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Патент USA US2133377

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Oct. 18, 1938.
p. A, CULLMAN '
2,133,377
STREET LIGHT
Original Filed Dec. 9, 1933
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Oct. 18, 1938.
P. A. CULLMAN
2,133,377
STREET LIGHT
Original Filed Dec. 9, 1933
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4 Sheets-Sheet 2
Oct. 18, 193s.
P. A. CULLMAN
2,133,377
STREET LIGHT
Original Filed Deo. 9, 1933
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Qct. 18, 1938.
P. A. CULLMAN
2,133,35 77
STREET LIGHT
Driginal Filed Deo. 9, 1933
4 Sheets-Sheet 4
.p Ä 60K/marl,
2,133,377
Patented Oct. 18, 1938
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,133,377
STREET' LIGHT
Philipp A. Cullman, New York, N. Y., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to United States Holding
Corporation, a corporation of Delaware
>Application December 9, 1933, Serial No. 701,703
Renewed August 28, 1937
16 Claims. (Cl. Z110-25)
<This invention relates to an improvement in
light projectors, particularly suitable for light-Aing such areas as streets and roads in cities and
towns, highways, etc., its use, however, not be
5 ing limited to these purposes as it may also be
'found to be useful for other purposes such asthe
illumination of playing ñelds or stadiums, land
ing areas for aircraft, the flood lighting of build
ings, et cetera. It may also be used with vehicles
l0 of various kinds, particularly aircraft in connec
tion with which it may be carried by the aircraft,
and used at night to illuminate the field upon
which the aircraft is about to land.
In connection with its use for street lighting
purposes, the invention has for one of its objects
the provision of a relatively small and compact
globular light projector adapted when mounted
in proper position above a street to project beams
of light in opposite directions to relatively long
distances longitudinally of the street and to also
illuminate the areas transversely of the street
intermediate those illuminated by the main
beams.
30
_
Another object is to provide the globe at oppo
site sides, with lenses of such construction as
to properly form the main beams with such vari
ations in light intensity in the various portions
thereof along the area illuminated, that when a
string of lights are mounted in proper position
along a street, the portions of the main beams of
adjacent lights will so overlap that the intensity
of the light along the illuminated street will be
substantially constant.
Another object is to so construct the light
projecting globe that the portions intermediateV
the lenses will direct the useful rays issuing from
the globe downwardly upon the street at angles
more acute than the angles at which the main
beams are directed, so that such rays will be
.- .; used to illuminate` areas along the street inter
mediate the areas illuminated by the main
beams. Thus the area illuminated by the light
as a whole, will be in the nature ‘of an elongated
oval with the light across the short axis, i. e.,
45
transversely of the street, being produced by the
portions of the globe intermediate the lenses, and
with the light along the long axis, i. e., longi
tudinally of the street, being provided by the
main beams projected from such lenses.
Another object is to so construct the globe that
50
while opposite main beams are projected there
from, and areas intermediate the areas illumi
nated by such main beams are illuminated by
the portions intermediate the lenses, the light
rays will be so projected that those from the in
termediate areas of the globeV will merge with
those forming the main beams in such manner
that a relatively even distribution of light will be
produced.
Another object is to provide a light-reiracting
globe having the characteristics outlined above
which may be readily and cheaply manufactured,
and one in which the lenses form part of the
glass body of the globe and are formed simul
taneously with the formation of the refracting lll
elements which occupy the areas of the globe
intermediate the lenses.
Another object is to provide a light-transmit
ting globe having the above characteristics in
which, from opposite sides of a transverse plane
intermediate the lenses, the optical axes of the
lenses extend downwardly below the horizontal,
the refracting prisms also extending downwardly
in opposite directions from said transverse plane
toward said lenses and substantially parallel to
said optical axes, whereby a single plunger hav
ing its axis co-incident with the optical- axis of
one of the lenses, may be used to form each globe
half, and whereby, as the points of projection of
light from a source within the globe moves along
said prisms toward the lenses, the angles at
which the downwardly directed rays projected
by said prisms strike the street, will become less
and less acute, so that as the points of projection
approach the lenses, the rays issuing from the
prisms will merge with rays issuing from the
lenses.
