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Патент USA US2133504

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Oct. 18, 1938.
H. R.'F'oR'roN
, 2,133,504 '
FiledOct. 2, 1935
- v
xarald?. fiz'arfarz '
Patented Oct; _ 18, 1938
Harold it. Foi‘ton, Detroit, Mich.
Application October 2, 1935, ‘Serial No. 43,164
5 Claims.
This invention relates to portable apparatus
for melting, atomizing and spraying metals, hav
(01. 91-123)
A still further object involves the conduction
ing generally as its object the provision of an
improved organization of parts adapted to apply
5 in this manner a metallic coating to any suitable
protect the \latter by a surrounding ?lm of highly
heated gases to assist in maintaining the tem
surface/by projection of the molten atomized
perature of the nozzle.
metal against the work in a pressure-induced
A still further aim'of the present invention
comprises the provision of improved heating
of heated gases from the heating chamber around
the crucible and over the nozzle to constantly
t .
means carried by and located entirely within the
Various forms of apparatus for accomplishing
these general ends have been known heretofore,
and while some have worked satisfactorily for
certain‘purposeaall have been subject to short
head, together with means for proportioning the
heating effect to the rate of delivery of blast air
comings, and there has not to my knowledge been
stant delivery of a uniform atomized blast of
available heretofore a satisfactory small and
portable implement, or one of any size manu
molten metal is insured.
and metal tovbe melted in such manner that con
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a side elevational view of an im- "
facturable at low cost yet reliable in operation.
It has also been’ considered necessary to utilize ~ proved device incorporating the principles of my
?aming'gases in the projection ‘of the atomized invention.
Figure 2 is a sectional view thereof taken sub- .
metal, thus rendering impossible the coating of
stantiallyon' the line 2—2 of Figure 1 and look
2 “combustible substances. Further, where such
?ame-type projection is employed, a triple nozzle ing in the direction of the arrows. ;
.Figure 3 is a longitudinal sectional elevation
must be provided, that is, there must simul
taneously be fed from as close to a common point vtaken generally on the line 3-3 of Figure 2 and
as is practicable, molten metal, air under pressure,
25 and the gases of combustion. This fact has made
' it impossible from a practical standpoint to re
duce the size'of the nozzle and apparatus to pro
portions allowing ready portability and treat
1~_ment of relatively small work, such as that re
‘quired to be coated) in the field‘, of mechanical
dentistry. The present invention aims to over
come the mentioned dif?culties, to provide efl‘icient
operation without the use of ?ame projection,
and in a manner which enables use of a much ’.
smaller nozzle assembly, and consequent adapta
tion" of the apparatus to manufacture in much
looking in the direction of the arrows. >
Figure 4 is an enlarged detail sectional view of 25'
the nozzle portions.
Figure 5 is a sectional elevation thereof‘itaken
substantially as indicated on the line 5--5 of
Figure 4 and looking vin the direction ‘ of the
Figure 6 is an enlarged detail sectional view of
one of the gas Jet nozzles.
Referring now to the drawings, reference char!
acter i0 designates a generally cylindrical sheet
metal housing, carriedby- a handle l2 and hav
ing a back or upper wall and an open lower face in
which the nozzle-projecting portions are sup
upper or back wall is apertured, as
physical proportions, and of such ,size as to enable at H, to Its
the escape of hot gases. Within
the performance of small and ?ne work.
A further object is the provision of such ap- _ the casing element is a framework carried there
smaller, more easily handled and economical
paratus of the gun type, in which melting, of the
metal takes place entirely within the gun, and
no storage or reservoir of molten metal is provided,
the metal being projected immediately upon melt
45 ing and consequently given .no opportunity to
unduly oxidize.
by. comprising a generally cylindrical ring ele
ment l5 supported within the outer casing by
screws I6, and a backing plate I! provided with a
?ue portion 20 arranged to ‘ discharge through
the opening ill in the back wall of the casing. 4
The ?ue may be guarded as by a hat 22 arranged .
A further important object is the provision of thereover to protect the user of the implement,
whose head, or other portions of whose body might
such apparatus in which air is used for projec
tion of the molten metal, but cannot cool the at times come close to the ?ue. The hat is shown
metal before it leaves or cause congelation there . as swingably attached, so that it may be moved 50
clear of the flue to allow removal of the crucible
of in the nozzle.
