end extends
per inch at bellows length of 71/2 inches (Figure within the upper end of a tube I28, being secured
17), instead of 92 pounds per inch with 600 cubic thereto by a pin I23. An upper end plate I30 has
inch reservoir, this greatly minimizing the de
a peripheral ?ange HI and an axial opening sur
pression of the car front. The pin III is pro
rounded by a ?ange I32 of sufficient diameter to
vided to restrict the pendulum from swinging in receive'the upper end of the tube I28. The tube
undesired directions. The rubber member I 09 and ?ange are welded or otherwise secured to 40
is provided to render the swinging movement gether to provide an air-tight connection. A .
quiet inasmuch as the weight I01 normally has second tube I33 is telescopically mounted upon
su?icient movement to hit the inside wall of the the lower end of the tube I28 and has collars I34
casing 85. Also the raised portion I04’ on the surrounding the tube I28 and secured to the
disc valve I04 can be made to different diameters inner wall of the tube I 33 for movement there 45
depending upon the horizontal acceleration at with, these sleeves being spaced apart axially so~ .
which it is desired to have the disc valve operate, as to provide a suitable‘ bearing for the relatively
the smaller the diameter the lower the accelera
movable tubes. A disc I35 is secured within the
tion and the larger the diameter the higher the tube I33 at its lower end in such a manner as to
acceleration at which operation occurs, so that seal the tube against the passage of air, this disc 50
its operation can be very de?nitely predeter
being positioned below the end of the tube I28.
mined. The valve may be rotated 90° when The tube I33 has its lower end connected to a
placed at the rear of the car, thus minimizing wheel support, not shown.
the depressing of the rear portions of the car
,
55 resulting from power acceleration.
Since the speci?c heat of air varies inappre
ciably over the range of pressures used, compres
,sion and expansion approach adiabatic. The
shape of the pressure volume curves deviates ap
,60 preciably from the approximately sinusoidal dis
placement-time chassis vibration curve which
tends to minimize propagation of synchronous
vibrations.
.
Some heat ?ow to and from the enclosing
structures-occurs and some slight temperature in
crease results from friction effects. The extent
of both is in?uenced by the time and rate of the
compression and expansion. This transfer and
loss of heat results in a somewhat graduated .
dampening action, increasing withrate of appli
cation of compression or expansion.
The mag
nitude of these effects increases appreciably with
closure of the pendulum shock absorber valve.
In Figure 5 a modi?ed form of valve structure is
shown in which the main difference resides in the
A lower end plate I36 has a peripheral ?ange
I31 and an axial opening provided with a ?ange 55
I38, the opening being of sufficient diameter to
receive the upper end of the tube I33 and being
weldedor otherwise connected thereto so as to
provide an air-tight connection. A bellows I30
of a construction similar to that shown in Figure 60
3, but identified as type #2, is provided and po
sitioned between the upper and lower end plates
I30and I36, respectively. This bellows has beads
60 at’ its opposite ends and clamping rings se
cured to the end plates and adapted to engage the 65
beads in the manner heretofore described in con
nection with Figure 3. The bellows is likewise
provided with a constricted central portion I40
having a diameter which is less than the diameter
of the beads. In this instance the constricted 70
portion is provided with a circumferential bead
I4I disposed substantially midway of its ends.
A reinforcing or spacing member I42 is provided
upon the inside of the bellows and comprises co
operating half sections in the form of stampings. 75
6
9,188,379
.
The outer ends of these stamping: are curved tablish communication with the inside of the bel
outwardly at I49 so as to adapt them to fit within lows. This connection should be air-tight and
the bead Ill. The metal extends inwardly in the therefore it may be welded or otherwise secured.
form of a ?ange in abutting relation and the inner The lower end of the pipe I6I is connected with
ends are then bent outwardly and inwardly at the cover member 66 of a construction similar to 5
I44 terminating in an axial opening through that shown in Figure 3 and this connection should
which the tube I28 extends. Wear-resisting ma
terial I45 is enclosed within the space provided
likewise be air-tight and may therefore be welded .
by the end portions I44 and has a portion en
tends within the tank or reservoir 95 and has a
10 gageable with the tube I29 to prevent wear but at
the same time‘ to permit unrestricted longitudinal
movement of the bellows with respect to the tube.
The ?anged portions of the member are provided
with openings I46 so as to’ establish communica
15 tion between the upper and lower portions of - the
bellows.