A further object of the invention is to provide
a lightprojector for street lighting purposes, in
which the light ñux projected will be of such l
configuration where it intercepts the street sur
face, that by placing the lights in rows along
opposite sides of a street with the lights in one
row placed in staggered relationship with the
lights in the other row, the areas intermediate `
the lights transversely of the street will be ade
quately illuminated, Aas well as the areas betweeny
the lights in each row and along the sidewalks,
the light at the same time being controlled so
as to shine as little as possible into the windows 45
of houses along the street.
With these and other objects in View, which
will become more apparent as the description
proceeds, reference is had to the accompanying
drawings which illustrate somel of the forms 50
which the invention may assume, and in which,
Figure l is a vertical sectional view through a
street lighting globe constructed according to my
invention.
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional View on a larger
5,5
2
2,133,377
scale through one of the globe sections showing
constructional details.
Figure 3 is a view at right angles to Figure 2,
showing constructional details on the left hand
side of the figure, and showing distribution of
light on the right hand side of the figure, such
figure being taken along the plane indicated by
the line 3_3 of Figure 2, for purpose of con
venience of illustration.
10
Figure 4 is a View similar to Figure 2, illustrat
ing the light distribution from the lens.
Figure 5 is a perspective View of the geometri
cal figure occupied by the light flux from the
globe.
Figure 6 is a diagrammatic plan view showing
the light distribution along the street.
Figure ’l is a diagrammatic plan View showing
distribution of the light where it intersects the
street in the beam projected by the lens element
20 of the globe.
15
Figure 8 represents a diagrammatic vertical sec
tion through the beam from the lens element of
the globe.
Figure 9 represents a vertical diagrammatic sec
tional view illustrating the distribution of light
between adjacent globes when mounted along a
street, illustrating the substantial evenness of il~
lumination produced between the street lights.
Figure 10 represents a Vertical sectional view
30 illustrating the use of condenser lenses.
Figure 11 represents a vertical sectional view,
showing a modiñed form in which the use of re
flecting prisms and a reflector is illustrated.
Figure 12 represents an elevational View illus
trating the use of iiutings.
Figure 13 represents a vertical sectional view
showing a modified shape of globe and showing
the use of a dispersing lens at the lower end
thereof.
Figure 14 is a vertical sectional view showing
40
another shape of globe mounted at the upper end
of a lamp post.
Figure l5 represents a plan View showing the
use of a light having two sets of lenses at a street
intersection.
Figure 16 is a vertical sectional view illustrating
the use of the invention against the wall of a
building.
Referring more particularly to the drawings,
50 the light is in the form of a globe divided ver
tically and diametrically into two similar Sections
placed edge to edge, as shown in Figure 1, such
sections being suspended from a suitable metallic
holder âwhich houses a socket 6 in which the
lamp ‘I is secured. The holder is suspended in
suitable manner above the street, as for instance,
from the cross arm 8 of a pole 9. A split ring I0
of proper proportions, the sections of which may
be secured together by screws or otherwise as at
II , and which is connected in suitable manner to
the holder 5, engages the flanges I2 of the ad
jacent edges of the globe sections, and thus se
cures such sections together and against the
holder.
Each of the globe sections is similarly formed,
and has thereon a lens I4 of modiñed Fresnel con
struction, the optical axis O-A of which extends
downwardly at a suitable angle below the hori
zontal, dependent upon the height above the
70 ground at which the light is to be suspended.
For instance, if the light is to be placed at a
distance of ten feet from the ground, which is a
convenient average height for the street lights in
cities and towns, the lens may be disposed so that
its optical axis extends downwardly about 15°
below the horizontal. This Would place the far
thermost edges of the beam projected by the
light at a distance of about seventy-four feet
along the street from the light pole, and for con
venience of illustration, I have chosen the fore
going height of the light and angle of optical
axis, in connection with the light distribution to
be hereinafter more fully described. It will be
understood that I may, by including the globe
sections in different positions with respect to each 10
other, and using a supporting ring of proper pro
portions vary the angle of the beam, as desired,
from one or both of the lenses of the globe.
From the lens extends rearwardly and upwardly
toward the edge of the globe section, a series of
light-refracting prisms I5, the uppermost 0f which
is disposed at about the upper edge of the lens.
These prisms substantially cover the inner sur
face of the globe section unoccupied by the lens,
and extending downwardly to near the bottom of
the section.
Such prisms are arranged at an
angle t0 the horizontal and their edges lie in
planes substantially parallel to the optical axis.
