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Патент USA US2133283

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_Y oct'.- 1s, 1938.
A, DANDlN,
2,133,283l
AIRCRAFT
Filed Dec. 18, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 1
4
Bid“
#do
oct. 1s, 1938. "
A. DANDlNr
'
AIRCRAFT
2,133,283
ì
Filed Dec.v 18, 195s
'
,
A
r
2 sheetsèsnéet'à
46
4.5
IN VEN TOR.
41.45.154 „mvo _Pana/«vz
Í
ATTORNEYS'.
Patented oci. 1s, 193s
. 1 2,133,2834
UNITED s'mriesu-1.>A'1‘r.1~r-|~V OFFICE
. application
116,544
In carrying my `invention 'into practice, I pro- ’ ’
The present invention relates to improvements
videgí'n aircraft indicated generally at I, and in- 1
in aircraft and has particular reference to a iiy
ing machine of the helicopter type, the machine A cluding in its structural features a fuselage 2,
being sustained during flight by. a spiral wing preferably sphericai-shapemv having a spiral l' "
i turning on a vertical axis,v For this reason the wing 3 mounted thereabov'e, and an` elevator 4
and a rudder 5 for directing the course- of thel
craft is canes the “spiral-irait”. - -
It is particularly proposed to provide a fuselage,
preferably spherical-shaped in outline, which
has a spiral‘wing mounted on the top thereof, and
which makes use of novel means for controlling
the direction of flight of the ñying machine and
- the relativeelevation thereof.
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1
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In my invention I propose to utilize a yoke
shaped member that is swingably mounted on the
15 poles of the sphere, and which carries the elevator
craft during ilight.~
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The fuselage is divided interiorly by means o'f Y
a. partition 8, intogan operating chamber 1, and ,
a power-plant compartment. 8 arranged there- m
beneath, the partition being made to serve as a
floor forthe operating-chamber.- Rivets Sor
other suitable means may be provided for fas
tening the partition'to the‘wall I0' of. the oper- '
,ating chamber..
'C
„
'_
. .
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154
within the sphere, and is swlngable over the outer
It will be noted from Figure .-2 that I provide'
a girder II in the upper'section o'f the chamber l.
which is X-shaped in plan, andthe arms I2 of
surface of the latter for controlling the ascension
and descension of the fuselage and also the hori
inner surface-of vthe wall of the chamber. AI cen- ' 20'
_ and rudder means exteriorly of the sphere.
yoke-shaped member is operable from a position
zontal direction thereof.
~
As a further object of the' invention, I propose
to provide a novel retractable landing' gear', that
is normally concealed within the fuselage, and
25 which may be extended into a position to 'sup
port the entire machine above the surface of the
the girder are welded :or otherwise secured to. the
tral bearing I3'is provided in the girder for ro
tatably supporting a driven shaft I4-, the latter
having the spiralwing' 3 secured 'tothe upper
end thereof.
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'I'he shaft I4 is provided at its lower end with. lo5
a. socket I5- adapted to _be non-'rotatably con
nected to a drive shaft I6 vrising from the power
Moreover, I propose to make use of a spiral plant indicated .generally at I'I,l the- latter being „
wing that is provided with a chamber having located beneath the partition 6. Gearing I8 4may
ground.
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'
30 lighter-than-airgas therein 'adapted to aid in
sustaining the flying machine in the air. The
spiral wing is relatively large in comparison with
be utilized for connecting ‘they drive shaft I 6 to
the driven shaft I9 of the .poWer-plant,rand the
transmission 20 (see Figure A1) ' of the power
the fuselage, andthe gas filled chamber pref- _ plant may be controlled by a shifting mechanism
erably extends from one end of the spiral wing ' 2I having- Aan operating lever 22 arranged in the
35 to the other.
"
operating
chamber.
_
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The pilot, vwhen in the seat 23, actuatesthe
Other objects and advantages of my inven
tion will appear as the specification proceeds, lever 22 so as to cause the spiral vwing torotate
and the novel features of my invention will be Aat the desired speed. A clutch, not shown, under ,
pointed out in the claims hereto attached.
For a better understanding of my -invention,
v40
reference should be had to the accompanying
drawings- forming part of this application, in
which
__
` Figure 1 is a side elevational view of the spiral
45 craft constructed in accordance with my inven
tion, parts being broken away vto disclose the in
terior of the craft; and
control of the pedal 23'. may be provided in-the .
conventional manner for use-when engaging the
gears of the transmission 2Ii,of the power-plant.