'
A girdle ring I 41 is likewise provided and con
‘ sists of cooperating half sections which when in
assembled position has upper and lower ?anges
I48 adapted to engage the outer wall of the con
stricted portion, the opposite ends being bent
around a radius at I49 and with the outer ends
in engagement circumferentially.
The function of the girdle ring is substantially
25 the same as the functionof‘ the girdle ring dis
closed in Figure 3, that is, to prevent any sharp
bending of the bellows and at, the same time
forming the rounded portion I49 on such an arc
as to provide for increasing resistance to the
'
30 compression of the bellows.
In this construction the valve mechanism is
. similar to the valve mechanism shown in Figures
3 and 4 and therefore needs no detailed explana
tion as to its operation ‘other than to say the valve
35 is disposed between the bellows I38 and the.
tank or reservoir, the valve member I04 being po
sitioned so that under normal conditions com
munication is established between the bellows
and the tank. In addition for this purpose an
40 opening I50 is provided in the upper ‘end plate
through which the air may flow from the tank to
the bellows. Upon compression of the bellows the
pressure therein is increased gradually in propor
tion to the compression to resist and retard its
movement, which in turn, of course, absorbs the
shock causing the compression. Upon expansion
or otherwise secured. The valve casing 65 ex
cap I59 removably connected thereto. ‘This cap 10
is provided with openings I54 for the purpose of
providing communication between the interior of
the tank and the interior of the valve casing.
The pendulum I 06 is swivelly supported by means
of the spherical end “9 in a manner already de- 15
scribed and the lower end of the pendulum Is
provided with a rubber cup-shaped member I66~ ‘
similar to the cup-shaped member I09 in Figure
4, but being slotted out around its periphery to
provide spaced fingers or extensions I56. These 20
extensions are adapted to engage the inner wall
of the valve casing during the swinging movement
of the pendulum to prevent noise and knocking
which would result in noticeable vibrations.
The '
disc valve I04 has a pair of spaced tongues I61 25
adapted to be positioned on opposite sides on one
of- the securing bolts as shown more clearly in
Figure 10 to prevent rotationof the valve and
the raised portion I04’ on the disc valve is pro
vided with ?at surfaces I56 and I59, the latter 30
being towards the front side of the vehicle and
the former to the outside of the vehicle as'viewed '
fromithe driver’s seat. This arrangement per
mits operation of thedisc valve I04 when the
pendulum swingsfin the" direction of these ?at- 35
tened surfaces which results from the decelera
tion caused from applying the brakes to the ve
hicle and/or rounding a curve toward the left.’
It will be understood that the laterally facing ?at
side I58 will be oppositely disposed in the valve 40
associated with the suspension unit on-the oppo
site front wheel of the vehicle, whereby side
'sway arising from turning the corner in the op
posite direction is counteracted by operation of
its associated valve. The arcuate surfaces ‘of 45
raised portion I04’ engage the extension H2 at
of the bellows the disc valve I04 moves into en- .
all times, thus preventing the valve from seating
gagement with the lower valve seat and confines
in event vibration causes the pendulum to wander
communication between the bellows and tank to
about the angular position ,represented by such
!
50
50 the openings I05. This acts as a resistance to the ' surfaces.
recoil stroke and this resistance may be governed
In Figure 11 a still different type of bellows .
or regulated by increasing the size or number of
by-pass openings I05.