Thus, when two globe sections are assembled as
illustrated in Figure 1, the globe includes the op
posite lenses I4 facing downwardly at the de
sired angle, and the prisms I5 extending up
wardly and rearwardly from the lenses toward
the meeting edges of the globe sections, as illus
trated in Figure l. The focal region for the
globe in which the lamp filament will be placed,
is at I6, and for purposes of discussion, is as
sumed to be a point, though it will be understood
that the filament of a standard lamp is of appre
ciable size, and that the optical elements in prac
tice are designed for use in connection with such
filament.
I have illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, an example
of one form of construction that may be followed
by the optical elements of the globe, Figure 2
being utilized as illustrating the construction of
the lens'l4, and the left hand half of Figure 3
being utilizedV as illustrating the construction of
the refracting prisms I5. The construction data
is given in inches. Referring more particularly to
Figure 2, the optical axis O-A extends from the
focal region I6 downwardly at the desired angle
and along this axis the faces of the upper half
of the bull’s eye I'I, and the upper stepped zones
I8 of the lens are struck from centers with in
creasing radii of curvature, and at increasing '
distances from the outer surface of the lens as
the zones approach the upper edge thereof, as
illustrated by the radii r. The faces of the lower
half of the bull’s eye and of the lower stepped
zones I8', are struck from centers along a line B,
intersecting the optical axis at the outer surface
of the lens, and extending downwardly at an angle
therebelow (which angle may be substantially
5°), with increasing radii and at increasing dis (3()
tances from the outer surface of the lens as the
lower edge thereof is approached, as illustrated
by the radii r’. The radii of the lower lens half
are upon the whole, preferably somewhat shorter
and the distances between zone centers somewhat 65
less, than for the upper lens half, in order to
distribute the rays from the lower lens half,
which, as hereinafter pointed out, comprise sub
stantially the upper half of the beam, over a
wider area than the rays from the upper lens 70
half. The construction data for the inner faces
of the various zones of the lens is indicated gen
erally at a and b, respectively.
Referring now more particularly to Figure 3,
the prisms I5 are formed to bend downwardly 75
2,133,377
through substantially the maximum degree, rays
from the light source incident on their upper
faces, as indicated by the rays |9, the upper
faces 20 of the prisms lying in planes tangent
to a circle 2| concentric with the focal’region I6
lying in a plane at right angles to the optical
axis O-A, while the lower faces 22 of the prisms
lie in planesv tangent to a circle 23, of smaller
diameter than the circle 2|, concentric there
10 with, and likewise lying in a plane at right angles
to the optical axis, the radii of such circles being
indicated at 24 and 25, respectively, tangents in
which respective faces lie, being illustrated at
26 and 21, respectively. As thus constructed,
the prisms may be impressed by a plunger si
multaneously with the formation of the lens, and
at the same time bring the light rays falling on
them from the light source as rapidly downward
ly as is practically possible, it being noted that
the lower surfaces of the prisms at the section
shown on the right of Figure 3 are substantially
parallel to the paths taken by the light rays while
traversing the- prisms. 'I'he lower few prisms 28,
and lowermost prism 29 may be made with small
“ er refractive angles so as to bend the light rays
passing therethrough to a less degree than the
3
areas of the globe between the lenses, and that
projected from the lenses, will be maintained, and
a geometrical shape of light similar to that il
lustrated in Figure 5 will result from the light
flux from the entire globe utilized on the street
surface. In this figure, the beams from the lenses
where they intersect the street surface, are in
dicated by the areas E, while the rays from the
portions of the globe intervening between the
lenses are indicated by the areas F, and it will 10
be seen how the areas F transversely of the
street beneath the globe gradually taper off in
width and merge with the beams which form
areas E, so that there are no apparent interrup
tions throughout the length along the street of 15
the light falling thereon from the globe as an
entirety.