Referringnow to. Figure 2 I provide a hori
zontally disposed shaft 24, which extends trans
~versely 'through -the poles,l of the sphereI`>V> This
shaft is formed intermediateof its ends with a
5
rack 25, which is off-set suiilciently toclear the
shaft I4, and a pinion 26 engages therewith. , A
Figure 2 a sectional view taken along line 2-2 vhand-wheel; 21 is‘ operatively connected to the"
` of Figure 1, with parts in elevation.
.
While I have shown only the preferred form
50
of my invention, it should be understood that
various changes or modifications may be made
within the scope of the claims hereto attached
without departing from the- spirit of the inven
'
tion.
.
pinion 26 through bevel gearing 2,8 and a vertical
shaft 29, the latter having' ~the pinion 26 fixed
thereto.
I
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Theshaft 24 is thus shifted axially upon turn
ing the hand-wheel 2l, and I- utilize this move
ment for controlling the rudder 5. A flexible
cable 30 is attached to the ends of the shaft 24,
«
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_
.
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_
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aisance
`-a's at 3|, and- a chain section 32 is provided in
the cable.
I provide releasíble connecting means' 3| between
The chain section engages with a
the floor 3 and a frame 62.' The power-plant and
the fuel tanks are carried by the frame 52. The
connecting means 6I may be of any desired con
struction and are adapted. to be released under- 5
. - sprocket 33 fixed to the rudder 5 inthe manner
'
illustrated.
5
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The _flexible cable and chain section are
trained over pulleys 34 carried by a yoke 35, `and
control of the pilot of the spiral-craft.
upon moving the shaft 24 endwise, the cable 30 ‘
‘
is acted upon and vswings thel rudder 5 as india
squared upper end_62' .that may be disengaged
cated by the'arrows 36`to. alter the course of the
from the socket I5 of the vertical shaft when the
10 aircraft to the right- or to the left during flight.
- For controlling the ascension and descension
“of _the craft, I provide the elevator _4, whichv is
rigidly secured to the yoke_35 in the planey of the
latter. The yoke -is swingably mounted at the
poles of the sphere by 'means of trunnions 31
ñxed to the yoke and passing throughbearings'
_' 38 in the- wall I0 of the fuselage.
.
- Swinging movement is imparted to the yoke 35 -
Y
_
-It will be noted that the'` drive shaft I5 has a'
by Vmeans of sprockets 39, which vare keyed or
power plant is -dropped from the fuselage.
l 10
a further measure of safety, I_ have inter
poseda water tank 63 and an oil tank 64 between
the fuel tanks 6I! and the power-plant to prevent
the _fuel from becoming overheated. '
.
From lthe foregoing description of the various 15
parts of,my_spiral-craft, the operation thereof
may be readily understood?-V The spiral '3 is set
in motion, which results in lifting the entire'spi
ral-craft from theground. -'I'he lighter-than-air
gasin the spiral -aids in lifting the craft, and 20
20 otherwise secured to the trunnions 31.' A hand
wheel is provided'at 40 for turning the sprockets ‘ the latter is sustained by the lighter-than-air _gas
39 through a worm drive 4I and chains'42.
Aand by the rotation of the spiral.
The 'trunnions' 31 are made hollow for slidably
accommodating the shaft 24, and that the cable
25 30 is guided along- the length of the yoke 3_5.
'
’ 'I'he ascension and _descension of thecraft is
regulated by swinging theelevator 4 about the
axis of the horizontal shaft 24 upon actuating the 25
` This construction permits -the elevator to be- hand-wheel 40, which _results in tilting the shaft
raised or lowered by operating the hand-wheel I4 with'respect to .the vertical. 'I‘he course' of
40, and at the same time the hand-wheel 21 can _fthe craft to the right and left is altered by oper.
beturned-for‘imparting a desired turning move
ating the rudder 5 underv control of the hand
30 mentto the rudder 5 when it is desired to change
wheel
`
A the course of the aircraft.
_.
’
The 'spiral 3 _is preferably fashioned with a
21.
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In the event that it should be found necessary
to drop the power-plant and the fuel tanks during
chamber 43 extending from one end of the spiral > flight, the elevator and the rudder means are first
to the other. This chamber ~is filled withlighter
~ 35 than-'air gas for,the purpose of aiding in the
lifting of the aircraft.,
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- dropped from the spiral-craft.
I_have shown the spiral as gradually decreas- "
-ing in diameter` from the lower end 44 to the
upper end 45 thereof. It will be noted that the
40 lower convolution 43 of _the spiral isf larger in
' diameter than the diameter ofthe äspherical
shaped fuselage of the aircraft.
