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Oct. 18, 1938. R. w. BRO-WN‘ 2,133,279 PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE Filed Jan. 5,‘ 1936 12 Sheets-Sheet l .INVENTOR Rog W4" Brown ATTORNEY ‘Oct. 18, 1938. R. w. BROWN _ 2,133,279 PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE Filed Jan. 5, 1936 ' 12 Sheets-Sheet 2 £52 INVENTOR R09 W Brown WWW? ATTO RN EY Oct. 18, 1938. R. w. BROWN ' I 2,133,279 PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE , Filed Jan. 3, 1936 s64.‘ 12 Sheets-Sheet s 89 )3 34 Ila 52 ._ a 78 be 67 I?) \ ' jL L ., __ f\-/ “\r" “ “iv/26 _ .' INVENTOR R05 W Bvouow _ WK I ATTO RN EY Oct. 18, 1938. 2,133,279 R. W. BROWN PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE 12 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Jan. 3, 1936 ‘ v m 8 m __ i 8 1A s9 /w 7. i Mi. /;Vl /M/%ww ‘il wT‘‘ ‘_ W \. \\, _ WM __ \ w \ f1 .U/._ .O\ 87.WH\H/ sap \_ _._ __ p I /. a 7%. mmm m m"w / Wé,% ' R / I / 1M m ir? :EHWq.. INVENTOR I Rog W Brown ATTORNEY Oct. 18, 1938. R. w. BROWN 2,133,279 PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE Filed Jan. 3, 1936 12 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR Roy W. Brown ATTORNEY . Oct. 18, 1938. R. w. BROWN 2,133,279 PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE Filed Jan. 3, 1936 12 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR Roy W Brown 1 7 MM %ATTORNEY Oct. 18, 1938. ,R. w'. BROWN PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION 2,133,279 DEVICE V v Filed Jan.v 3, 1936 ‘ 12 Sheets—Sheet '7 x52 9 124 ‘25 I 1 RAM ii: m3 -'i x3e “57 INVENTOR Rog W. Brown WK %RNEY Oct. 18, 1938. R, w. BROWN 2,133,279 PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE Filed Jan. 5, 1936 > 12 Sheets-Sheet 8» 76 n4 _INVENTOR R09 W. Brown ATTO RNEY Oct. 18, 1938. 2,133,279 R. w. BROWN PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE Filed Jan. 3, 1956 12 Sheets-Sheet 9 K90 3,9 £312 195 198 194 197 \95 (84 INVENTOR ‘ R03 W.Browrz ATTORN EY ‘Oct. 18, 1938. R. w. BROWN 2,133,279 PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE Filed Jan. 3, 1936 ' 12 Sheets-Sheet 10 Rby W Broil/Sm“ Mex % 9% ATTORNEY Oct. 18,1938. R. w. vBRO‘WN ‘ ’ 2,133,279 PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE Filed Jan. 5, 1936 12 Sheets-Sheet 11 STATIC LOAD'4OO POUNIDS LENGTH OF BELLOW5 ‘7E! -l4-I LBS. LENGTH OF BELLQWS ——< IN INCHES LOAD ON BELLOWS IN POUNDS (STATIC) smmc LOAD ~4oo Pow»; LENGTH OF BELLQWS ‘72 I LENGTH OF BELLOWS —< IN INCHES RATE \N POUNDS PERJNLH ' .NVENTOR R03 W. Brown ' FY _ WK”? ATTO RN EY Oct. 18, 1938. R. w. BROWN ' 2,133,279 PNEUMATIC SUSPENSION DEVICE Filed Jan. 3, 1936 _ l2 Sheets-Sheet 12 J .16 0F : SYPCHC, LOAD — 40° POUN D5 LENGTH OF BELLOWS Jimcmzs BELLOW5 RATE m POUNDS PER. ‘50 ‘ men ~ RESERVOH'? CAPAC\TY \N CUBKL INCHES 0%.19 LENGTH OF BELLOWS \N \ \NCHES TIC LOAD — 4-00 POUND‘S LENGTH OF BELLOW5-T§\NCH RATE \N POUNDS PER- \NCH |NVENTQR _ BY Roy W Brown? W % %/ ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 18, 1938 2,133,279 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE U PNEUMATIC 82331228101‘ nnvron ‘ . Rioyiw. Brown, Akron, Ohio Application January 8, 1936, Serial No. 57,355 54 Claims. This invention relates to improvements in pneu matic suspension devices of a type particularly adapted for use on vehicles and has for its pri mary object to provide such a device which is (Cl. 267-15) ing means therefor, wherein the shapes of sup porting means and the bellows are such that as the bellows progressively contacts different areas of said supporting means during de?ection of the simple in construction, inexpensive to manufac bellows, the effective area “piston effect” of the OI ture and eii‘lcient in operation. latter will be changed to afford optimum riding A further object of the present invention is to qualities, the shape and size of the supporting provide a new form of bellows mounted upon the means being capable of change to meet the indi vehicle to take the place of the standard metal. vidual requirements of load, rate and change of 10 spring at present employed, and to so mount the rate of different automobiles or of different rid bellows without interference‘ with the emciency ing qualities on the same automobile, without of the steering mechanism. changing the bellows. _ A further object of the present invention is to A further object is to devise a pneumatic sus provide an expansible and compressible bellows of pension device comprising a low-rate bellows and ?exible material adapted to be connected with a supporting means therefor for stabilizing the bel reservoir for ?uid under pressure to establish a lows and supporting the central portion thereof normally balanced condition therebetween and against excessive angular and ‘lateral displace adapted to absorb shocks caused from irregulari ties in the road without appreciably transmitting. With the objects above indicated and other ob the same to the chassis. ‘ jects hereinafter explained in view, the invention Another object is to devise a construction consists in the construction and combination of wherein the bellows is so located betweenthe elements hereinafter illustrated, described and chassis and the wheel as most effectively to op claimed. pose torque reactions resulting from horizontal Referring to the drawings; ment. accelerations. . A further object is to devise an automobile con struction in which a ‘pneumatic suspension device ' is combined with a wheel positioning mechanism for improving the riding qualities of the auto mobile. Another obiect is to devise an automobile con struction in which a pneumatic suspension device > - Figure 1 is a front elevational view of a por tion of a motor vehicle showing a suspension de vice embodying the present invention; Figure 2 is a top plan view of the arrangement shown'in Figure 1; _ _ Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view taken on line 3-3 in Figure 2 and showing the preferred construction of the suspension device embodying is combined with independent wheel suspension mechanism for improving the riding qualities of the invention on an enlarged scale; counteract the tendency for shifting of the forces Figure i0 is a transverse sectional view taken on line l0--l0 in Figure 9 and showing the de ~ Figure 4 is a vertical sectional view taken‘ on I 35 the automobile. _ line 4-4 in Figure 3 and on an enlarged scale; 35 Still another object is to devise an automobile Figure 5 is a vertical sectional view similar to construction in which a pneumatic suspension de Figure 4 but showing a modi?cation of the valve vice is combined with a parallelogram type of structure; independent wheel suspension in such manner as Figure 6 is a transverse sectional view taken on line 6-6 in Figure 3 and showing the bellows and 40 to minimize the loading on the linkage. A still further object of the invention is to pro-' center ring arrangement; ' ' ‘ vide improved means actuated by horizontal ac- . Figure 7 is a transverse sectional view taken on celeration due to driving the vehicle around curves line 1-1 in Figure 4;‘ and from the application of brakes in checking