In the light projection from the lens, in gen
eral, the beam section from the zones ofthe
upper lens half crosses the optical axis and in 20
falling below the same becomes inverted and
forms the lower half of the beam at the street,
while the beam section from the lower Zones of
the lens crosses the axis and in falling above the
same likewise becomes inverted and forms the 25
upper half of the beam.
light rays passing through the other prisms,
Referring more particularly to Figure 4, the
whereby as the lower regions of the globe are
zones in the upper and lower .portions of the
approached, the light rays extending there
80 through, will be projected substantially vertically
downwardly, rather than at an angle across the
vertical ‘axis of the globe, which would be the
case were the angles of refraction of the lower
several prisms maintained the same as the re
mainder. It will be understood that if desired,
I may maintain the refractive angles of the lower
several prisms the same as those around the
side portions of the globe in which event the light
rays projected through the opposite sides of the
globe at the lower regions thereof would cross the
vertical axis before striking the ground. If prism
formation in the lower portions of the globe of
less acute angles of refraction is desired, the
upper face of the prism 29, for instance, may be
struck with a relatively long radius, as indicated
at 30, and the upper surface of the lower region
of the globe may be formed on arcs struck with
radii such as 3| and 32, respectively. Such for
mation will cause the rays passing through the
lower portion of the globe to move substantially
straight downwardly toward the street surface.
It will be understood that the lessening in re
fractive angles of the lower several Zones and the
lower region of the globe will be gradual, so that
there will not be any discernible hiatus between
the light ñux produced by the prisms at the side
portions of the globe and that produced by the
lower regions thereof.
By constructing the prisms'as pointed out
above, not only may they be formed simultane
(Si)
ously with the lens, and project the rays from
the intermediate portions of the globe down
wardly, but the further advantage is obtained
that as the points of projection from the prisms
approach toward the lens, the rays passing
through the prisms will be bent, as the angles
ofincidence, due to the downward inclination
of the prisms toward the lens, decrease, to grad
ually smaller and smaller degrees, until, as the
points of projection come near the lens, the rays
from the prisms will be bent into directions simi
lar to directions taken by rays composing the
beam from the lens, to be hereafter more fully
described, and will intermingle with the rays in
the beam so that a continuity of light from the
lens have been marked U1 to U5, respectively, for
the upper zones, and L1 to L5, respectively, for 30
the lower zones, in order to assist in understand
ing the analysis of the beam projection illustrated
in Figures 7 and 8. In these latter figures, the
pencils of rays from the respective lens zones
have been indicated by similar markings. It will
be seen that the rays of light from the source
incident on the inner faces of the zones of the
upper half of the lens will be projected down
wardly in the general direction of the optical
axis of the lens, the light rays emitted from 40
points adjacent such axis being substantially
parallel therewith, while the rays emitted from
points further removed from such axis will grad
ually converge toward and eventually cross the
axis to lie therebelow, the curvatures of the zones 45
being such that the rays from each _zone cross
each other and intermingle to form a smooth
distribution of light, and the rays from the vari
ous zones overlap, the light from the upper lens
half thus forming substantially the lower por
50
tion of the beam which defines the pattern there
of between the intersection of the optical axis
with the roadway and the lamp post. Rays from
the light source incident on the zones of the
lower half of the lens will be emitted in directions 55
to likewise cross the optical axis and intermingle
and overlap to form the pattern of the beam on
the roadway beyond the intersection of the opti
cal axis therewith, the curvature of the lower
Zones also being such that the rays from each 60
zone cross and intermingle with each other.
Further, the section of the beam from the lower
zones is spread to a somewhat greater extent,
due to the differencein curvatures of the lower
zones from the curvatures of the upper zones,
than the section of the beam from the upper
Zones, to thereby gradually broaden and lengthen
the beam as it extends along the street away from
the lamp post. In this way, the beams from the
lenses are substantially of the form illustrated 70
in Figures 7 and 8, it being lunderstood that
while in general, the rays from the lower lens
half form the portions of the vbeam that extend
to distant regions and the rays from the upper
lens half form the portions of the beam nearer
4
2,133,377
the lamp post, there will be su?licient intermin
gling and overlapping of these two portions along
and adjacent the optical axis, to prevent any
interruption in the smoothness of light distribu
tion.
This relative evenness of distribution is
enhanced by the construction whereby not only
dicated. _Between the area at H~--K and the lamp
posts, the intensity from the beams drops ofi in
the areas X, as indicated, but the rays from the
lower portions of the globes will fall upon these
areas, as illustrated by the rays M, to thus build
up the light intensities in these areas to< substan
the rays from the upper and lower halves con
sidered as a whole cross and intermingle, but also
the rays from each zone cross each other and
10 intermingle with rays from adjacent zones.