_
_
moved into an out-of-the-way position s'o as to
permit 4the power-plant and the fuel tanks to be 35
'
I claim:
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j l. In an aircraft, a substantially spherical-
shaped fuselage, a yoke supported on the fuselage
for swinging movement about the poles of the 40
sphere, an elevator ?xed to _the yoke, means for
swinging the yoke to operate the elevator, a rud
¿For bracing the »several convolutions of the ~der mounted on the yoke and means extending -.
spiral 3, I provide guy wires 41,' which are -an
along the yoke and through the poles of the sphere
ß chored to Afittings 43 andi 49 on the shaft I4. A_ to actuate ythe rudder.
' '
_
45
f tube 50 is telescoped overthe shaft I4 and has
a number of arms 5I _extending radially there
from, which in turn are fastened to4 the inner
- v marginal portion 52 of the spiral.v
50
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55
_
The elevator 4_and" rudder 5 are shown in the
2. In an aircraft, a substantially spherical
shaped fuselage, a yoke mounted on the exterior
of the fuselage for swinging movement about the
poles ofthe sphere, elejvator -and rudder means
carried by the yoke, means for swinging the yoke, 50
drawings as beingswung into- their \lowermost
positions beneath the fuselage 2. The elevator.
and means for actuating the rudder means.
and rudder means may be swung about the poles
lifting and propelling the body, and a rudder and
of the sphere as indicated‘by the arrows 52’.
elevator' assembly swingable about the horizontal
poles ofthe body for resisting rotary motion of 55
I provide a landing gear indicated generallyat
53 adapted for supporting the aircraft sufficiently
high above the ground to _clear the bottom of the
>fuselage from the ground.
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_The landingI gear comprises four' cylinders 54
III)> anchored to the girder II as at 55, (see Figure 2)
and tothe floor 5- of the operating chamber at
\ 56 (see Figure l). Within these cylinders I slid
ably mount telescoping pistons 51. These pistons
’
¿
3. In an aircraft, a spherical body, means for
the body.
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_4. In an aircraft, a spherical body, means for
lifting and propelling the body, and- a rudder and
elevator assembly swingable about the horizontal
poles of the body for resisting rotary, motion of 00
the body, and means for- swinging the assembly
about said axis whereby resistance to rotary mo
tion of the body is increasedQA
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are adapted 'to be projected from the cylinders by _
5. In an aircraft; a' spherical body,fmeans for ’
u hydraulic means sa to position wheelsss on the- A lifting the body, and guide means for the craft 05
underlying ground surface indicated at '53', to ` swingable about the horizontal poles of the body.
‘support the aircraft above the ground. Any other
suitable _means maybe 4employed for moving~ the
^
wheels 53 into extended position and I do not‘
' 6. In -an aircraft, a lspherical body and guide
means for the cî‘aft _swingable about the horizon
tal poles of the body, thé body comprising an up
_ ' _
per compartment and a lower compartment and 70
In the event that thespiral-craft should meet- »separable fastening means for the latter permit- '
adverse flying conditions requiring the power
ting it to be dropped in 'mid-air when the guide .
plant I1 andthe fuel tanks 53 to be dropped means are swung about said poles to clear the
70 wish to be limited to _hydraulicmeans
from beneath thé fuselage forjthe purpose of
15 safety and for reducing the weight of the craft, ,
dropping lower compartment.'l ~ ‘ __
f
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'1. In an.aircraft, a spherlcal’body and guide 15
3
2,183,288
means swingable about a. horizontal axis of the
body, the guide means comprising a pair of alined
bearings adjacent the shell of lthe body, a yoke
movable over the outside of the body and having
trunnions revolvable in the bearings, means for
turningthe trumiions for moving the yoke, an
elevator blade fixed to the yoke, rudder blades
pivoted in the yoke for swinging movement over
the elevator blade, a shaft movabledongitudinally `
in the trunnions and having a ñexible connec
tion with the rudder blades for swinging the lat
ter when the shaft is moved, and means for im
parting endwise motion to the shaft.
8. In an aircraft, a spherical'body, a rotary lift- ‘
ing wing in the form of a spiral mounted thereon,
the lifting wing having a section with\ an outer
circumferencelarger than the diameter of the
body, and a rudder and elevator assembly mov
ablel over the outer surface of the body and into a
position diametricallyopposite the spiral lifting
wing.
,
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ALESSANDRO DANDINI.
10
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