In Figure 9 substantially the same construction
55 is disclosed as that of Figure 8 and therefore the
structural features will not need repetition as to
their assembly and operation. It might be fur
ther stated that in this construction the girdle
ring employed is the same as the girdle ring
60 employed in Figure 3, indicating that various
types of girdle rings may be employed for the
purpose intended provided that the important
features are embodied therein. Attention is
drawn to the fact that the bellows 49' in this
65 particular instance is of slightly different dimen
sions than the bellows disclosed in Figure 3 and
is what is termed the No. 4 bellows with respect
to the charts. It has been found under certain
conditions that it is undesirable to mount the
valve mechanism upon the bellows as shown in
Figure 8 and therefore the valve mechanism in
Figure -9 is shown mounted within the tank or
receptacle 95. A pipe I5l has its upper end con
nected to a ?xture I52 secured to the upper end
75 plate of the bellows in such a manner as to es
is illustrated and constituteswhat is termed the
#1 bellows with reference to'the charts. This
comprises an outer ?exible bellows I60 of rub
berized fabric produced by vulcanizing rubber and 55
cotton cords into an unusually strdng composite
unit of the desired thickness and of tub r form,
the_central portion being constricted-a I6I by ‘
means of a tubular ring I62 extending circuni
ferentially and axially disposed. The opposite e0
ends of the bellows I60 extend outwardly and
terminate in annular concentric beads I63. A
metal ring I64 is provided at the lower end with
a curved upper surface I65 adapted to engage the
adjacent portion of the bellows I60 and’ has an 65
inwardly extending annular projection I66 of com
plementary shape. to the bead I 63 and directly
engageable with the latter to secure the same in
the desired. position. A circular metal plate I61
extends across the open end of the bellows I60 70
and over the ring I64 and is secured'in place by a
casting 69 which is secured by bolts I61’ which
extend through aligned‘ openings in the casting
and plate and have screw-threaded engagement
with the ring I64. The casting 69' has an ex- 76
2,133,279
a
tension 12 provided with an opening which re-l
ceives the upper end of the upper right member
26 and is keyed against relative rotation. A nut
13 secures the upper end of the right member
against disengagement.
'
The upper end of the bellows I60 is similarly
secured to that heretofore described with respect
to the lower end thereof. A ring I68 engages the
upper bead I63 in the same manner and also has
10 a plate I69 which is positioned above and extends
across the adjacent end‘ of the bellows and is
coextensive with the diameter of the ring I68.
A top plate I10 similar to the top plate 14 in
Figure l is positioned above the plate I69 and is
secured by bolts "I which pass through aligned
openings in the top plate I10 and the plate I69
and have screw-threaded engagement with the
openings provided in the ring I68. By tightening
7 .
plate I89 is positioned upon the top of the casing
I8I and is removably secured in place by bolts I 90,
the plate extending across the opening‘ I86 so
as to prevent accidental removal of the screw
threaded extension I 88 and to provide an air-tight
chamber. A weighted member I9I having a
tapered upward end is provided with an axial _
screw-threaded opening adapted to receive the
screw-threaded extension I88, a bore being pro
vided within the lower end to receive a locking 10'
stud ‘I92. This weighted member I!“ has a cy
iindrical side wall and is provided with diverging
passageways I93 which join with an axial passage
way I94. The lower end of the weightedmem
ber has an arcuate surface I95 adapted to move
over a recessed surface I96 provided in the upper
side of the member I84. This member I84 also.
has an axial opening I91 which is in alignment '
up on these bolts the beads are securely clamped
with an axial opening I98 provided in the inner
tube. When the valve member is in normal posi 20
I12 is positioned at the upper end of the bellows tion the opening I94 is in alignment with the
and has a member I13 secured to its outer side. openings I91 and I98 and therefore permits pas
This member I13 is provided with a laterally ex
sage of the air therethrough establishing com
tending circumferential ?ange I14 which re
munication between the interior of the bellows
25 ceives a cap member I 15 connected thereto by. and the tank. When the weighted member is
25
means of bolts I16. The pendulum I06 is swivel
moved due to centrifugal force about the axis of
ly mounted by means of the spherical end H3 in the spherical end I 81 to an extent in which the
the under side of the cap I15 in a manner al
opening I94 has been moved out of communica
ready described and functions on precisely the. tion with the opening I91, communication between
30 same principle. The disc valve I04 is provided the bellows and reservoir is interrupted.
80
and its operation is controlled by the movement
In Figures 13 and 13“ a construction is illus
20 in position against displacement.
A valve casing _
of the pendulum I06 in the manner heretofore
described.
The member I13 is further provided with a
35
lower laterally extending circumferential ?ange
I11 which is spaced from the ?ange I14‘ to pro
vide a peripheral groove which receives one end
I18 of an inner tube I19, this inner tube extend
ing around the inner wall of the bellows I60. The
40 inner tube also has a portion I80 which extends
beneath the extension I11, these parts being pref-v
erably vulcanized to the flange so as to provide a
‘rigid, air-tight connection. In this particular
instance the inner tube I19 is removably disposed
45 within the bellows and is made as a separate part
therefrom in distinction to the unitary construc
tion disclosed in Figure 3.
