close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2133344

код для вставки
Oct. 18, 1933.‘
M. B. ‘COOKE
PROCESS FOR THERMAL TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBONS
Filed July 6,_ 1936
GM
I
2
-
INVENTOR
Maur/cje B. C'oake ~
BY
Of:
ATTORN Y
Patented Oct. 18, 193$
2,133,344
UNITED' STATES
‘PATENT OFFICE»
2,133,344
'
PROCESS FOR THERMAL TREATMENT OF
I
HYDROCARBONS
Maurice B. Cooke, Plainfleld,‘ N. J.
Application July 6, 1936, Serial No. 89,089 g
6 Claims. (CL 196-67)
My invention relates to a process for the distillate vapors for ultimate recovery of the de
treatment of petroleum hydrocarbons to produce sired products.
therefrom primarily lower molecular weight hy
The character 'of the liquid ultimately produced
drocarbons by thermal decomposition and syn
as a desired product from petroleum hydrocarbons as disclosed in the processes or the fore 6
thesis of the hydrocarbons undergoing treatment
and, more particularly, so to conduct such treat
ment as to produce not only lower‘ molecular
weight gasoline-like hydrocarbons suitable for
use as a motor fuel of high anti-knock qualities,
10 but in addition to secure an increased yield of
hydrocarbons of the aromatic series including
naphthalene, benzol, xylol and toluol.
When fuel is burned with no excess of air, the
temperature of combustion is between 3000° F.
15 and 4000‘7 F.,Such temperatures are too high for
the proposed thermal treatment productive oi’
the desired products and accordingly this tem
perature must be brought down considerably in
order to produce-most e?iciently the greatest
yield of the desired products.
In my co-pending applications Serial No. 598,
503 ?led March 12, 1932, now-Patent No. 2,046,501,
_ issued July 7, 1936, to Maurice B. Cooke, and
Serial No. 598,504, ?led March 12,1932, now
Patent No 2,046,502, issued July 7,‘ 1936, to
going applications, is essentially dependent upon
the time, temperature and pressure conditions '
employed.
1
It is an object of my invention to produce low
molecular weight hydrocarbon products includ 10
ing liquid aromatic products such as naphtha
lene, benzol, xylol and toluol from heavier petro-f
leum hydrocarbons by the direct thermal treat
ment of such heavier hydrocarbons with hot com
bustion gases under closely controlled conditions
of time, temperature and pressure.
'
It is another object of my invention to extract ‘
the desired products from the mixture of '
thermally treated hydrocarbons and combustion
gases with fraction'ating and separating equip- u20
ment no greater in size than is normally employed ‘
for
the
extraction
of such
products
from
thermally treated petroleum hydrocarbons not ~'
admixed with combustion gases.
_
It is a iurther object of my invention to effect 25
Maurice B. Cooke, I have disclosed a process for
in the same thermal treating zone, a secondary or
the thermal treatment of petroleum hydro
carbons for the production‘of lower molecular
?nal conversion‘ into desired products, of such
hydrocarbons lower boiling than the desired
weight gasoline-like hydrocarbons by the direct
products as are recovered from the products of
commingling of hot combustion gases with the the thermal treating operation and recycled to ' 30
hydrocarbons being treated. I have, shown the treating zone. '
therein that the temperature of from 3000° F.‘
It is another object of my invention to co
to 4000° F. obtained by the generation of these ordinate the thermal treatment of petroleum hy
gases may be lowered to a temperature more
drocarbons occurring when such hydrocarbons
favorable for the treatment of the hydrocarbons are directly commingled with hot combustion
by' tempering or cooling the gases with steam gases, with “distillation of the liquid petroleum
which may be condensed in a preiractionating hydrocarbons for the production of hydrocarbon ‘
condensing. zone with considerable advantages be >vapors to be treated, and the tempering or cool
ing obtain-ed in permitting a reduction in the ing of the combustion gases to the desired treat
size of fractionating and recovery equipment over ing temperature.
40
that required where normally incondensible inert
tempering gases are employed. In addition‘, I have
shown that the combustion gases may vbe
tempered in part by passing oil to be heated
for various ancillary related steps of the process
in indirect‘ heat exchange with the hot gases.