Another important object is the provision in and other internal parts; a loose rivet, as 23,
such a device of an improved combined crucible serving to pivotally attach the hat to the back wall
and nozzle element for the molten metal, which of the casing.
In the‘ open front of the casing-and spaced 55
crucible element serves as a conveying tube rather
from the ring I5, supported if desired by the
than storage element for the molten metal, to
gether with improved means for protecting the . same screws I6, is an annular element 25 pro
nozzle portion against engagement by the aspirat
ing air, and consequent undesired conduction of
60 heat therefrom.
vided with a circular feeding channel 21 for com
bustible gas, which is burned to provide the heat
‘source. The front of element 25 is provided with 60
a generally frusto-conical depression 29.
freezing of the metal within the nozzle.
_ depression. is closed and thus made to constitute ' base of the crucible and the surface of element
an air delivery chamber by a front plate 30. In
tegral with element 25 is a forwardly projecting
cylindrical central wall 26' which, as best shown
in Figure 4, projects‘ into ‘the space within and
de?nes the inner periphery of the annular air
25 upon which it rests are not roughened or oth
through the hollow handle [2, and discharge into
the general effect of the suction, moreover, is
erwise specially treated to allow the desired
minute‘gas ?ow therearound, but are in my pre
ferred construction simply machine ?nished. It
may be that the slight ?ow necessary to main
feed opening 32, guarding the nozzle 52 'thru ' tain the skin of heated air about the nozzle is
possible because of the vibration of the loose
which the molten metal is discharged against di
crucible due to the action thereupon of the 10
rect engagement by the aspirating air.
flames, metal, and air ?ow. It is to be noted that
Air and gas delivery tubes 34-35 may be run
the air passage 29 and gas passage 21 respective
ly, while ‘the metal to be sprayed may also be
15 delivered through thehandle, preferably in rib
bon form, as indicated at 31. Driving means for
feeding the ribbon may comprise a pair of roll
ers 38—-39 in frictional engagement therewith,
and one, as'39, drivable by such means as worm
v20 and worm wheel ill-4|, the former in turn car
,-"f'ried upon and drivable by flexible shaft 44,
which may project from the handle to any suit
able source of power, as the electric motor dia
grammatically indicated at 45'. The air and gas
25 passages, or at least those portions thereof which
project from the handle, are of course preferably
?exible, as is the ribbon 31, and the air and gas
supply couplings and the ribbon supply reel or
the like (unshown) may be mounted upon the
.30 bench- (also unshown), or other support upon
which the tool is to be used. It is preferable
for the sake of convenience that the tool, if pro—
portioned for small work, such as the metalizing
operations frequently desirable in mechanical
35 dentistry, be used within a few feet of these con
nections and the motor, so that the connecting
tubes, shaft and’ ribbon may not be unduly long
and cumbersome.
A combined metal melting and delivery tube
50, which will for convenience be designated a
crucible, is arranged substantially coaxially of
and centrally within the casing, the upper end
thereof being closed by a plug as 5|, while ‘its
,lower delivery end carries the integral nozzle
extension 52 which projects through but is some
what smaller than the space within the cylin
drical wall 26, as best indicated in Figure 4. The
crucible is preferably formed of metal, although
it may be ‘of refractory material, but in either
event is merely loosely positioned within the cas
ing, not tightly secured in place, and provided
with an annular pocket 53 surrounding the noz
zle portion 52 at its area of connection with the
body of the crucible, such pocket being thus con
55 nected to the space between the nozzle 52 and
wall 26. The base portion of the crucible sur
to maintain the crucible seated, so that although
vibration may allow a slight ?ow therebeneath,
flaming gases cannot escape.