In this instance it will be noted that the inside
diameter of the constricted portion of the bellows
50 is greater than its inside diameter at the” beads
and, while the construction has certain ad
vantageous features, does not of course produce
the result obtained with the use of bellows such
as is disclosed in Figure 3 as will be apparent
55 from a comparison of the relative curves on the
charts. The principle of operation, however, is
the same.
trated which embodies the inclusion of an addi- ‘
tional air reservoir or tank and this directly with
in the bellows of a constructiondisclosed in Fig
ure 3 and is adapted to operate in conjunction 35
with the valve mechanism also disclosed in Fig
ure 3. It has been found thatthe body vibra—
tions can be very easily counteracted and absorbed
by the construction disclosed in Figure 3 because -
the cycle is not so high or rapid. However, the
vibrations caused from impacts on the wheel from
the road are very high in relative frequency and
therefore cannotbe suitably‘ dampened without
providing an additional reservoir. It is therefore
proposed to provide an air reservoir I 99 which has
a lateral. ?ange‘ 206 adapted to be positioned be
tween the plate 68, and the bead and clamping
ring. Openings are provided through which the
bolts 63 are adapted to extend thereby utilizing
these same bolts for securing the auxiliary res
ervoir in place. The reservoir has a tubular ex
60
tension 20I axially arranged and of the desired
capacity for the purpose for which it is intended.
The upper end of this tubular extension is bent
inwardly at 202, angularly at m and then in
wardly at 204, terminating in an axial open
55
In Figure 12 a still further modi?ed form of . ing 205. A metal strap member 206 has depend
the valve mechanism is disclosed and is shown ing extensions 201 at its opposite ends which are
adapted to be secured to the inner wall of the
60 in conjunction with the type of suspension illus
trated in Figure 11. Therefore the relative parts tubular extension 20I , the upper end abutting the 60'
will not need further explanation. In this inward extension 202. This provides a space 208
instance, however, avalve casing I8I is provided between the top of the strap member 206 and the
which has a laterally extending circumferential under surface of the extension 204 within which
65 ?ange I82 provided adjacent its lower end, the
a disc valve 209 is disposed. The disc valve 209
under side of which is adapted to rest upon the is of‘ a diameter greater than the diameter of the 65
end of an extension I83 provided upon a member
opening 205 and the valve is adapted'under cer
I 84 which is adhesively secured to the inner tube.
The extension I83 is exteriorly screw-threaded
tain conditions to close the opening for a purpose
to be later described. The disc valve 209 is main
tained in proper position by means of an exten 70
70 and receives a locking nut I85 which has a por
tion engageable with the upper side of the ex ‘ sion 21 0 which is received in an axial opening pro
tension I82 so as to secure the housing in place. vided in the strap member 206. _An opening 2“
The housing is provided with an opening I86 in is provided in the inwardly extending portion 204
its upper end within which is disposed a spherical beyond thew periphery of the disc valve 209 to
75 end I81 of a screw-threaded extension I88. A permit restricted ?ow of air between the interior
a
2,188,279
of the bellows and the interior of the auxiliary
reservoir.
In operation, when the bellows is compressed,
the disc valve 209 is moved downwardly away
wheel and adapted to receive air under pressure,
a reservoir mounted exteriorly of said bellows
and adapted to receive air under pressure, a
conduit connecting the interior of said bellows
from the opening 205 and thus air is forced into with the interior of said reservoir, a valve mem
the auxiliary reservoir I99. It will be noted that , ber movably mounted between said bellows and
reservoir and adapted ‘to control the ?ow of air
the air which is forced into this reservoir is in
troduced when the air within the bellows is at through said conduit, and an oscillatory member
its highest pressure. When the compression is for controlling the movement of said valve mem
released and the bellows starts to expand the
valve 209 is moved into engagement with the up
per end of the reservoir, thus closing o? com
munication through the opening 205, hence
equalization of pressure between the bellows and
15 reservoir is delayed due to the restricted size of
openings 2| I. Inasmuch as this auxiliary reser
voir is in direct communication with the wheel,
vibrations imparted thereto are transmitted di
rectly to this reservoir. The acceleration from
20 these vibrations results in forces due to the
weight of the valve which tend to force the valve
to operate as above described even though pres
sures on opposite sides of the valve disc may
be different. This inertia e?ect may be varied
25 as desired by adding weight within the hollow
extension 2H1. Thus wheel movement is effec
tively dampened due to delaying of restoration of
normal pressure in the bellows on the extension
ber, said oscillatory member being normally po 10
sitioned for engagement with said valve member
upon the compression of said bellows to thereby
maintain unrestricted communication between
said bellows and reservoir whereby relative
movement of said chassis and wheel toward each 15
other is increasingly resisted by reason of the
building up of pressure, said valve member being
moved out of engagement with said oscillatory
member on the expansion of said bellows and
‘to a position in which communication between 20
said bellows and reservoir is effectively shut off
whereby the built-up pressure tends to resist the
rebound movement of said chassis and wheel.