In particular, I have disclosed; the indirect heat
ing of a relatively heavy petroleum oil to pre
pare it for a topping operation; the indirect heat
ing of the topped oil to enable the formation oi.’
hydrocarbon vapors for subsequent direct thermal
[treatment with the tempered combustion gases;
and the'indirect reheating of a cooled condensate
oi the thermally treated vapors to e?ect distilla
tion and permit subsequent fractionating or the
- It is a further object of my invention to secure
an increased yield of desired liquid aromatic and
low molecular weight lhydrocarbon products‘ by
close control of the character and quantity of the
recycle oil returned to the primary thermal treat
ing zone for retreatment with fresh oil.
Other and further objects of my invention will
appear from the following description and the ap- _'
pended claims.
I
.
_
The accompanying drawing-which forms part 50
of the instant speci?cation and is to be read in‘
conjunction therewith is a vschematic showing in ~
elevation with parts in section of one form of ap
paratus capable of carrying out the process or my
invention.
~
g
.
'
2
2,138,844
and are then withdrawn from the quenching
In general, I propose to generate hot gases of
combustion by the admixture of combustible gases
zone and the process.
mixture. The resultant temperature of from
3000° F. to 40009 F. being too high for the ef
iicient thermal treatment of hydrocarbon vapors
to be subsequently‘mixed with the gases, I pro
pose to‘reduce this temperature partially by the
tially tempering the combustion gases, and as
process steam for stripping in the main frac
tionator. The further cooling of the reactant
takes place in a series of separate zones in which
the heavier hydrocarbons of the reactant are 10
condensed and from which they may be selec
tively withdrawn. A portion or all of the heavy
condensate formed in these separate condensing
. addition of a cooler inert gas such as steam and
10 partially by passing the gases in indirect heat ex
change with cooler? liquid petroleum hydro;
carbons.
'
- Crude oil is passed in indirect heat exchange
with the hot combustion gases whose tempera
zones is returned to the quench zone as re?ux for
end point control and another portion‘ of this 15
heavy condensate is passed to‘ the main frac
tionating tower. The uncondensed lower boil
ing portion of the reactant which may be, for
example, a 200° F. to 250° F. end point naphtha
plus all lighter hydrocarbons and the combus 20
tion gases, is further cooled by indirect heat
15 ture is thereby lowered while the reduced crude
is heated, the heated crude then being subjected
to a topping operation in which the depth of the
out may vary within wide limits. The topped
crude, together with light and heavy recycle oil,
20 forms the ‘charge to a vaporizing coil through
which it passes in indirect heat exchange with
the gases, the heated" oil then being ?ashed into
exchange to condense preferably‘substantially
all the normally liquid hydrocarbons. The water
vapors.‘ Preferably, the vaporizing coil is located
in the hottest portion of the zone through which
25 the combustion gases are being passed.
In view
of the quantity of oil passing through this coil,
it may be necessary to employ external heating
means auxiliary to the combustion gases to se
cure the desired vaporization.
The uncondensed portion '
of the reactant is then cooled further by pass
ing in, indirect heat exchange with clean water,
thus generating steam which is utilized for ini
with no excess of oxygen and the burning of such
.
resulting from condensation of steam in the mix
tur is withdrawn from the separating zone to 25
which the cooled reactant is passed and the liq
uid hydrocarbons of the reactant are regenera
tively reheated by passing in indirect heat ex
change with the reactant and then by passing
The vapors resulting are directly commingled in indirect heat exchange with the hot v‘com
80
in a mixing zone with the combustion gases bustion gases, ‘the liquid- reactant being raised
which, on entering this zone, have been tempered thereby in “a distillation coil to a temperature
or cooled to a temperature of from about su?icient to permit vaporization at the substan
1500° F. to about 2500" F., the temperature pref , tially atmospheric'pressure under which the 35
85 erably being from about 1800° F. to about 2000” F. process is conducted. On issuing from this dis-.
The mixture of hydrocarbon v'apors and com ' vtilling coil, the reactant passes directly to the
bustion gases, which) for convenience I shall main fractionator. . ..
In the main iractionator ‘relatively heavy
hereinafter call the reactant, passes through a
primary treating zone of a length su?icient to cracked gas oil is withdrawn as a bottom prod
uct, light gas oil'is withdrawn"v as a sidestream,
40 provide the time element necessary to e?'ect de
and the overhead product of ‘the fractionator
composition of heavier hydrocarbons of the re
actant into lighter hydrocarbons into desired
aromatic products. The reactant is preferably
subjected to the action "of the hot combustion
45 gases. in this primary zone for a period 01' from
about one second to about three seconds,v de
pending upon whether the temperature of these
gases is at 2500° F. or a lower temperature of
50
around 1500" F. respectively.»