Figure 8 is a vertical sectional view of a modi?ed 45 the motion of the vehicle, which momentarily in suspension but emboyding the present invention; as terrupts the communication between the bellows Figure 9 is a vertical sectional view of a still and the reservoir and results in a building up of further modification of the suspension embodying the pressure within the bellows suiliciently to the-present invention; 50 due to horizontal acceleration, and which tends to dampen the same so that the reaction is mate rially lessened, thereby resulting in improved rid ing quality. , Another object is to devise a pneumatic sus 55 pension device comprising a bellows and support tails of the valve mechanism; Figure 11 is a vertical sectional view of ‘a modi-. ?ed form of suspension embodying the present in vention; ‘ Figure 12 is a fragmentary vertical sectional 2 . . _ 2,183,979 ‘view of a still-further modification of the valve structure; opposite side from the bifurcated ends 38, which projects through an opening provided in a later - Figure 13 is a fragmentary vertical sectional al extension 4| on a link 42 and is secured there to by a nut 43. The inner end of the link 42 is iary tank or receptacle in the suspension; keyed or otherwise secured to one end of a shaft Figure 13‘ is a fragmentary top plan view of 44 which is journaled in a housing 45. A link the tank shown in Figure 13; ' 46 has one end keyed or otherwise secured to the , Figure 14 is a fragmentary top plan view of a’ other end of the shaft 44 and its opposite end se ‘view showing the use of an additional or auxil modified form of the suspension wherein the 10 reservoir is attached to the top thereof; Figure 15 is a front elevational view of that shown in Figure 14; , Figure 16 is a chart showing the static load on the bellows at di?erent lengths; Figure 17 is a chart showing the rate in pounds 15 per inch at different bellows lengths; Figure 18 is a chart showing the bellows rate for any selected reservoir capacity in cubic inches; 20 Figure 19 is a chart showing the characteris tics of the four types of bellows shown in the drawings; - Figure 20 is a fragmentary end view of the Figure 21 is a transverse sectional view there of. a bolt 41. The housing 45 is secured to the cross member 22 by a plurality of bolts 48, more clear ly shown in Figure 2. With this arrangement of parallelogram linkages, the wheel 23, while heldin proper position, does nevertheless have independent movement with respect to the chassis as well as with respect - to the other wheels which may be similarly mounted. So much of the disclosure is standard construction on some types of vehicles at the present time, except that heretofore such assemblies have re 20 quired the use of hydraulic shock absorbers, and therefore forms no part'of the present invention except as the same may be included in combina tion with the pneumatic suspension device here '- bellows; , 25 cured to the end vof the lateral extension 4| by ' In the drawings, I have shown for purposes of exempli?cation a pneumatic suspension device embodying _the present invention applied to a 30 motor vehicle replacing the standard type of steel leaf .or spiral coil spring, but it should be understood that the device is capable of adap tation for many other purposes, replacing elastic load-carrying or shock absorbing mechanisms, 35 and the invention is not therefore to be limited in this respect. Referring to Figures 1 and 2, a chassis 20 is shown of the usual type having longitudinally extending side channel members 2! spaced apart ' 40 and rigidly connected by a front cross member 22 in any well known manner. While only the left-hand front portion of the vehicle is shown, _ it should be understood that the right-hand por tion is substantially identical therewith so that 45 any further showing is believed unnecessary in order to clearly understand the invention. A wheel 23 is rotatably mounted upon a stub shaft, the inner end being'bifurcated at 24 and provided with aligned" openings 25. The said 50 stub shaft is connected to the chassis 20 in any desirable manner, but preferably by the conven tional parallelogram linkage comprising an up right member 26 having an integral tubular ex tension 21 movably positioned between the bi 55 furcated ends 24 and vsecureditherebetween by a pin or bolt 28 in the usual manner. A mem ber 29 has bifurcated ends 30 which are posi tioned on opposite sides of the lower end of the upright member 26 and pivotally connected thereto by a bolt 3|. The member 29 is further provided with a screw-threaded extension 32, on the opposite side from the bifurcated ends inafter described in detail. ' 25 In Figure 3 a detailed arrangement of the preferred form of pneumatic suspension is shown ' wherein a bellows 49, which will be designated as the #6 type, is provided which is substantial ly circular in plan as more clearly shown in Fig 30 ure 6. This bellows 49 is made of rubber and cotton cords, two plies being shown herein, al though not restricted thereto, vulcanized into an unusually strong, composite structure, which as shown has an integral inner covering of rubber 35 material,‘ similar to that used in making inner tubes, to prevent any leakage of air there through. _ 1 , The bellows 49 is of tubular form being con stricted at its central portion 50 for a consid erable distance, thus providing two expansible and contractible-portions 5i and 52, the former above the central portion and the latter below the central poriton._ A girdle ring 53 encircles the outer surface of the central portion 50 pre 45 venting any expansion thereof. This ring com prises cooperating half sections ‘preferably formed of steel stampings and having when as sembled a cylindrical inner wall 54 coextensive with the central portion 50 of the bellows. The 50 opposite ends 55 are rounded outwardly and por tions 56 extend inwardly .and then outwardly to form grooved mating ?anges 51 terminating in a peripheral bead 56 disposed substantially midway between the portions 5| and 52 of the bellows. 55 The rounded ends 55 are adapted to be engaged by the adjacent portion of the bellows and are shaped so as to prevent sharp bending of the latter during compression or expansion. The opposite ends of the bellows 49 have out 60 wardly extending, circular, ?anged portions 59 terminating in laterally extending peripheral 30, which projects through an opening provided I beads 60 vsimilar to the beads on tire casings. at the apex of a pair of angularly extending 65 links 33, being secured thereto by a nut 34. The inner ends of the links 33 are pivotally connect Bead rings 6|, preferably of rust-proof stamped steel, have ?at portions 62 provided with a plu 85 rality of openings adapted to receive attaching bolts 63 and a hook portion 64 extending in wardly and engageable with the beads 60. In~ verted U-shaped rings 65 are positioned upon the inside of the bead rings 6| and have their outer 70 ends in engagement with peripheral ?anges 66 at the outside of the flat portions and their inner upright member‘ 26 and pivotally connected ends resting upon ?anges 61 provided on the