The metal ribbon is fed into the side of ‘the
crucible through a simple oversized opening 60,
and is melted as fast as it enters by the flames
from the gas jets 63, which are so focused as to
concentrate the hottest portions of their flames 20
upon the wall of the crucible. Six such jets are
shown, a pair carried by each of three combined
bolts and gas feed’ tubes 65, extended between
element 25 and backing vplate l8 and secured to
each ‘by suitably threaded coupling portions 66- 25
61, the former providing a gas connection between
thesupply chamber 21 and the gas channel 68
in each element 65, while a nut 69 may be se-'
cured upon the portion 61 which projects through
the backing plate. Each gas nozzle is axially 30
drilled, as at 10, to provide gas connection with
the passage 68, while air ports 'Il through the
sides of the nozzles supply air in suitable quan
titles to the larger mixing and discharge ori?ce
12, these parts being proportioned in accordance
with the gassupply, and, as stated above, to
focus the hottest part of the ?ame upon the cru
cible. The stem of each nozzle 63 may extend
far enough into passage 68 to partly close the
connection between it and the nozzle opening,
thereby serving as a pressure reducing or meter
ing ori?ce, which, particularly inthe case of the
nozzle nearer the supply chamber 21, equalizes
the gas supply pressure. The air supply for the
burners enters the casing through the space 15 45
between element 25 and ring l5.
It will be seen that in event it is desired to
remove the crucible it is merely necessary to
swing hat 22 clear of the ?ue and remove the cru
cible therethrough, since it merely rests in place. 50
I have found that a tool constructed in the man
ner described, and substantially in the propor—
tions shown, functions more satisfactorily than
any similar device of which I am aware, and par
ticularly embodies satisfactory‘ operation in a
much smaller construction, but it is necessary that
rounding the pocket 53, and which rests upon the aspirating power of the air blast equal or ex
the top wall of element 25, is not so ?nished as to ceed the rate of metal delivery, and that the heat
tightly conform to and seal itself against such ' ing also be rapid enough to melt the metal as
fast as it is delivered. The heating of the cruci
wall, as a result of which when, during opera
tion, the aspirating air blast reduces the pressure ble near the nozzle end is also important in main
in front of the nozzle assembly with respect to taining the‘ temperature of the metal and the
, the pressure within the casing, a certain amount
of the air and/or heated gases within the casing
65 may leak between the base of the crucible and
element 25, into the‘pocket 53, and out around
the nozzle 52, such air being highly heated by its
contact with the. crucible and forming a skin -of
heated gases surrounding the nozzle and pre—
70 venting undue absorption of heat therefrom by
the colder wall 26, thus assisting in maintaining
the temperature of the nozzle, which effect is also
aided by the shortness-of the nozzle and its in
tegrality with the crucible. These factors fa
75 cilitate ready heat conduction and guard against
It is also not possible, in accordance with my
experience, to make the gun function properly, 65
and to prevent clogging in the nozzle, if the cru
cible is tightly secured. The proportioning of
the nozzle with respect to the air discharge and
pressure, the rate of metal delivery and the heat,
must of course be fixed, but once satisfactorily 70
set no adjustments are necessary.
It is best, if
constant pressure air supply is not available, to
utilize a controlling valve in the air line adapted
to maintain the pressure reasonably constant.
The drawings accompanying this disclosure are, N
excepting as to'the enlarged views, substantially
of full size and proper proportions, although the
limits of drafting ability will not enable accu
rate showing of the proportions of the nozzle and
jet openings, which must be ?xed with accuracy.
3. In a portable metalizing device, a casing hav
ing an opening therein, a combined metal fusing
and conducting element within the casing having
an inlet opening near one end thereof and an out
These can be readily ?xed by the designing en
let nozzle portion connected to its other end and
extending through the opening in the casing,
' gineervhowever, although it may be of further
help to set forth that in connection with such a
means for feeding metal in strip form substan
tool, utilizing a metallic ribbon oi’ tin-lead mix
10 ture, similar in composition to ordinary solder,
and an air pressure of 35 pounds, the air dis
charge should be approximately 2l/gycubic feet
per minute. A blast projection is then secured
at the nozzle at a rate approximating 20,000 feet
15 per minute. Due to the protection of the metal
against loss of heat up to the very instant of its
discharge, and the apparent tendency of each
tialiy continuously through the inlet opening and
into said element, means. for heating other‘ por
tions of said element, an atomizing jet ori?ce ad 10
jacent the nozzle and discharging in the same gen~
eral direction for aspirating and projecting the
metal, a wall between said nozzle and blast jet
ori?ce for shielding the nozzle against direct
impingement by the atomizing blast, said wall 16
also providing a restricted passage between the
interior of the casing and the nozzle to enable
atomized particle to shield itself with a protecting ' the heating of the latter by means of hot gases
skin of heated air which remains stagnant de— from the interior of the casing, and means ap
20 spite the propagation of the particle, the blast
will arrive at and adhere to the work in an homo
geneously fused coating, even though projected
purtenant said ?rst mentioned opening to pre 20
vent escape of flame through said passage.
through a considerable distance. The tool is
ordinarily used in the horizontal position in which
4. In a device of the character described, a
housing having a heating chamber and an open
ing therein, a “combined metal fusing and con
25 it is shown, but functions satisfactorily when
ducting element in the heating chamber, a nozzle
tilted as much as forty-?ve degrees.
While it will be apparent that the illustrated
embodiments of my inventionherein disclosed
are well calculated to adequately ful?ll the ob
30 jects and advantages primarily stated, it is to be
understood that the invention is susceptible to
variation, modi?cation and change within the
spirit and scope 'of the subjoined claims.
What I claim is:
1. Means for spraying atomized molten metal
comprising a housing incorporating a metal re
ceiving crucible, heating ‘means, therefor and a
discharge nozzle for melted metal directly con
nected to and integral with the receiving means,
connected to' said element and discharging out
side the chamber through said opening, means
for delivering metal to said element substantially
continuously, means for heating said element to
melt the metal therein at a rate at least as fast as 30
that at which it is delivered thereto, aspirating
means including a jet surrounding the nozzle for
discharging a gaseous projecting agent and draw
ing the molten metal from the crucible through
the nozzle to form an atomized blast thereof, the 86
aspirating power of the jet being at least as great » I
as the rate of melting and delivery of the metal,
said surrounding jet being spaced from the nozzle
by a separate wall concentric with but spaced
40 means for maintaining the nozzle in a heated ' from the nozzle, the jet being arranged to draw
condition, a blast discharge nozzle surrounding heated gases through the space between said wall
the metal discharge nozzle and arranged when in
operation to aspirate the molten metal from the
first mentioned nozzle and atomize and project
45 such metal, said ?rst mentioned nozzle project
ing loosely through the blast discharge nozzle,
and the crucible being free to move with respect
to the housing.
2. In a device of the character ‘described, a
50 housing having a heating chamber therein and
an opening connecting the same with the exte
rior, a combined metal fusing and conducting
element within and smaller than the heating
and nozzle to maintain the temperature of the
nozzle, said element and nozzle constituting an
assembly rested loosely in said housing and
against said opening, and means for heating the
nozzle without allowing ?ame projection.
5. In a device of the character described, a
housing having a heating chamber and an open
ing therein, a combined metal fusing and con
ducting element in the heating chamber, a nozzle
connected to said element and discharging out
side the chamber through said opening, means
for delivering metal to said element substantially
continuously, means for heating said element to
chamber, a metal discharge nozzle portion car
65 ried by and connected to the interior of said ele- - melt the metal therein'at a rate at least as fast
ment and projecting through but smaller than as that at which it is delivered thereto, aspirating .55
the. opening in the housing, means within the means ‘including a jet surrounding the nozzle for
heating chamber for heating said element, means discharging a gaseous projecting agent and draw
including a projection jet appurtenant the open
ing the molten metal from the crucible through
ing and adapted to discharge a projecting ?uid
under pressure to reduce the pressure at the
mouth of the nozzle and induce molten metal
within said element to flow therefrom, and means
for feeding metal to said element, said element
and nozzle being fitted loosely enough in the
opening to allow a slight ?ow of heated gases
from within the chamber through the space‘be
tween the nozzle and opening, to maintain in a
highly heated condition the metal within the
70 nozzle while preventing ?ame projection‘, said
heating means, metal fusing and conducting ele
ment, nozzle and projection jet being so propor
tioned as to discharge the metal as‘fast as it is
the nozzle to form an atomized blast thereof, the
aspirating power of the jet being at least as great
as the rate of melting and delivery of the metal,
said surrounding jet being spaced from the noz
zle, and the nozzle being relatively short and con
stituting a unitary assembly with said element
and resting loosely in said housing and against 65
said opening, whereby e?icient heat conduction
may take place between the element and nozzle,
and whereby heated air may escape around the
nozzle but escape of ?ame is inhibited, whereby
the nozzle is heated by the'escaping air.
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