The reactant passes from the primary treating
zone into a secondary treating, or soaking zone,
wherein the reactant is cooled to a temperature
,0! from about 1050" Fvto about 1800“ F.>by the
spraying into the reactant of a cooler recycle oil
consists of lower molecular weight gasoline-like
hydrocarbons and/or hydrocarbons of the arc
matic series including naphthalene,v benzol,
toluol and xylol which are cooled, condensed and
removed from the accumulator-separator as the
desired distillate‘ product, The uncondensed
portion of the fractionator overhead which will
include saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
of the para?in series such as propane-propylene, -50
butane-butylene, ethane-ethylene, as well as
some hydrogen, methane and entrained gasoline
like hydrocarbons is combined with the uncon
densed portion of the reactant, compressed,
substantially completely vaporizable‘at the re-'
cooled and the light condensate resulting sepa- '
sulting temperature, or by indirect heat ex
change with a cooler oil. In this secondary
rated from the gases uncondensed by the com
pression and cooling. The light condensate is
recycled to the ?ash ‘tower vaporizing‘coll as
part of the charge to that coil, is vaporized,vand
treating zone the recomposition and synthesis
of hydrocarbons proceeds to form not only lower
molecular weight gasoline-like hydrocarbons, but,
by reason of the lower temperature, a'substantial
quantity ‘of hydrocarbons of the aromatic series
including naphthalene, benzol, toluol and xylol.’
The time oi’ reaction in this; zone will vary from
about one second to about ten seconds, depend
ing upon whether the-temperature o! the reactant is about 1800° ‘F, or 1050" F. respectively. ‘
‘_ From the. secondary treating zone, the re
actant' passes into a combined quenching and
separating zone wherein a cooler hydrocarbon
oil is sprayed into the‘ reactant whose tempera- v
then admixed with thehot combustion gases for
further thermal treatment and the production of
additional desired lower molecular weight hy
drocarbons, particularly aromatics, since a large
percentage 01' unsaturate's will be present in this
recycle condensate.
‘
The gases remaining uncondensed after-the
compression and cooling operation arepassed to .
i an absorber wherein they are contacted under
pressure with cooled light absorber oil withdrawn
as a side stream from the main tractionator, the
unabsorbed gases particularly the combustion
ture iszquickly reduced to around 600° F. to
"'100°~F.-M ~At-.the..same time and as the result‘ gases and methane being ‘released to. a fuel gas
of this quenching operation, the heavy polymers, main and the rich absorption 1011 being recycled 75
tars, gums and fuel oil present are condensed to the vaporizing coil as part of the chargeto
3
2,183,344
that coil for further thermal treatment by the drawn through pipe 39 by means of a pump 40
discharging into the feed pipe 29 connecting with
hot combustion gases.
Referring now more particularly to the draw ‘ feed tank 33 as previously described."
The feed tank 33 contains the oil which is to
ing, I charge a crude by means of a pump I
beheated in a vaporizing coil and after vapor Cl
through a pipe 2, heat exchangers 3 ‘and 4, heat
ing coi1_5 and transfer pipe 6 into fractionating ization thermally treated by direct contact with
tower 1.
'
combustion gases of proper temperature, and in
Fuel gas is drawn by the compressor 3 through the case where the initial charge oil has been
the pipe 9 adapted to take fuel gas from the subjected to an initial topping operation as pre- .
viously described, consists of this topped oil such 10
10 recycle tail gas main II) or valved fuel gas inlet
pipe II, and discharged through pipe I2 into the ‘ as heavy gas oil, and cracked recycle gas oil re
covered in the operation of the process as will
fuel gas supply tank I3. The fuel gas is dis
be more fully described hereinafter.
charged under pressure as needed from the sup
The oil to be treated is.withdrawn from the
ply tank |3 through the valved pipe |4 into the
15 mixing chamber l5 wherein it is mixed with air feed tank 33 through the pipe 4| by means 01'
the pump 42 which forces the oil through the
fed through a valved pipe l6 in quantities sum
cient to produce complete combustion of the gas pipe 43, through the valves 44 and 45 in the pipe
43, through the vaporizing heating coil 46in the
without excess of oxygen. The combustible mix
ture formed burns with surface combustion on ‘chamber 2| from which the heated oil is trans
the granules of refractory material H to form ferred through the pipe 41 into the ?ash tower
hot combustion gases in the combustion cham-3 46. The oil circulating through the coil 46 is
ber I6; These hot gases will be at a temperature heated during transit to a vaporizing tempera
of. from 3000° F. to 4000° F..which'is too high for tureand at the same time the combustion gases
the e?icient thermal treatment of hydrocarbon are partially cooled by indirect heat exchange
with the colder oil. In view of the relatively
25 vapors in accordance with my process.