Due to the fact that the filament is of appre
tially even distribution of light along the entire
street is thus obtained. With this arrangement
of the lights in illuminating a street, it will be
ciable size, there will be some spread of the beam
upper lens half of one light, are superimposed
in practice, but this will not modify the distri
bution in the beam. The spread of the beam due
to filament size has been indicated in Figures 7
and 8, and is utilized to illuminate in part the
sidewalks along the street, as will hereinafter ap
pear.
In Figure 6, I have illustrated an arrangement
tially that in the area H-K, so that a substan
seen that the rays of higher intensity from the
on the rays of lower intensity from the lower
lens half of the next adjacent light, and the rays
of lower intensity from the lower half of iirst
said light, are superimposed on the rays of higher
intensity from the upper half of said adjacent
light, the rays of high and low intensity, respec
tively, from one light thus building up the rays
in which the lights are placed on posts in rows
of low and high intensity, respectively, from the -
along opposite sides of a street, with the lights
next light.
In order to increase the angle of light from
in one row placed in staggered relationship with
the lights in the other row (the positions of the
light being indicated at 9a), and With the lights
25 in each row being separated by a distance sub
stantially equal to the distance at which the far
thest-most portions of the beams from the adja
cent light will intersect the roadway, this distance
being in the assumed example, about seventy
30 four feet. As thus arranged, it will be noted that
the beams from the lenses of adjacent lights over
lap each other, as indicated by the overlapping
areas E, and that the areas F from the portions
of the globe intervening between the lenses are
arranged in staggered relationship, the areas of
light F produced by the portions of the globe
intermediate the lenses of one side of the street
substantially overlapping the intersecting por
tions of the beams on the other side of the street,
40 as well as the adjacent light areas F from the
globes along the other side of the street, so that
a smoothness and continuity of light throughout
the length and breadth of the street is obtained.
In the figure, the areas F have been shown as
slightly separated, for purposes of clearness of
illustration, but in practice, these areas will pref
erably occur in overlapping relationship. The
sidewalks are indicated at 34, and it will be seen
that these will be suñiciently illuminated by the
areas F, and also by the spread of the beams from
the lenses due to iìlament size. At the same time,
it will be noted that by reason of the rays from
the intermediate portions of the globes being di
rected downwardly upon the street andsidewalk
surfaces, as little light as possible will be allowed
the source utilized by the lenses I4, I may, if de
sired, interpose between said lenses and the light
source, condensing lenses 36-36, which may be 25
held in rings 3'! suspended in suitable manner
from the holder 5 as illustrated in Fig. 10. Thus
the amount of light projected through the lenses
I4 may be increased. The use of the condensers
can also be adopted in order to shorten the focal 80
length of the lenses I4, and to allow the use of a
smaller globe if desired, or, through the increase
in the angle of light subtended, the use of a small
candle-powered lamp, with substantially the same
results as far as the light intensity of the beams
are concerned as that obtained with a higher can- x
cile-powered lamp, but without the use of con
densers.
.T may also, where desired, make use of total
reflecting prisms 38 (see Fig. 11) on the upper
portions of the globe above the lenses I4 and
prisms I5, so that light from the source upon
striking said-prisms 38 will be reñected back
through the light source, as indicated by the 'ray
38a, and thus increase the intensity of the light
passing through the lower portions of the globe,
and I may also use a reñector 39, for instance,
of spherical formation, at the upper part of the
globe within the holder 5, to likewise utilize the
light which would otherwise be absorbed by the
holder and reflect such light back through the
walls, as indicated bythe ray 39a, to increase
the intensity of the light projected through the
bottom portions of the globe.
In order to obtain a more even spread of the ,
to shine into the windows of houses along the
street, and thus an objectionable feature of many
street lighting systems is done away with.