hook portions. The rounded portions of the U thereto by a bolt 39. The member 31 is also pro 75 vided with a screw-threaded extension 46 on the / shaped rings are adapted to contact with the 75 ed at 35 with adjacent portions of a sub-struc ture 36 in turn connected to the cross member 22, more clearly shown in Figure 2. A member 31, similar to the member 29, is also 70 provided with bifurcated ends 38 which are posi tioned on opposite sides at the upper end of the 2,133,279 adjacent'portions of the bellows and should be shaped so as to prevent any sharp ‘bending tak " ing place in the latter during compression and expansion. The ends of the bellows 49 are pro vided with a plurality of circular ribs 59' spaced apart axially, there being four shown in Figures 20 and 21, although any desired number may be provided. These ribs 59' engage the end plates 68 and ‘I4 and when the bellows 49 is secured 10 therebetween' they are compressed and function as a seal to prevent any air from escaping from the interior of the bellows. ' ' The lower end of the bellows 49 has a plate 68 extending thereacross to effectively close the same 15 and its outer portion is provided with openings to receive the bolts 63. An end casting 09 is pro vided and has openings in its outer portion to receive the bolts 63 which are provided with lock washers ‘I0 and nuts 1| to secure the same and at 20 the same time lock the beads 60 securely. The casting 69 has an offset portion ‘I2 provided with an opening to receive the screw-threaded upper end of the upright member 26 and a nut ‘I3 is. provided to prevent disengagement. 25 The upper end of the bellows 49 is connected by ' the bolts 03_ directly to the top portion" of a housing ‘I5. Lock washers ‘I6 and nuts 11 like wise secure the bead ring BI in place and the bead 00 against displacement. The housing ‘I5 30 has a depending arcuate portion ‘I8 extending part way around the bellows 49 and adjacent its mid portion the lower end is ?ared outwardly at ‘I9. Openings are provided in the ?ared‘ portion ’ ‘I9 in alignment with the openings in the housing 35 45 and receive bolts 80 by which it is rigidly secured. At the outer ends of the depending portion ‘I8 extensions 8| are provided which like wise have openings in alignment with openings in the chassis and receive bolts or rivets 82 to pro 40 vide a rigid structure. The relative position of a fender is shown in dot and dash lines in Figure 1. The top portion ‘I4 of the housing ‘I5 ‘has an opening therein which is substantially coaxial with the axis of the bellows 49 and a ?ange 83 45 surrounds the same on the outer side but is spaced slightly therefrom to provide a seat 84. A tubular valve casing 85 of suitable diameter ' has its upper end positioned in the opening in the top portion ‘I4 and its lower end projecting into A portion of the casing 85 ex tends beyond the top portion ‘I4 and is exteriorly screw-threaded. 'A cover member 86 has an in 50 the bellows 49. teriorly screw-threaded opening to receive the screw-threaded end of the valve casing 85 and a 55 lateral ?ange 8'I resting upon the ?ange 83, there being aligned openings in both to receive bolts 88. The cover member also has a depending ?ange 89 which securely engages a rubber washer or gasket 90 positioned upon the seat 84 to seal the same. The cover member 88 has a hooded portion 9I 60 provided with a tubular projection 92 within which one end of a tube 93 is secured. The op posite end of the tube 93 is secured to a connec tion 94 provided upon a ?uid reservoir or recep 65 tacle 95 which is secured by bolts 96 to the side of the frame member 20 or at any other desirable location. This reservoir is of any desired size Although various-‘types 'of- valve mechanism may be employed, the preferred construction is shown in Figures 3, 4 and 7. At the bottom of the valve casing 85 is a cap 98 removably se cured thereto by bolts 99. ‘The cap has a cen tral opening I00 and complementary recesses are provided in the adjacent portions of the cap and casing to provide a circular chamber IOI positioned concentrically and outwardly of the opening I00. This provides an. upper valve seat I02 on the casing and'a lowervalve seat I03 on the'cap which are spaced apart and in parallelism. ~A light-weight, hardened steel, disc valve I03 is freely positioned in the space be tween the valve seats I02 and I03 and is adapted 15 to be moved into engagement with either so as to interrupt the free communication between the bellows 49 and reservoir 95 in a manner to be later described. One or more small openings I05 are provided in the outer portion of the cap to by-pass a small quantity of air around the disc valve I04 when ‘engaging the lower valve seats I03. This‘ disc'valve I04 has a raised central‘ portion I04’ of de?nite size. ‘ 20 _ A valve control member I06 is mounted within the casing 85 and in this instance is of the pendulum type. It consists of a lead weig'ht body portion I01 of approximately frusto~conical shape with the smaller end disposed downward ly and in coaxial alignment with the valve seats 80 when in normal position as ‘shown in Figure 3, it being also spaced from the inner wall of the casing. The body I0‘I has an ‘axial opening ex tending therethrough within which one end of a rod I08 is disposed. A cup-shaped rubber 35 member I09 has a brass ferrule IIO secured axi ally thereof and is mounted upon the lower end thereof. the end of the rod extending through the ferrule and being exteriorly screw-threaded to receive a clamping nut II I. ‘The lower end . 40 of the rod I08 has an extension II2 which is ‘ adapted to engage the raised portion I04’ of the disc valve I04 to hold the valve out of engage ment with the upper 'valve seat IP02 when the valve member I06 is in normal-vertical position. The upper end of the rod I08 is formed with 45 a spherical knob II3 disposed within a tubular extension I I4 projecting inwardly from the cover 88. This tubular extension is interiorly screw threaded to receive an exteriorly screw-threaded 50 split plug II5 which has a conical opening II6 therethrough through which that portion of the rod I08 below the spherical knob II3 extends. The plug H5 is adjustable to retain the spheri cal knob H3 in position, but such adjustment should permit free and easy movement of the weighted body I0‘I about the knob as an axis. The ?aring edge of the rubber member I09 sur 55 rounds the lower end of the weighted body I01 and thereby functions as a noiseless bumper when 60 the body swings into engagement with the inner wall of the casing 85 as shown by dotted lines in Figure 4. A pin III has its ends secured in the wall of" the casing 85 and is positioned to " prevent the weighted body I01 from swinging ‘in its direction as more clearly shown in Figure 7. 