The temperature of these gases may be reduced large quantity of oil passing through this heat
in part by admixing therewith cooler steam fed ing coil, I may deem it‘necessary to provide addi
'into the gases through the valved pipe I9 at a ‘ tional means for heating the oil such as a tube
point 20 in- the combustion chamber l3 where , still (not shown) externally of the chamber 2|,
30 complete combustion of the gas fuel air mixture
has taken place. The steam thus'supplied will
act as an additional heat carrier medium with
the combustion gases, and has the advantage of
being condensible and separable from the com
35 bustion gases and hydrocarbon vapors at normalv
the quantity of vapor to be passed through the
the ?ash tower 43 as operating conditions with
respect to temperature may dictate.
The coil 46 is preferably placed in the cham
main fractionating tower. The combustion gases
ber 2| in such position as to come in contact
atmospheric conditions of temperature and pres-<
sure.
For this reason I am enabled ‘to reduce
40 partially cooled by the steam, if such cooling is
so
connected into the pipe 43. By such means, I 30
can obtain a very close control of the tempera
ture change of the combustion gases by the coil
46. A pipe 43 controlled by a valve 50 connects
the pipes 43 and 41 in order that all or part of
the oil from pipe 43 may be passed directly‘ into 35
with the combustiori’gases at’their highest tem
40
desired at this time, ?ow into the chamber 2| ‘perature, although the exact positioning and
and across the tubes forming the heating coil 5. arrangement of the tubes forming the coil '46
will be governed by the furnace design and by
The relatively cool oil passing through the heat
ing coil 5 assists in reducing the temperature of the amount of tempering of the combustion gases
the combustion ‘gas and is at the same time contemplated.
In the ?ash tower 48, the heated oil from
heated to a vaporizing temperature preparatory
to fractionation in the fractionating tower 1. pipe 41 is ?ashed into vapors and unvaporized
Obviously, the heating effected in the coil 5 may ,oil, which latter forms a fuel oil and is with
be supplemented- by an external tube still (not drawn through the pipe 5|, valve 52, heat ex
shown) and if no topping operation is necessary changer 53 and cooler 54 by the pump 55 which
discharges 'the fuel oil to storage.
or if the cooling effect of the coil 5 on the com
bustion gases is not deemed necessary, this coil
- The hydrocarbon vapors formed in the ?ash
may be dispensed with entirely.
In the fractionating tower ‘I the vapors formed
55 are fractionally separated and ‘the, overhead
products of desired end point ?ow through vapor
pipe 22, vapor heat exchanger 3 and water cooler
23 into accumulator 24 from which re?ux is
returned through pipe 25 by pump 26 to the
60 fractionating tower 1 for end point control of
the fractionator overhead. Any steam condensed
is discharged as water from the accumulator 24
through the valved pipe 21 and the distillate is
discharged to storage through the valved pipe 26.
The topped crude accumulating in the base of
65
the tower 1 is withdrawn therefrom through a
tower 48 discharge therefrom at substantially
atmospheric pressure through the pipe 56 into
the mixing chamber 5'! wherein they are mixed
with the combustion gases issuing from the'
chamber 2|.‘
‘
.
The combustion gases entering the mixing
chamber 51 will have been reduced in tempera
ture by the steam and indirect heat exchange
to a temperature between about 1500’ F’. to about
.2500° F. and preferably to a temperature such
that the mixture of hydrocarbon vapors ‘and
combustion gases will be at a temperature of _ '
from'about 1800° F. to about 2000" F. which I
have 'found is most favorable for the primary
" pipe 29 by means of pump 30 and passes through, ' thermal decomposition or cracking of the heavier
heat exchanger 4, vapor heat exchanger 3!, and ,, hydrocarbons of the mixture to produce lower,
heat'exchanger 32 into .the vaporizing coil feed molecular weight gasoline-like hydrocarbons and
70 tank 33. 'All or part of the oil in the pipe 23 may the simultaneous synthesis of unsaturated hydro 70'
be diverted therefrom by suitable manipulation carbons present ~into desired aromatic products.