The intensity of the beams from the lenses
where such beams intersect the street surface,
will gradually increase from the portions of the
beams farthest from the lamp post towards the
portions of the beams nearest to the lamp post,
and in Figure 9 I have illustrated the distribu
light rays, I may, if desired, provide the globe
with iiutings, such as illustrated at 4E) in Figure
12, which flutings will cause the light rays issu
ing from the lateral portions thereof to cross and
intermingle, as indicated by the rays'4l, and
tion of light intensity from adjacent overlapping
beams, in which the gradual increase of candle
portions of the globe, so as to increase the hori
thus result in a very smooth and even distribu
tion. If the street to be illuminated is of the
width to require it, such flutings may be super
posed over the lenses, as well as over the side
zontal Width of the beams. projected by the
lenses. 'I‘he flutings used on the intermediate
portions of the globe or on the lens, may be‘of
lapping portions of the beams along the street, constant curvature, or may be of varying curva
from the point H to the point K, it will be seen - ture, in order to obtain evenness of distribution 70
that the intensities of the sections of one beam desired for the particular conditions under which
added to those of the other, will produce a sub
the light is being used.
stantially even distribution of light along the
The globe made according to my invention is
power from .5, to 3 in intensity of various sec
tions of the beams, is illustrated. In the over
street surface, the candlepower in the various
overlapping zones of the street surface, being in
susceptible of various changes in form, and the
lamp may be mounted either in the upper or 75
2,138,377
lower portion thereof, as illustrated in Figures
13 and 14. In Figure 13, for instance, the globe
is illustrated as being of substantially inverted
pyramidal shape with a light-diffusing lens 42
mounted at the lower portion thereof on which
refractíng elements 43 are formed, such lens
diffusing light downwardly onto the ground im
mediately beneath the globe. In this form of
the invention, the globe would be suspended. from
'10 its upper end, for instance, as illustrated. Also
the globe may be of inverted conical form, as
shown in Figure 14, in this case being mounted
adjacent its lower portion (which will be open)
upon a holder 44 supported upon the top of a
lamp` post 45, the lamp 46 extending upwardly
5
at increasing distances substantially along a line
at an angle to and intersecting the optical axis
at the outer face of the lens and with increasing
radii as the outer edge of the lens is approached,
in combination with refracting prisms whose
edges lie in planes substantially parallel with the
optical axis, and whose upper and lower faces
respectively are substantially tangent to circles
of different diameters lying in a plane at right
angles to said optical axis.
2. In a light projector, a glass body having
formed thereon a lens of modified Fresnel con
struction having an optical axis extending down
wardly below the horizontal, the zones on the
upper half of the lens being struck from centers
into the globe from a suitable socket carried by
substantially along the optical axis at increasing
the lamp post. An opening may also be provided
distances and with increasing radii as the outer
edge of the lens is approached, the zones on the
lower half of the lens being struck from centers
at increasing distances substantially along a line
at an angle to the optical axis and with increas
ing radii as the outer edge of the lens is ap
at the top as at 41, and in such opening, a venti
lating cap 48 may be mounted.
In some instances, it will be desirable to mount
'20
a light above the middle of street intersections,
and in this case, I may utilize a globe in which
two pair of lenses are employed, as illustrated in
Figure l5, and if only one globe is employed, I
may, in order to concentrate most of the light
within a comparatively short radius of the street
intersection, raise the light source above the focal
region of the globe so as to thus bend the beams
projected from the lenses, and the rays pro
30 jected through the intervening portions of the
globe, downwardly at sharper angles, and thus
bring the areas illuminated closer up toward the
light and concentrate it in the vicinity of the
street intersection.
_
In some localities it may be desirable to mount
a light against the side of a building, for instance,
in which case, as illustrated in Figure 16, I may
use only one globe section, and mount the same
in a suitable holder 50, against the wall 5l of the
building. In this'y type of installation, the lamp
may be mounted horizontally in a suitable socket
52 disposed against the wall of the building, and
a suitable reflector 53 within the holder 50 may
be used to utilize the light which would otherwise
be lost against the building wall, and reflect such
proached, in combination with refracting prisms
whose edges lie in planes substantially parallel
25
with the optical axis.
3. In a light projector, a glass body having
formed thereon a lens of modified Fresnel con
struction having an optical axis extending down
wardly below the horizontal, the zones on the
upper half of the lens and the zones on the lower 30
half of the lens being struck respectively from
their centers substantially along lines diverging
from the lens with increasing radii as the outer
edges of the lens are approached, in combina
tion with refracting prisms, whose upper and low 35
er faces respectively are substantially tangent to
circles of different diameters lying in a plane sub
stantially at right angles to said optical axis.
4. In a light projector, a glass body having
formed thereon a lens of modified Fresnel con
40
struction having an optical axis extending down
wardly below the horizontal, the zones on the
upper half of the lens being struck from centers
substantially along the optical axis at increasing
distances _and with increasing radii as the outer 45
edge of the lens is approached, the zones on the
While, in the foregoing, I have made a detailed lower half ofthe lens being struck from centers
at increasing distances substantially along a line
exposition of some of the forms which the inven
tion may take, not only as concerns its optical at an angle to the optical axis and with increas
ing radii as the outer edge of the lens is ap
50 characteristics, but also as concerns the shape, preached, in combination with refracting prisms
formation and size of the globe, and different
extending up-wardly and rearwardly from said
methods of mounting the same, and uses to which
it may be put, it will be understood that I do lens.
5. In a light projector, a glass body having
vnot -intend to be limited to the specific examples
thereon a lens of Fresnel construction
55 herein above chosen for illustrative purposes, but 'formed
having an optical axis extending downwardly be
may make such modifications, changes and re
arrangements of parts, for instance, changes in low the horizontal, the lens construction being
the dimensions and radii of the lens steps, and modified to present upper and lower zones of vary
in the angles and curvatures of the refracting ing curvature and refracting powers, in combina
60 prisms, in order to vary the light distribution tion with refracting prisms whose edges lie in
above described, as do- not depart from the spirit planes substantially parallel with the optical axis,
of the invention and the scope of the appended and whose upper and lower faces respectively are
substantially tangent to circles of different diam
claims.
1
Having thus described my invention what I eter lying in a plane substantially at right angles
65 claim as new, and desire to secure by U. S. to said optical axis.
6. In a light projector, a glass body having
Letters Patent is:.
1. In a light projector, a glass body having formed thereon a lens of modified Fresnel con
struction having an optical axis extending down
formed thereon a lens of modified Fresnel con
wardly below the horizontal, the zones of the up
struction having an optical axis extending down
per and lower half of the lens being of varying
70 wardly below the horizontal, thev zones on the
upper half of the lens being struck from centers curvature, in combination with refracting prisms
substantially along the optical axis at increasing whose upper and lower faces respectively are sub
distances and with increasing radii as the outer stantially tangent to circles of different diameters
edge of the lens is approached, the zones on the lying in a plane substantially at right angles to
\
75 lower half of the lens being struck from centers said optical axis.
light outwardly through the globe section.
50
4
55
60
65
70
75
6
y2,133,377'
7. In a light projector, a glass body having
formed thereon a lens of modiiied Fresnel con
struction having an optical axis extending down
wardly below the horizontal, the zones on the up-per and lower- half of the lens being of varying
curvature and being struck respectively from cen
ters lying respectively substantially along diverg
ing lines, in combination with refracting prisms
extending upwardly and rearwardly from the
10 lens.
8. In a light projector, a glass body having a
lens of modiiied Fresnel construction provided
with a focal region and having an optical axis ex
tending downwardly below the horizontal, the
zones on the upper andrlower half of the lens
being of varying curvature and being struck with
radii, the lengths of which for the zones on oneI
half are respectively shorter than the lengths of
those for the other half, and adapted to project
into a beam rays from a light source at the focal
region, in combination with refracting prisms
whose up-per and lower faces, respectively, are
substantially tangent to circles of different diam
eter lying in a plane substantially at right angles
to said optical axis and adapted to project down
wardly rays originating from said light source. `
9. In a light projector, a glass body having a
lens of modified Fresnel construction forming a
part thereof, and having a focal region, and an
30 optical axis extending downwardly below the
horizontal, the zones on the upper and lower half
of the lens being struck respectively with radii of
diiierent length substantially along lines at an
angle to each other, whereby with a light source
at the focal region, a beam will be projected from
said lens in which the beam section from the up
per lens half crosses the optical axis and forms
the lower half of the beam, while the beam section
from the lower half of the lens crosses the axis
and forms the upper half of the beam, in com
bination with refracting prisms extending up
wardly and rearwardly from the lens in planes
substantially parallel with the optical axis and
adapted from said light source to project rays
downwardly at decreasing angles as the points of
projection approach said lens.