65 In the operation of the pneumatic suspension device it will be assumed that a su?icient air pressure has been established in the reservoir 95 and that therefore the same air pressure is established in the bellows 49 inasmuch as the 1.0 and is provided with a valve 91 through which ?uid, such as air, may be introduced into‘ the reservoir and from which the ?uid is prevented from escaping. The reservoir 95 is in communi cation with the interior of the bellows 49 and pendulum valve I06 is normally in verticalposi- ' consequently the latter is in?ated in this manner tion with the result that the disc valve I04 is to the desired static pressure, depending upon the ' held out of engagement with the upper valve 75 load which it is required to support. seat I02, thereby establishing free communica 75 > 4 tion between the reservoir and bellows. Fur thermore, the air pressure established in the bellows should be su?lcient to support the static~ load of the vehicle body which, for purpose of example, is'approximately 400 pounds, although this load naturally differs on di?erent makes of cars, and with the normal overall height of the bellows under this load about equal to the difference between its maximum and minimum 10 positions of expansion and contraction. With this relationship the parts assume the shape and appear as shown in full lines in Figure 3, where in the experimental development the bellows 49 was slightly over 8" in diameter and 71/2" in 15 length under a pressure of 14.1 pounds per square inch. - ' Now, suppose that the wheel of the vehicle hits an obstruction in the road while travelling and compresses the bellows from the normal 20 length of ‘71/2 inches to a length of 5 inches. Assuming that the bellows is connected to a 300 cubic inch reservoir, reference to the curves in Figure 17 shows that at a length of 71/2 inches the suspension will have a rate of approximately 108 pounds per inch while at a length of ,5 inches the rate is approximately 160 pounds per inch under static conditions, that is, when the bellows is compressed and elongated very slowly so that there is no appreciable resistance to flow of the air between the bellows and reservoir. It is to be understood, however, that under dy namic conditions as when the bellows is com pressed quickly, as when the wheel passes over an irregularity in the road at high speed, the rate will be considerably greater due to the re sistance to the transfer of the air from the bel lows to the reservoir. The recoil movement will be greatly retarded because the valve I04 will seat on the lower valve seat I03 and the return of the air from the reservoir to the bellows will 40 be limited to the small by-pass ori?ces I05. This effectively retains a portion of the energy of the - impact force which caused compression, in the reservoir and releases it slowly to the system to establish a. condition of equilibrium again. 45 It will be understood that the damping char acteristic of such a system for different fre quencies of oscillation will be largely determined by the transfer of the compressible ?uid be tween the reservoir and bellows through the re 50 stricted conduit and valve openings and that this will change for different frequencies of vi bration or relative acceleration between the run ning gear and body or frame. By taking advantage of the characteristic of 55 increasing rate with de?ection, “bottoming" can be eliminated while still retaining extremely “soft” rides on all lesser deformations. when a wheel .~hits a road obstruction which would ordinarily cause complete compression of the bellows to the point of bottoming, the com pression of the bellows is increasingly resisted by engagement of the latter with the grooved ?anges 51 and bead 58 of the girdle ring 53 with the result that rate of resistance to the com pression of the bellows is built up rapidly enough to stop the complete compression and thus pre vent bottoming. It will be further noted that the movement of the bellows 49 during the compression stroke is not in a vertical direction along the normal axis. 15 This is because of the unequal length of the upper and lower parallelogram arms and the relative positions of points of rotation which results in the bottom casting 69 moving from the position shown in full lines in Figure 3 about an arc IIO 20 to the position shown in dot and dash lines. Due to this arcuate movement, the bellows 49, in the suspension, during its compression stroke has the lower right side of the portion 5| en gageable with the upper adjacent portion of the 25 ?ange on the girdle ring 53 while the upper left hand side of the portion 52 is engageable with the lower adjacent portion of the flange on the girdle ring 53, or in other words the engage ment is on diagonally opposite sides of the ?ange 30 on the girdle ring 53,- as viewed in Figure 3. This engagement, however, builds up pressure suffi cient to retard and resist the relative movement between chassis “bottoming.” and wheels to prevent The smooth dampening characteristic of mov ing air through a closed system effectively aug ments the natural functional dampening of the chassis, thus further reducing the need for shock absorbing devices; Of course when the bellows 49 is compressed 35 40 under ordinary operating conditions, the pendu: lum valve I06 is substantially perpendicular as shown in Figures 3 and 4 with the result that the disc valve I04 is prevented from engagement with the upper valve seat I02 and communication be tween the bellows and reservoir is maintained, the movement being increasingly resisted and the shock absorbed. Upon the rebound stroke, the disc valve I04 is moved into engagement with the lower valve seat I03 which shuts off communica 50 tion and the movement is. likewise retarded, but in this instance ports I05 permit the passage of some of the air from the tank to the bellows so as to control the rate of retardation. If the initial compression of the bellows, under the con 55 ditions set forth, is so great and sharp as to cause In the extreme rebound, the bellows will elongate to suspension shown in, Figure 3, this is obtained such an extent that its volumetric capacity is by providing a diameter of the constricted por 60 tion 50 of the bellows slightly less than the diam 65 cessive compression such as is shown in dot and dash lines in the upper portion of Figure 3. Thus progressively reduced, thus exerting pressure upon the air therein sufficient to lift the valve eter of the beads 60 and then providing rounded portion 65 on the bead rings and rounded por tions 55 on the girdle ring 53 which progressively engage adjacent portions of the bellows during disc I04 and thereby again to place the bollows directly in communication with the reservoir 95, de?ection of the latter so that the rate increases on compression or extension from some mid The overturning movement occurring in round ing curves has been heretofore determined. The “soft” independent front suspension placed on passenger cars recently aggravated the condition to such an extent as to result in de?nite unfavor 70 able reactionsto the driving public. The inser tion of a valve between the bellows 49 and tank 95, arranged to close when a pendulum above the length the exact value of which is determined as indicated in Figure 1'7 by the size reservoir used. To increase this rate to an even greater degree to prevent “bottoming”, the girdle ring 53 has the lateral circumferential ?ange pro vided with grooved ?anges 51 and the periph eral bead 58 positioned so as to be engaged by 75 the adjacent portions of the bellows upon ex with the result that the rate is not increased so rapidly as to cause discomfort. valve swings outwardly by centrifugal force from rounding curves, makes available for resisting 65 , 2,133,279 ' ' the overturning movement the much higher rate of the bellows alone. For example, referring to 5 provision of ?at spring members II8, of which there are four in number, positioned approxi Figure 3, when the vehicle rounds a curve, the , mately 90° apart around the pendulum, the lower pendulum I06 swings to one side as indicated in ends being connected by screws I20. The upper dotted lines, thus moving the extension II2 out ends of the‘ springs are free and extend outwardly of engagement with the raised portion I04’ on into engagement with the inner wall of the valve the disc valve I 04, permitting the latter to engage casing, being under suf?cient tension to minimize the upper valve seat I02 to shut off communica the tendency of the pendulum to deviate from tion between the bellows 49 and tank“. The the perpendicular due to vibration from road ir 10 angular rotation of the chassis is therefore re regularities. The springs should, however, be 10 tarded by the higher compression rate of the bel resilient enough to permit the pendulum‘ to swing lows without reservoir in the manner heretofore about its axis under the action of centrifugal and explained. This same valve is employed to counteract the 15 nosing down of the body front resulting from braking the vehicle and which is much more no ticeable with the present type of independent front wheel suspension of low rate. The opera tion of the valve is much more clearly shown in 20 Figure 4. Assuming that the right hand side of Figure 4 is toward the front of the vehicle, as the vehicle is braked the pendulum I06 moves to the right as shown by dotted lines, thus moving the extension II2 out of engagement with the raised portion I04’ on the discvalve I04 which 30 35 40 45 50 other forces resulting from driving the vehicle around curves and also to oscillate under the impetus of inertia/when the brakes are applied 15' to stop the vehicle. The operation of this valve is identical with the operation of the valve shown in Figure 4 heretofore explained. As stated, this construction has the advantage of normally main taining the pendulum against free movement. 20 In Figure 8 a modi?ed construction of the sus pension is shown, many of the parts, however, being the same as the parts heretofore explained in connection with the construction shown in Figure 3. In this construction a portion of the 25 causes the disc valve I04 to be moved into engage chassis I2I has a spherical cap I22 connected ment with the upper valve seat I02, thus shutting thereto by means of bolts I23. These parts are off.communication between the bellows- 49 and provided with a spherical chamber I24 to which tank 95. In this manner the nosing down move a rubber gasket I25 is secured. A stem I26 has a ment of the body is retarded and checked by the spherical end I 21 which is disposed within the 30 high compression rate of the bellows without spherical chamber I24, the rubber gasket being reservoir within which an increasing pressure is disposed therebetween. The, stem I26 projects built up. As an example, the momentary rate of outwardly through an opening-in the bottom of the suspension without reservoir is 160 pounds the cap and chassis. and its lower end extends per inch at bellows length of 71/2 inches (Figure within the upper end of a tube I28, being secured 17), instead of 92 pounds per inch with 600 cubic thereto by a pin I23. An upper end plate I30 has inch reservoir, this greatly minimizing the de a peripheral ?ange HI and an axial opening sur pression of the car front. The pin III is pro rounded by a ?ange I32 of sufficient diameter to vided to restrict the pendulum from swinging in receive'the upper end of the tube I28. The tube undesired directions. The rubber member I 09 and ?ange are welded or otherwise secured to 40 is provided to render the swinging movement gether to provide an air-tight connection. A . quiet inasmuch as the weight I01 normally has second tube I33 is telescopically mounted upon su?icient movement to hit the inside wall of the the lower end of the tube I28 and has collars I34 casing 85. Also the raised portion I04’ on the surrounding the tube I28 and secured to the disc valve I04 can be made to different diameters inner wall of the tube I 33 for movement there 45 depending upon the horizontal acceleration at with, these sleeves being spaced apart axially so~ . which it is desired to have the disc valve operate, as to provide a suitable‘ bearing for the relatively the smaller the diameter the lower the accelera movable tubes. A disc I35 is secured within the tion and the larger the diameter the higher the tube I33 at its lower end in such a manner as to acceleration at which operation occurs, so that seal the tube against the passage of air, this disc 50 its operation can be very de?nitely predeter being positioned below the end of the tube I28. mined. The valve may be rotated 90° when The tube I33 has its lower end connected to a placed at the rear of the car, thus minimizing wheel support, not shown. the depressing of the rear portions of the car , 55 resulting from power acceleration. Since the speci?c heat of air varies inappre ciably over the range of pressures used, compres ,sion and expansion approach adiabatic. The shape of the pressure volume curves deviates ap ,60 preciably from the approximately sinusoidal dis placement-time chassis vibration curve which tends to minimize propagation of synchronous vibrations. . Some heat ?ow to and from the enclosing structures-occurs and some slight temperature in crease results from friction effects. The extent of both is in?uenced by the time and rate of the compression and expansion. This transfer and loss of heat results in a somewhat graduated . dampening action, increasing withrate of appli cation of compression or expansion. The mag nitude of these effects increases appreciably with closure of the pendulum shock absorber valve. In Figure 5 a modi?ed form of valve structure is shown in which the main difference resides in the A lower end plate I36 has a peripheral ?ange I31 and an axial opening provided with a ?ange 55 I38, the opening being of sufficient diameter to receive the upper end of the tube I33 and being weldedor otherwise connected thereto so as to provide an air-tight connection. A bellows I30 of a construction similar to that shown in Figure 60 3, but identified as type #2, is provided and po sitioned between the upper and lower end plates I30and I36, respectively. This bellows has beads 60 at’ its opposite ends and clamping rings se cured to the end plates and adapted to engage the 65 beads in the manner heretofore described in con nection with Figure 3. The bellows is likewise provided with a constricted central portion I40 having a diameter which is less than the diameter of the beads. In this instance the constricted 70 portion is provided with a circumferential bead I4I disposed substantially midway of its ends. A reinforcing or spacing member I42 is provided upon the inside of the bellows and comprises co operating half sections in the form of stampings. 75 6 9,188,379 . The outer ends of these stamping: are curved tablish communication with the inside of the bel outwardly at I49 so as to adapt them to fit within lows. This connection should be air-tight and the bead Ill. The metal extends inwardly in the therefore it may be welded or otherwise secured. form of a ?ange in abutting relation and the inner The lower end of the pipe I6I is connected with ends are then bent outwardly and inwardly at the cover member 66 of a construction similar to 5 I44 terminating in an axial opening through that shown in Figure 3 and this connection should which the tube I28 extends. Wear-resisting ma terial I45 is enclosed within the space provided likewise be air-tight and may therefore be welded . by the end portions I44 and has a portion en tends within the tank or reservoir 95 and has a 10 gageable with the tube I29 to prevent wear but at the same time‘ to permit unrestricted longitudinal movement of the bellows with respect to the tube. The ?anged portions of the member are provided with openings I46 so as to’ establish communica 15 tion between the upper and lower portions of - the bellows. ' A girdle ring I 41 is likewise provided and con ‘ sists of cooperating half sections which when in assembled position has upper and lower ?anges I48 adapted to engage the outer wall of the con stricted portion, the opposite ends being bent around a radius at I49 and with the outer ends in engagement circumferentially. The function of the girdle ring is substantially 25 the same as the functionof‘ the girdle ring dis closed in Figure 3, that is, to prevent any sharp bending of the bellows and at, the same time forming the rounded portion I49 on such an arc as to provide for increasing resistance to the ' 30 compression of the bellows. In this construction the valve mechanism is . similar to the valve mechanism shown in Figures 3 and 4 and therefore needs no detailed explana tion as to its operation ‘other than to say the valve 35 is disposed between the bellows I38 and the. tank or reservoir, the valve member I04 being po sitioned so that under normal conditions com munication is established between the bellows and the tank. In addition for this purpose an 40 opening I50 is provided in the upper ‘end plate through which the air may flow from the tank to the bellows. Upon compression of the bellows the pressure therein is increased gradually in propor tion to the compression to resist and retard its movement, which in turn, of course, absorbs the shock causing the compression. Upon expansion or otherwise secured. The valve casing 65 ex cap I59 removably connected thereto. ‘This cap 10 is provided with openings I54 for the purpose of providing communication between the interior of the tank and the interior of the valve casing. The pendulum I 06 is swivelly supported by means of the spherical end “9 in a manner already de- 15 scribed and the lower end of the pendulum Is provided with a rubber cup-shaped member I66~ ‘ similar to the cup-shaped member I09 in Figure 4, but being slotted out around its periphery to provide spaced fingers or extensions I56. These 20 extensions are adapted to engage the inner wall of the valve casing during the swinging movement of the pendulum to prevent noise and knocking which would result in noticeable vibrations. The ' disc valve I04 has a pair of spaced tongues I61 25 adapted to be positioned on opposite sides on one of- the securing bolts as shown more clearly in Figure 10 to prevent rotationof the valve and the raised portion I04’ on the disc valve is pro vided with ?at surfaces I56 and I59, the latter 30 being towards the front side of the vehicle and the former to the outside of the vehicle as'viewed ' fromithe driver’s seat. This arrangement per mits operation of thedisc valve I04 when the pendulum swingsfin the" direction of these ?at- 35 tened surfaces which results from the decelera tion caused from applying the brakes to the ve hicle and/or rounding a curve toward the left.’ It will be understood that the laterally facing ?at side I58 will be oppositely disposed in the valve 40 associated with the suspension unit on-the oppo site front wheel of the vehicle, whereby side 'sway arising from turning the corner in the op posite direction is counteracted by operation of its associated valve. The arcuate surfaces ‘of 45 raised portion I04’ engage the extension H2 at of the bellows the disc valve I04 moves into en- . all times, thus preventing the valve from seating gagement with the lower valve seat and confines in event vibration causes the pendulum to wander communication between the bellows and tank to about the angular position ,represented by such ! 50 50 the openings I05. This acts as a resistance to the ' surfaces. recoil stroke and this resistance may be governed In Figure 11 a still different type of bellows . or regulated by increasing the size or number of by-pass openings I05. In Figure 9 substantially the same construction 55 is disclosed as that of Figure 8 and therefore the structural features will not need repetition as to their assembly and operation. It might be fur ther stated that in this construction the girdle ring employed is the same as the girdle ring 60 employed in Figure 3, indicating that various types of girdle rings may be employed for the purpose intended provided that the important features are embodied therein. Attention is drawn to the fact that the bellows 49' in this 65 particular instance is of slightly different dimen sions than the bellows disclosed in Figure 3 and is what is termed the No. 4 bellows with respect to the charts. It has been found under certain conditions that it is undesirable to mount the valve mechanism upon the bellows as shown in Figure 8 and therefore the valve mechanism in Figure -9 is shown mounted within the tank or receptacle 95. A pipe I5l has its upper end con nected to a ?xture I52 secured to the upper end 75 plate of the bellows in such a manner as to es is illustrated and constituteswhat is termed the #1 bellows with reference to'the charts. This comprises an outer ?exible bellows I60 of rub berized fabric produced by vulcanizing rubber and 55 cotton cords into an unusually strdng composite unit of the desired thickness and of tub r form, the_central portion being constricted-a I6I by ‘ means of a tubular ring I62 extending circuni ferentially and axially disposed. The opposite e0 ends of the bellows I60 extend outwardly and terminate in annular concentric beads I63. A metal ring I64 is provided at the lower end with a curved upper surface I65 adapted to engage the adjacent portion of the bellows I60 and’ has an 65 inwardly extending annular projection I66 of com plementary shape. to the bead I 63 and directly engageable with the latter to secure the same in the desired. position. A circular metal plate I61 extends across the open end of the bellows I60 70 and over the ring I64 and is secured'in place by a casting 69 which is secured by bolts I61’ which extend through aligned‘ openings in the casting and plate and have screw-threaded engagement with the ring I64. The casting 69' has an ex- 76 2,133,279 a tension 12 provided with an opening which re-l ceives the upper end of the upper right member 26 and is keyed against relative rotation. A nut 13 secures the upper end of the right member against disengagement. ' The upper end of the bellows I60 is similarly secured to that heretofore described with respect to the lower end thereof. A ring I68 engages the upper bead I63 in the same manner and also has 10 a plate I69 which is positioned above and extends across the adjacent end‘ of the bellows and is coextensive with the diameter of the ring I68. A top plate I10 similar to the top plate 14 in Figure l is positioned above the plate I69 and is secured by bolts "I which pass through aligned openings in the top plate I10 and the plate I69 and have screw-threaded engagement with the openings provided in the ring I68. By tightening 7 . plate I89 is positioned upon the top of the casing I8I and is removably secured in place by bolts I 90, the plate extending across the opening‘ I86 so as to prevent accidental removal of the screw threaded extension I 88 and to provide an air-tight chamber. A weighted member I9I having a tapered upward end is provided with an axial _ screw-threaded opening adapted to receive the screw-threaded extension I88, a bore being pro vided within the lower end to receive a locking 10' stud ‘I92. This weighted member I!“ has a cy iindrical side wall and is provided with diverging passageways I93 which join with an axial passage way I94. The lower end of the weightedmem ber has an arcuate surface I95 adapted to move over a recessed surface I96 provided in the upper side of the member I84. This member I84 also. has an axial opening I91 which is in alignment ' up on these bolts the beads are securely clamped with an axial opening I98 provided in the inner tube. When the valve member is in normal posi 20 I12 is positioned at the upper end of the bellows tion the opening I94 is in alignment with the and has a member I13 secured to its outer side. openings I91 and I98 and therefore permits pas This member I13 is provided with a laterally ex sage of the air therethrough establishing com tending circumferential ?ange I14 which re munication between the interior of the bellows 25 ceives a cap member I 15 connected thereto by. and the tank. When the weighted member is 25 means of bolts I16. The pendulum I06 is swivel moved due to centrifugal force about the axis of ly mounted by means of the spherical end H3 in the spherical end I 81 to an extent in which the the under side of the cap I15 in a manner al opening I94 has been moved out of communica ready described and functions on precisely the. tion with the opening I91, communication between 30 same principle. The disc valve I04 is provided the bellows and reservoir is interrupted. 80 and its operation is controlled by the movement In Figures 13 and 13“ a construction is illus 20 in position against displacement. A valve casing _ of the pendulum I06 in the manner heretofore described. The member I13 is further provided with a 35 lower laterally extending circumferential ?ange I11 which is spaced from the ?ange I14‘ to pro vide a peripheral groove which receives one end I18 of an inner tube I19, this inner tube extend ing around the inner wall of the bellows I60. The 40 inner tube also has a portion I80 which extends beneath the extension I11, these parts being pref-v erably vulcanized to the flange so as to provide a ‘rigid, air-tight connection. In this particular instance the inner tube I19 is removably disposed 45 within the bellows and is made as a separate part therefrom in distinction to the unitary construc tion disclosed in Figure 3. In this instance it will be noted that the inside diameter of the constricted portion of the bellows 50 is greater than its inside diameter at the” beads and, while the construction has certain ad vantageous features, does not of course produce the result obtained with the use of bellows such as is disclosed in Figure 3 as will be apparent 55 from a comparison of the relative curves on the charts. The principle of operation, however, is the same. trated which embodies the inclusion of an addi- ‘ tional air reservoir or tank and this directly with in the bellows of a constructiondisclosed in Fig ure 3 and is adapted to operate in conjunction 35 with the valve mechanism also disclosed in Fig ure 3. It has been found thatthe body vibra— tions can be very easily counteracted and absorbed by the construction disclosed in Figure 3 because - the cycle is not so high or rapid. However, the vibrations caused from impacts on the wheel from the road are very high in relative frequency and therefore cannotbe suitably‘ dampened without providing an additional reservoir. It is therefore proposed to provide an air reservoir I 99 which has a lateral. ?ange‘ 206 adapted to be positioned be tween the plate 68, and the bead and clamping ring. Openings are provided through which the bolts 63 are adapted to extend thereby utilizing these same bolts for securing the auxiliary res ervoir in place. The reservoir has a tubular ex 60 tension 20I axially arranged and of the desired capacity for the purpose for which it is intended. The upper end of this tubular extension is bent inwardly at 202, angularly at m and then in wardly at 204, terminating in an axial open 55 In Figure 12 a still further modi?ed form of . ing 205. A metal strap member 206 has depend the valve mechanism is disclosed and is shown ing extensions 201 at its opposite ends which are adapted to be secured to the inner wall of the 60 in conjunction with the type of suspension illus trated in Figure 11. Therefore the relative parts tubular extension 20I , the upper end abutting the 60' will not need further explanation. In this inward extension 202. This provides a space 208 instance, however, avalve casing I8I is provided between the top of the strap member 206 and the which has a laterally extending circumferential under surface of the extension 204 within which 65 ?ange I82 provided adjacent its lower end, the a disc valve 209 is disposed. The disc valve 209 under side of which is adapted to rest upon the is of‘ a diameter greater than the diameter of the 65 end of an extension I83 provided upon a member opening 205 and the valve is adapted'under cer I 84 which is adhesively secured to the inner tube. The extension I83 is exteriorly screw-threaded tain conditions to close the opening for a purpose to be later described. The disc valve 209 is main tained in proper position by means of an exten 70 70 and receives a locking nut I85 which has a por tion engageable with the upper side of the ex ‘ sion 21 0 which is received in an axial opening pro tension I82 so as to secure the housing in place. vided in the strap member 206. _An opening 2“ The housing is provided with an opening I86 in is provided in the inwardly extending portion 204 its upper end within which is disposed a spherical beyond thew periphery of the disc valve 209 to 75 end I81 of a screw-threaded extension I88. A permit restricted ?ow of air between the interior a 2,188,279 of the bellows and the interior of the auxiliary reservoir. In operation, when the bellows is compressed, the disc valve 209 is moved downwardly away wheel and adapted to receive air under pressure, a reservoir mounted exteriorly of said bellows and adapted to receive air under pressure, a conduit connecting the interior of said bellows from the opening 205 and thus air is forced into with the interior of said reservoir, a valve mem the auxiliary reservoir I99. It will be noted that , ber movably mounted between said bellows and reservoir and adapted ‘to control the ?ow of air the air which is forced into this reservoir is in troduced when the air within the bellows is at through said conduit, and an oscillatory member its highest pressure. When the compression is for controlling the movement of said valve mem released and the bellows starts to expand the valve 209 is moved into engagement with the up per end of the reservoir, thus closing o? com munication through the opening 205, hence equalization of pressure between the bellows and 15 reservoir is delayed due to the restricted size of openings 2| I. Inasmuch as this auxiliary reser voir is in direct communication with the wheel, vibrations imparted thereto are transmitted di rectly to this reservoir. The acceleration from 20 these vibrations results in forces due to the weight of the valve which tend to force the valve to operate as above described even though pres sures on opposite sides of the valve disc may be different. This inertia e?ect may be varied 25 as desired by adding weight within the hollow extension 2H1. Thus wheel movement is effec tively dampened due to delaying of restoration of normal pressure in the bellows on the extension ber, said oscillatory member being normally po 10 sitioned for engagement with said valve member upon the compression of said bellows to thereby maintain unrestricted communication between said bellows and reservoir whereby relative movement of said chassis and wheel toward each 15 other is increasingly resisted by reason of the building up of pressure, said valve member being moved out of engagement with said oscillatory member on the expansion of said bellows and ‘to a position in which communication between 20 said bellows and reservoir is effectively shut off whereby the built-up pressure tends to resist the rebound movement of said chassis and wheel. 2. A pneumatic suspension for vehicles and the like comprising a ?exible bellows having- por 25 tions connected respectively with the chassis and wheel and adapted to receive air under pressure,‘ a reservoir mounted exteriorly of said bellows stroke following a forced compression. and adapted to receive air under pressure, a con‘ In Figures 14 and 15, a still further modi?ca ' duit connecting the interior of said bellows with tion of the invention is shown wherein .instead the interior of said reservoir, a valve member of having the air reservoir or tank in‘ a remote movably mounted between said bellows and res location from the bellows, it is made as part of ervoir and adapted to control‘ the flow of air the bellows supporting structure. In this in through said conduit, and an oscillatory mem 35 stance a tank or reservoir 2 I 2 is mounted directly ber for controlling the movement of said valve above the bellows housing 2I3 and is provided . member, said oscillatory member being normally with a valved connection 2M by means of which. positioned for engagement with said valve mem air may be introduced into the reservoir under the ber upon the compression of said bellows to desired pressure. One of these tanks of course is thereby _maintain unrestricted communication 40 mounted in conjunction with each of the bellows. between‘ said bellows and reservoir whereby rela A valve casing 2l5 is mounted in the end of the - tive movement of said chassis and wheel toward bellows in a manner similar to that shown in each other is increasingly resisted by reason of Figure 3 and has a pendulum mounted in a sim the building up of pressure, said valve member ilar manner to control the operation of a disc being moved out of engagement with said oscilla tory member on the expansion of said bellows 45 valve so that when the pendulum is in perpen dicular position communication is established and to a position in which communication,be— 30. 30 35 40 45 between the interior of the bellows and the in- ' “tween said bellows and reservoir is effectively terior of the tank. When the pendulum is swung - shut off whereby the built-up pressure tends to about its axis due to centrifugal force from resist the rebound movement of said chassis and 50 causes as heretofore explained, the end of the wheel, the pressure in said bellows being grade 50 through the by-pass opening I35. The operation and reservoir and adapted to_ control the ilow of air through said conduit, and an oscillatory‘ member for controlling the movement of said valve member, said oscillatory member being normally positioned for engagement with said 65 pendulum is moved away from the disc valve and ually reduced by by-passing the air within said the latter is permitted to seat upon the upper bellowsjround said valve member. valve seat during the compression of the bellows. 3. A pneumatic suspension for vehicles and with the result that communication between the . the like comprising a ?exible bellows having bellows and reservoir is interrupted. Upon ex portions connected respectively with the chassis 55 55‘pansion of the bellows the disc valve is moved and wheel and-adapted to receive air under pres into engagement with the lower valve seat, thus sure, a reservoir adapted to receive air under - interrupting communication between the interior pressure, a conduit connectingthe interior ofsaid of the bellows and the tank excepting for a small bellows with the interior of said reservoir, a valve amount of air which is permitted to pass member movably mounted between said bellows 60 of this construction is precisely the same as that already explained in connection with the other suspensions, excepting for pressure drop. which 65 occurs in the piping l5l, Figure 9. While I have described the preferred embodi ments of the invention, it should be understood that I am not to be limited thereto inasmuch as changes and modi?cations may be resorted to 70 without departing from the spirit of the inven tion as de?ned in the appended claims. What is claimed is: l. A pneumatic suspension for vehicles and the valve member to maintain unrestricted commu nication between said bellows and reservoir, said oscillatory ,member being in?uenced by accelera tion in a plane transverse to its normal ‘axis whereby said oscillatory member is moved out of 70 operative‘ engagement with said valve member to permit the latter to shut oif communication be tween said bellows and reservoir to thereby in like comprising a ?exible bellows having por-. creasingly resist body movement caused there 75 tions connected respectively with the chassis and from. '