2. A pneumatic suspension for vehicles and the
like comprising a ?exible bellows having- por 25
tions connected respectively with the chassis and
wheel and adapted to receive air under pressure,‘
a reservoir mounted exteriorly of said bellows
stroke following a forced compression.
and adapted to receive air under pressure, a con‘
In Figures 14 and 15, a still further modi?ca ' duit connecting the interior of said bellows with
tion of the invention is shown wherein .instead the interior of said reservoir, a valve member
of having the air reservoir or tank in‘ a remote
movably mounted between said bellows and res
location from the bellows, it is made as part of ervoir and adapted to control‘ the flow of air
the bellows supporting structure. In this in
through said conduit, and an oscillatory mem
35 stance a tank or reservoir 2 I 2 is mounted directly ber for controlling the movement of said valve
above the bellows housing 2I3 and is provided . member, said oscillatory member being normally
with a valved connection 2M by means of which. positioned for engagement with said valve mem
air may be introduced into the reservoir under the ber upon the compression of said bellows to
desired pressure. One of these tanks of course is thereby _maintain unrestricted communication
40 mounted in conjunction with each of the bellows. between‘ said bellows and reservoir whereby rela
A valve casing 2l5 is mounted in the end of the - tive movement of said chassis and wheel toward
bellows in a manner similar to that shown in each other is increasingly resisted by reason of
Figure 3 and has a pendulum mounted in a sim
the building up of pressure, said valve member
ilar manner to control the operation of a disc being moved out of engagement with said oscilla
tory member on the expansion of said bellows
45 valve so that when the pendulum is in perpen
dicular position communication is established and to a position in which communication,be—
30.
30
35
40
45
between the interior of the bellows and the in- ' “tween said bellows and reservoir is effectively
terior of the tank. When the pendulum is swung - shut off whereby the built-up pressure tends to
about its axis due to centrifugal force from
resist the rebound movement of said chassis and
50 causes as heretofore explained, the end of the
wheel, the pressure in said bellows being grade 50
through the by-pass opening I35. The operation
and reservoir and adapted to_ control the ilow
of air through said conduit, and an oscillatory‘
member for controlling the movement of said
valve member, said oscillatory member being
normally positioned for engagement with said 65
pendulum is moved away from the disc valve and ually reduced by by-passing the air within said
the latter is permitted to seat upon the upper bellowsjround said valve member.
valve seat during the compression of the bellows.
3. A pneumatic suspension for vehicles and
with the result that communication between the . the like comprising a ?exible bellows having
bellows and reservoir is interrupted. Upon ex
portions connected respectively with the chassis 55
55‘pansion of the bellows the disc valve is moved and wheel and-adapted to receive air under pres
into engagement with the lower valve seat, thus sure, a reservoir adapted to receive air under
- interrupting communication between the interior pressure, a conduit connectingthe interior ofsaid
of the bellows and the tank excepting for a small bellows with the interior of said reservoir, a valve
amount of air which is permitted to pass member movably mounted between said bellows 60
of this construction is precisely the same as that
already explained in connection with the other
suspensions, excepting for pressure drop. which
65 occurs in the piping l5l, Figure 9.
While I have described the preferred embodi
ments of the invention, it should be understood
that I am not to be limited thereto inasmuch as
changes and modi?cations may be resorted to
70 without departing from the spirit of the inven
tion as de?ned in the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
l. A pneumatic suspension for vehicles and the
valve member to maintain unrestricted commu
nication between said bellows and reservoir, said
oscillatory ,member being in?uenced by accelera
tion in a plane transverse to its normal ‘axis
whereby said oscillatory member is moved out of 70
operative‘ engagement with said valve member to
permit the latter to shut oif communication be
tween said bellows and reservoir to thereby in
like comprising a ?exible bellows having por-. creasingly resist body movement caused there
75 tions connected respectively with the chassis and
from.
'
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