10. In combination, a plurality of light projec
tors arranged at substantial heights above a street
in rows, with the projectors of one row disposed
in staggered relationship with projectors of the
other row, each projector having a glass body
provided with a focal region and with opposite
lenses, each lens having an optical axis inclined
downwardly below the horizontal, the portions
Li Cl
intermediate the lenses having light-refracting
prisms extending from said lenses upwardly
toward a transverse plane through the vertical
axis of such projector, a light source at said focal
region whereby beams from said lenses are pro
60 jected downwardly in opposite directions to il
luminate areas of the street intermediate the
projectors in each row and rays from said inter
mediate portions of said p-rojectors are directed
laterally and downwardly to illuminate areas in
C) Ul tervening between the areas illuminated by said
beams, the projectors in each row being so spaced
apart that the beams from the projectors therein
overlap, the rows being so spaced apart that the
areas illuminated from said intermediate portions
70 of the projectors of one row overlap similar areas
illuminated by adjacent projectors of the oppo
site row.
11. In combination, a plurality of light projec
tors arranged at substantial heights above a
75 street in rows, each projector having a glass body
provided with a focal region and with opposite
lenses having optical axes inclined downwardly,
the portions intermediate the lenses having light
refracting prisms, the prisms on opposite sides
of a transverse plane through the vertical axis
of said projector extending downwardly toward
said lenses, a light source at said focal region,
whereby beams from said lenses are projected
downwardly in opposite directions to illuminate
areas of the street intermediate the projectors in l0
each row and rays from the intermediate por
tions of the projectors are directed laterally and
downwardly to illuminate areas intervening be
tween the areas illuminated by said beams.
12. In a light projector, a glass body having 15
oppositely disposed Fresnel lenses modiñed. to
present upper and lower zones of varying curva
ture and refracting powers, the body above, be
low and between the lenses presenting prisms in
clining downwardly toward the adjacent lens, the 20
prisms between and below the lenses being of
substantially maximum refractive power, the
prisms above the lenses being of substantially
total reflecting power.
13. In a light projector, a glass body having a 25
lens of Fresnel construction modiñed to present
upper zones struck from centers substantially
along the optical axis at increasing distances and
with increasing radii as the outer edge of the lens
is approached, the lower half of the lens having 30
zones struck from centers at increasing distances
substantially along a line at an angle to and in
tersecting the optical axis at the outer face of
the lens and with increasing radii as the outer
edge of the lens is approached, combined with
prisms above and below the lens with the prisms
above the lens of substantially maximum refrac
tive power and the prisms below the lens of sub
stantially total reflecting power.
14. In a light projector, a glass body having a
lens of Fresnel construction modified to present
upper zones struck from centers substantially
along the optical axis at increasing distances and
with increasing radii as the outer edge of the lens
is ap-proached, the lower half of the lens having .
zones struck from centers at increasing distances
substantially along a line at an angle to and in
tersecting the optical axis at the outer face of the
lens and with increasing radii as the outer edge
of the lens is approached, combined with prisms
above and below the lens with the prisms above
the lens of substantially maximum refractive
power and the prisms below the lens of substan
tially total reflecting power, the prisms of sub
stantially maximum refractive power having their 55
edges in planes substantially parallel with the
optical axis.
15. In a light projector, a glass body having a
lens of Fresnel construction modified to present
upper zones struck from centers substantially
along the optical axis at increasing distances and
with increasing radii as the outer edge of the lens
is approached, the lower half of the lens having
zones struck from centers at increasing distances
substantially along a line at an angle to and in 65
tersecting the optical axis'at the outer face of the
lens and with increasing radii as the outer edge
of the lens is approached, combined with prisms
above and below the lens with the prisms above
the lens of substantially maximum refractive 70
power and the prisms below the lens of substan
tially total reilecting power, the refracting prisms
having their upper and lower faces respectively
substantially tangent to circles of different diam
2,133,377
eters lying in a plane substantially at right angles
to the optical axis of the lens.
16. In a light projector, a glass body having a
lens of Fresnel construction modiñed to present
upper zones struck from centers substantially
along the optical axis at increasing distances and
with increasing radii as the outer edge of the lens
is approached, the lower half of the lens having
zones struck from centers at increasing distances
10 substantially along a line at an angle to and inter
7
secting the optical axis at the outer face of the
lens and with increasing radii as the outer edge
of the lens is approached, combined with prisms
above and below the lens with the prisms above
the lens of substantially maximum refractive
power and the prisms below the lens of substan
tially total deflecting power, the refracting prisms
extending upwardly and rearwardly from said
lens.
PHILIPP A. CULLMAN.
10
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