' of a valve 34 in the line 29 thus causing the oil ' _The mixture of combustion gases and hydro
to" ?ow through a pipe 35 in which valve 36 is carbon vapors, which I have termed the reactant
opened and through cooler 31'into.a topped oil for the sake of convenience, passes from the mrz~
75 accumulator 36 from which the oil may be with ’ ing zone 51 into the primary treating or cracking 76
2,133,344
zone 58, the time‘ of passage of the ‘reactant
through which varies from between about one
second at 2500° F. to about three seconds at
1500° F.
'
desirable-tor the production of the desired aro
matic products. The uncondensed portion 01 the
reactant in the separator 81 will therefore con
sist of a mixture of those saturated and unsatu
The reactant leaves the primary thermal treat
ing zone 58 after the proper time interval and
enters the secondary thermal treating or poly
rated hydrocarbons which are normally gaseous
merizing zone 59 wherein the. reactant is cooled‘
to a temperature between about ‘1050" F. to about
as hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and car
bon monoxide. Obviously there will also be in '
this uncondensed portion of the reactant some of .10
10 1800” F; by intimate physical commingling of a
cooler oil which is sprayed into the hot reactant
through a spray nozzle or other suitable means
60. The zone 59 acts as a soaking zone for the
?nal decomposition oi! the heavier hydrocarbons
15 present in the reactant and at the same time the
temperature conditions existing are those which
I have found are most favorable for the produc
tion of desired aromatic products from the un
at normal atmospheric conditions of tempera—
ture and pressure and the combustion gases such
the normally liquid hydrocarbons not separable
therefrom under the temperature and pressure
conditions in\ the separator 01.
This uncon
densed portion of the reactant is discharged
from the separator 01 through the pipe" to 15
suitable apparatus for the recovery or light re
cycle stock as will be more fully described herein
after.
-
I
'
saturated low molecular weight hydrocarbons
The condensed portion or the reactant in the
20 present in the reactant. The time of passage of separator 81 is withdrawn therefrom through the 20
the reactant through the secondary treating. pipe 90 by the pump SI and is charged thereby
zone will vary from about one second at 2000“ F.,
to about ?ve seconds at 1400° F., to aboutten
through the pipe 92, cooler 04, valved pipe 92,
heat exchanger 94, pipe 95, heat exchanger 53'
and pipe 96 to the distillation coil 91 in the cham
‘oer 2i. If desired, the heat exchanger 84 may be 25
ing zone 59 enters a separator 6| wherein the lay-passed to the pipe 95 through the valved pipe
temperature is quickly lowered to around 600° F. 98 and, likewise, a portion of the condensate in
the pipev 93 may be by-passed through the valved
to ‘700° F. to substantially terminate further re
action by spraying into the reactant a cooler oil , pipe 99 into the pipe 43 leading to the vaporizing
30 through a suitable quench nozzle 62. The heavy coil 46 by suitable manipulation of the valves 30
shown. A valved pipe I00 connecting the pipes
polymers, tars and gums of the nature or fuel oil
95 and 43 permits the by-passing of a portion of
which are condensed in the separator 6| are dis
charged through the valved'pipe 53 into the pipe the condensate issuing from the heat exchanger
5i and sent to storage with the fuel oil from 94 into the oil ?owing through the pipe 42 to the
seconds at 1200° F.
V
> The reactant on leaving the secondary treat
25
35
flash ‘tower 48.
‘
.
vaporizing coil 40.
.
Theuncendensed portion of. the reactant rises
upwardly through a plurality of fractionating
trays 84 countercurrent' to downflowing cooler
The reactant condensate ?owing through‘ the
distillation coil 91 is heated therein to a tempera
re?ux oil.
heated oil at low or substantially atmospheric
The reactant of desired end point
35
ture su?‘lcient to permit ‘vaporization of the
40 discharges from the separaior 6i through the } pressure and is discharged through the transfer 40
pipe 65 into condensing vessel 65.
The condensing vessel 66 is provided with ‘a
cooling coil ‘61 into which clean cool water is
passed by pump 68 through pipe 69 and cooler
45 l0. The water is heated in the coil 61 by ex
change with the hot reactant and the steam
_ formed is discharged through the pipe ‘II into
the steam supply tank ‘I2 from which tempering
steam is withdrawn at will through the pipe I9.
The reactant in the condensing vessel is cooled
to an extent su?lcient to condense the heavier
hydrocarbons which accumulating as fractional
condensate in the condensate basins ‘I3, ‘I4 and 15
may be withdrawn therefromthrough the pipes
65 ‘I6, 'I ‘I and 18, respectively, and returned in suitai
ble proportions through the pipe ‘I9 to the sepa
rator 6| asv re?ux by suitable manipulation'ot
the valves 80, BI and 82.'
_
The uncondensed portion of the cooled re
60 actant inthe condensing vessel 60 will preferably,
have as its heaviest constituent a hydrocarbon
distillate having about a 200° F. to a 250° F. end '
point and discharges from the condensing vessel
66 through a pipe 83, through coolers ‘I0, 84 and
65 85, and through pipe 85 into separator 81.
In ‘the separator 81, the condensate resulting
from the cooling of the reactant will preferably
consist primarily of hydrocarbons boiling above
the pentane or C5 hydrocarbons.
The water re
70 sulting from condensation of the tempering
steam vis withdrawn ‘from the separator 81
I through the valved pipe 00.
The separator 01 like the thermal treating
zones is maintained at the low or substantially
atmospheric pressure which I have found is most
pipe IM to the main tractionator I02.
The heavy condensate separated from the re
actant in,the condensing chamber 65 may be
transferred in whole or in part through the pipe
I03 controlled by the valve I04 by suitable ma 45
nipulation of the valves 8|, 82 and I04. In thus
returning the heavy condensate from the pipe I03
to the iractionating tower I02, I am enabled to
e?ect sharp separation of suitable recycle stock
such as heavy cracked gas oil for recycling to the 50
vaporizing coil. Steam from the supply tank ‘I2
may be injected into the tractionator I02 through
the pipe I05 by opening the valve 200.
From the tractionat‘or I02 there is withdrawn
a relatively heavy recycle oil such as cracked gas‘ 55
oil through the pipe I00 by means of the pump
I01, the oil being cooled by the heat exchanger
32, and cooler I08. Aportionot the oil in the.
pipe I06 passes through the pipe I09 controlled
by the valve IIO into the pipe 02 of the separator 60
0| for use as quench oil. Another portion of the
oil in the pipe I00 is passed through the pipe III
controlled by the valve II2 into the spray nozzle
00 from which it is discharged to control the tem
perature of the reactant in the secondary treat v65
ing zone 50.?
; _'
The relatively heavy oil withdrawn from the
Iractionator I02 through the pipe I06 is most
suitable as recycle oil and?the greater quantity
or this oil passes through the pipe I06 and from
thence through the pipe .7 I12 controlled by the
valve II4 into ‘the Ieed'itank 33 from which a
vapor return line I I5 leads to the main fraction;
atorq I02. I have found; that for most satisfac
toryioperation of my process, the'ratio of heavy 75
2, 1 38,344
recycle oil to fresh oil in the feed tank 33 should
be from about one to one, to three to one.
A light gas oil is withdrawn as a sidestream
..
p
5
heat exchange‘ with 011 being passed to various
stages of thelprocess and by the admixture with
the combustion gases of a cool inert gas such as
from the fractionator I02 through the pipe II6 steam which is readily condensible and may be
by means of a pump III and passes through a ‘ employed as ‘a heat carrying medium withoutre
cooler lit to an absorber II8 for use as cooled ' quiring an increased size of the fractionating ap~ I
lean absorption oil as will be more fully described paratus.
hereinafter.
The overhead products of the fractionator I02
10 are discharged therefrom through the pipe I20
It willbe observed ‘that certain features and
sub-combinations are of utility and may be Iem-' '
ployed without reference to other (features and 10
and pass through the heat exchanger 3| and
sub-combinations. This is contemplated by and
cooler I2I to the separator I22 from which con—
is within the scope of my claims. It is further
obvious that various changes may be made in
details ‘within the scope of my claims. This is
densate is returnedthrough pipe I23 by means of
pump’ I24 to the fractionator I02 as re?ux for
15 end point control of the fractionator overhead.
Water is withdrawn from the accumulator I22
through the pipe I25 controlled by the valve I26
and the distillate, which I shall refer to as heavy
distillate to distinguish it from the light distil
20 late recovered from the‘ uncondensed gases in the.
accumulator I22 and separator 81, is discharged
through the pipe I21 by the pump I23 as the de
sired aromatic liquid product.
:
contemplated by and is ,withinthe scope of my 15
claims. It is further obvious that various
changes may be made in details within the scope
of my claims without departing from the spirit
of my invention. It is, therefore, to be under
stood that my invention is not to be limited to the 20
speci?c details shown and described. ~
Having thus described my invention, what I
i,
claim is:
The gases remaining uncondensed in the ac
1. A process for thermally treating petroleum ‘
25 cumulator I22 will consist of hydrocarbons both , hydrocarbons including the steps of generating
25
» saturated and unsaturated, uncondensible at sub
combustion gases having a substantially complete
stantiallyatmos'pheric pressure and at the tem- . absence of oxygen, cooling the hot gases to a tem
perature of the cooling water employed. These
gases will contain entrained low molecular weight
30 gasoline-like hydrocarbons and are discharged
through the pipe I23 adjoining the pipe 89 feed
ing the suction side of the compressor I30. The
mixture of combustion gases and hydrocarbon
vapors‘ is compressed and discharged through
was pipe I3I and cooler I32 into separator I33 from
which the light distillate previously referred to
is discharged through the pipe I34 controlled by
the valve I35 into the pipe I36 through which
perature of from about 1500° F. to about 2500° F.,
admixing dry hydrocarbon vapors with the cooled
gases to form a reactant at cracking tempera
30
ture, soaking the reactant at substantially crack
ing temperature for from about one to about
three seconds to ‘form normally gaseous, unsat
urated hydrocarbons, cooling the reactant to a
lower and polymerizing temperature of from .35
reactant at the lower temperature for from about
about 1050° F. to about 1800° F., maintaining the
one to about twelve seconds to polymerize nor,
?ows rich absorption 011 being delivered from the mally gaseous, unsaturated hydrocarbons to
40 absorber II3 to the pipe II for recycling to the" ' higher molecular weight, aromatic hydrocarbons,
vaporizing coil l6.
»
V
,
quenching the reactant to a temperature below
The uncondensed ,gases in the separator I33 are 700° F. and recovering aromatic hydrocarbons
from the'quenched reactant.
discharged through the pipe I31 into the absorb
2. A'process for thermally treating petroleum
er I I9 wherein residual hydrocarbons suitable for
45 recycling to produce the desired aromatics are hydrocarbons including the steps of generating
absorbed in the lean oil fed to the absorber combustion gases having a substantially complete
through the pipe H0 and returned with the rich absence of oxygen, cooling the hot gases to a
oil through the pipe I 36 to the vaporizing coil.
temperature of from about 1800° F. to about 2000’
The unabsorbed gases are discharged through F., admixing dry hydrocarbon vapors with the
the pipe I33 and pressure relief valve I33'into the cooled gases to form a reactant at cracking tem
6.0 fuel
gas main I0 from which they may be dis
perature, soaking the reactant at substantially
charged to the atmosphere by opening the valve the cracking temperature for from about one to
"I40, or picked up by the compressor 8 by opening about three seconds to form normally gaseous,
the valve “I.
"unsaturated hydrocarbons, cooling the reactant to I
It will be observed that I .have accomplished a lower and polymerizing temperature of from
55
the objects of my invention and have provided a about 1200° F. to about 1800” F., maintaining the 55
process for thermal treatment of petroleum hy ‘ reactant at the lower temperature for from about
drocarbons by the direct commingling of such one to about twelve seconds to polymerize said
hydrocarbons with combustion gases under care
normally gaseous, unsaturated hydrocarbons to
60 fully controlled conditions of time and tempera . higher molecular weight, aromatic hydrocarbons, 60
ture. I have provided a process by which the quenching the reactant to a temperature below
conversion and synthesis :of the hydrocarbons is
‘700° F. to substantially terminate further reac
effected by the thermal treatment of the com
jbustion gases so as to produce an increased yield
tion and recovering aromatic hydrocarbons from
the quenched reactant.
3. A process for thermally treating petroleum
65 of liquid aromatic products such as ‘naphthalene, '
benzol, toluol, and xylol, together with liquid low ' hydrocarbons including the steps of generating
molecular weight gasoline-like hydrocarbons
combustion gases having a substantially complete
suitable for use as motor fuel of high anti-knock
rating. I have provided a process in which the
absence ‘of oxygen, cooling the hot gases to a
temperature of from about 1500° F. to about
70 yield of the desired liquid aromatic products is
increased through the recovery and recycling of
unsaturated hydrocarbons formedin the reactant
by' the" thermal treatment. I have also provided
a unitary process in which the temperature of
75 .the combustion gases is controlled by indirect
2500° F., admixing dry hydrocarbon vapors with 70
the cooled gases to form a reactant at cracking‘
temperature, soaking the reactant at substan
tially the cracking temperature for from about
one I. to about three seconds to form normally gas
eous. unsaturated hydrocarbons, cooling the re
76
6
2,138,844
about 1050" F. to about 1800° F., maintaining the
temperature, maintaining the reactant at sub
stantially the mixing temperature for from about
reactant at the polymerizing temperature for
one to about three seconds to form lower molecu-. ,
from about one to about twelve seconds to poly
lar weight hydrocarbons, including normally
gaseous, unsaturated hydrocarbons, cooling the
actant to a‘ polymerizing temperature of from
merize the normally gaseous, unsaturated hydro
carbons to higher molecular weight aromatic hy- - reactant to a lower temperature of from about
' drocarbons, quenching the reactant to a temper
ature below ‘700° F. and cooling the quenched re
actant and separating therefrom a light con
10
densate comprising mainly normally liquid hy
drocarbons of gasoline boiling range and a heavy
condensate comprising mainly hydrocarbons boil
ing above the gasoline boiling range, fractionat
ing the condensates to obtain a plurality of suc- ,
higher boiling hydrocarbon fractions,
'15 cessively
recovering from one 01 said fractions desired aro
1200° F’. to about 1800° F., polymerizing the react
ant at lower temperature for from about one to
about twelve seconds to form normally liquid aro
matic hydrocarbons from said normally gaseous, ' 1.
unsaturated hydrocarbons, quenching the react
ant‘ to a temperature below 700° F. to substan
tially terminate further reaction and recovering
liquid aromatic hydrocarbons from the quenched
reactant.
'
‘
matic hydrocarbons, vaporizing another of said
6. A process for thermally treating petroleum
hydrocarbons including the steps of generating
fractions and admixing the vapors formed with
said ?rst mentioned cooled gases as dry hydro
20 carbon vapors.
4. A process for thermally treating petroleum
2500° F., admixing dry hydrocarbon vapors with
hydrocarbons including the steps 02 generating
combustion gases having a substantially complete ‘
II
combustion gases having a substantiallycom
plete absence of oxygen, cooling the hot gases to
a temperature of from about 1500” F. to about
the cooled gases to form a reactant at cracking ,
temperature, maintaining the reactant at sub
absence of oxygen, cooling the hot gases to a stantially the mixing temperature for from about
one to about three seconds to form lower boiling
25 temperature or from about 1500° F. to about 2500° ~ hydrocarbons including normally gaseous, unsat
F., admixing dry hydrocarbon vapors with the
cooled gases to form a reactant at cracking tem
perature, soaking the reactant at substantially the
mixing temperature for from about one to about
30 three seconds to form lower molecular weight
- hydrocarbons including normally gaseous, unsat
urated hydrocarbons, cooling the reactant to,’ a
lower and polymerizing temperature of from
about 1050a F. to about 1800° F., maintaining the
35 reactant at the lower‘ temperature for irom about
one to about twelve seconds to polymerize said
normally gaseous, unsaturated hydrocarbons to
' normally liquid aromatic hydrocarbons, quench
ing the reactant to a temperature below 700° F.
40 and recovering liquid aromatic hydrocarbons
urated hydrocarbons, cooling the reactant to a
lower temperature of from about 1050° F. to about
1800° F., maintaining the reactant at the lower
temperature for from about one to about twelve
seconds to polymerize said normally gaseous un
saturated hydrocarbons to normally liquid aro
matic hydrocarbons, quenching the reactant to a
temperature below 700° F. and cooling the
quenched reactant and separating therefrom a
light condensate comprising mainly normally
liquid hydrocarbons of gasoline boiling range and
a heavy condensate comprising mainly hydro
carbons boiling above the gasoline boiling range,
fractionating the condensates to obtain a plu
rality of successively higher boiling hydrocarbon
from the quenched reactant.
5. A process for thermally treating petroleum 1 fractions, recovering ‘from one or said fractions
hydrocarbons including the steps of generating
desired liquid aromatic hydrocarbons, vaporizing
combustion gases having a substantially complete:
another of said fractions and admixing the vapors
temperature of from about 1800° F. to about
dry hydrocarbon vapors.
absence of oxygen, cooling the hot gases to a ' formed with said ?rst mentioned cooled gases as
2000° F., admixing dry hydrocarbon vapors with
the cooled gases to form a reactant at cracking
MAURICE B. COOKE.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 078 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа