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Патент USA US2133537

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Oct. 18, 1938.
A. w. CARPENTER
2,133,537
OPTICAL REDUCTION PRINTER
Filed July 18, 1935
4 Sheets-Sheet l
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IN VENTOR.
AW. CAQPENTEQ
ATTORNE
Oct. 18, 1938.
A. w. CARPENTER
2,133,537
OPTICAL REDUCTION PRINTER
Filed July 18, 1935
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ATTORNEY
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Oct. 18, 1938.
2,133,537
A. W. CARPENTER
OPTICAL REDUCTION PRINTER
Filed July 18, 1935
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BY
ATTORNE
Patented Oct. 18, 1938
‘2,133,537
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE -
2,138,537 _
OPTICAL BEPUCTION PRINTER.
Arthur W. Carpenter. New York, N. Y., assignor
toUnltedlteaeas-chCol’poration, Long Island
City, N. Y., a corporation of Delaware
Application Jilly 18, 1835, Serial No. 31,968
'lClaims. (CI. 88-24)
This invention relates to optical printing of
motion picture ?lm and particularly to continu
ous optical printing wherein a reduction in size
is made between the negative ?lm and the ?nal
5
positive print.
'
-
In the art of printing motion picture ?lms,
and particularly talking or sound ?lms bearing
both images of pictures and sound, common
driving means have been employed for maintain
ing the proper relationship between the ?lms and
the proper displacement between the picture and
sound images. A printer of. this general type is
disclosed and claimed in my joint patent with
Maurice G. Ricker, No. 1,993,085 of March 5, 1935.
'
The present invention has several of the broad
features of the patent such as a common sprocket
and an optical path between the positive and neg
ative, the direction of the ?lm being such that
the projected image travels in a direction to pro
vide a correct print. The present invention‘is
directed to an optical printer in‘which the neg
ative images, picture and sound, are eillciently
printed on a smaller sized ?lm than that of the
negative. This involves the necessity of obtain
: ing proper synchronism between, for instance, a
35 mm. negative and a 16 mm. positive, and mak
ing proper optical transpositions for_obtaining
30
the proper proportions of the smaller images.
This is accomplished by a novel combination
drive sprocket stabilized by an integrally mount
ed ?ywheel. Specially constructed pad rollers
under control of tensioning and dampening
means aid in providing uniform advancement
past the printing apertures. The‘aperture gates
. have ?lm supporting or sti?'ening shoes which
longitudinally curve the ?lm between the aper
tures and sprocket to prevent sprocket teeth fluc
Fig. 2 is a rear elevational view of my inven
tion taken along line 2—2 of Fig. 5.
Fig. 3 is a sectional elevational view taken on
line 3-3 of Hg. 1.
Fig. 4 is a sectional elevational view taken on, a
line 4-4 of Fig. 3.
1'18. 5 is a sectional elevational view taken on
line H of Pig. 1.
Fig. 6 is a front view of a common lead sprocket
partly broken away.
Fig. ‘l is a sectional view taken on line 1-1
of Pig. 6.
'
10
.
Fig. 8 is a side view of the eccentric adjusting
member employed in the common lead sprocket.
Pig. 9 is an end view of the eccentric member 15
taken in the direction of arrow I of Fig. 8.
Fig. 10 is a perspective view of a mask which
permits both sound and picture to be printed
upon the positive ?lm.
Fig. 11 is a perspective view of the mask which 20
is employed to print only the picture part upon
the positive
.
‘
Fig. 12 is a perspective view of the mask which
is employed to print only the sound track upon
the positive ?lm.
.
Referring now to Fig. 1, it will be noted that
the negative take-up roll i is driven by a take-up
spindle I having a ?ange 3 at the rear thereof.
The spindle 2 is journalled in a bearing formed
26
on an arm 4 projecting from the main wall sec- 30
tion I. The negative supply roll I is carried on
a free spindle I which has a rear flange 1' there
on. The spindle ‘I is journalled in the end of an
arm I provided on the opposite side of the wall I.
from thesupplyrollt the?lm lisledundera a5
snubbing roller ll, over a guide roller II, and
then around a drive sprocket II.- A pad roller
tuations from affecting the movement _of the ?lm 7 II’ of the type described and claimed in the co
at the apertures.
_
pending application of Ernest Ross and Axel 8.
40
An object of the invention, therefore, is to Ellason, Serial No. 27,157 ?led June 18, 1935, is 40
accurately drive and correlate a large negative provided to hold the ?lm in engagement with
?lm to a smaller positive ?lm during the con
the sprocket II. From the sprocket i! the nega
tinuous printing thereof.
tive ‘forms a free loop I 3.
45
A further object is to facilitate the driving or
advancing of different sized ?lms at separated
points while maintaining a uniform and stable
advancement at these points.
,
'
The various features of the invention and the
details thereof will be more fully understood. by
reference to the following description read in
conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in
which
Fig. 1 is a ‘front elevational view of a motion
55 picture ?lm printer embodying my invention.
Asiswellknownto thosefamiliarwiththeart,
the negative may have certain parts which have 45
considerably more density than others, that is,
when photographing. the light conditions for one
scene may have been much better than for an
other. Therefore, one scene will show up lighter
than another. This varying density of the nega- 5o
tive is usually compensated for by either varying
aperture or by varying the in
tensity of the printing light. One of the many
methods of automatically varying the intensity
of the printing lisht employs a contactor switch ss
2,188,687 -'
2 .
I4 which operates a suitable variable resistance
within the lamp circuit and which, in turn, is
operated by notches or grooves placed at inter
I41 pass their dead center position, at which
time the spring will act to hold it in anlopen po
sition. In order to prevent the pad'roller I9 from
vals_ along one side of the negative.
As this
bouncing over splices made on the ?lm, or from
method of varying the intensity of the printer
light forms no part of my present invention I
will not describe it in further detail.
dropping in a sharp impact against the sprocket,
if released when in a retracted position, I pro
vide a pneumatic dash pct 26 comprising an en
The negative, after forming the free loop I3,
closed cylinder 21 pivoted to the wall 5 at 28.
A rod 29 is pivotally attached to the arm 20 of
the pad roller I9 at one end and operates a
passes through the switch I4 and thence between
10 a pair of edge guiding rollers I1 and through
a projection gate generally indicated at l6 where
the image of the negative is projected downward
ly onto the raw positive ?lm. From the pro
jection gate I6 the ?lm is led between a pair of
15 edge guiding rollers l5 and thence onto a por
tion of the outer toothed surfaces of a common
.double lead sprocket I8, the details of'construc
tion of which are described and claimed in the
co-pendlng application of Ernest Ross, Serial No.
20 15,771, ?led April 11, 1935.
_
As shown in Figs. 6 to 9 the sprocket I8 com
prises a pair of ?anges I30 and I3I having
toothed sprocket- discs I32 and I33 attached
thereby by clamping discs I34 and I35 which
25 are secured by screws I35’. The ?ange I3I has
a hub portion I36 formed thereon on which the
?ange I30 is mounted. A pin I50 (Fig. 6) pre
vents relative angular movement of the two
?anges I30 and I3I. On the inner side of the
30 ?anges I30 and I3I is mounted a pair of smaller
toothed discs I31 and I38 being spaced apart by
' a spacer ring I39. A pluralltyof clamping bolts
I40 are mounted through apertures MI in the
?ange I30, through elongated slots I42 (Fig. 6)
35 and are threadably secured within the ?ange I3I.
In order to angularly adjust one pair of toothed
sprocket discs in relation to the other, an eccen
tric I43 is provided. The head I44 of the eccen
tric I43 engages an elongated groove I45 provided
40 in ?ange I30. A projection M6 on the rear end
of the eccentric I43 is rotatably mounted within
an aperture I41 extending through the disc I31
and partially through- the spacer ring I39. A
screw I48 holds the eccentric I43 in place. Thus
it may be seen that by loosening the clamping
45
bolts I40 and I48 ‘the eccentric I43 may be ro
tated to effect angular displacement of one of
the pairs of sprocket teeth in respect to the other
for the purpose of aligning the ?lms in their
plunger 30 within the cylinder 21.
From the lead sprocket I8 the negative ?lm
forms a free loop 3| and is then engaged by a
driving sprocket 32 provided with a pad roller
331.l 'lThe ?lm is then reeled onto the take-up
ro
.
Referring now to the positive ?lm, it will be
noted that both the take-up reel 34 and the sup
ply reel 35 are mounted within lightproof cas
ings 36 and 31 to prevent exposure of the entire 20
raw positive ?lm, should the printer be acci
dentally exposed to light. From the positive ?lm
supply roll 38 the positive ?lm 39 passes around
a pair of snubbing rollers 40 and 4| and thence
out of the lightproof casing 31 through a light 25
proof aperture 42. From the aperture 42 the
?lm 39 is drawn into engagement with a driv
ing sprocket 43 having a pad roller 44 associated
therewith. The ?lm 39 then passes into the ?lm
printing gate generally referredto at 46 where 30
the image from the negative ?lm 9 is printed
thereon. On leaving the ?lm printing gate 46 the
?lm is led onto the smaller toothed surfaces ‘I31
and I38 of the common double sprocket I8. The
surfaces I31 and I38 are provided with a pad 35
roller 49 similar in principle to pad roller I9 and
which also has a pneumatic dash pot 50 associ
ated therewith. The pad roller 49 comprises an
arm 5| mounted on a shaft 52 which is rotatably
mounted in the wall 5; the other end 53 of the 40
arm 5| is pivotally attached to a curved arm 54
which carries rollers 55 and 56. The pad roller
49 is pressed into engagement with ?lm 39 by
a spring arrangement |5| (Fig. 2). An adjust
able stop 51 provided on the bottom portion’of
the arm 5| is adapted to strike against a stop
58 provided on the wall 5 to limit the pressure
of the rollers 55 and 56 upon the positive ?lm 39.
From the common lead sprocket I8 the ?lm .
39 is guided over a free guide roller 60; thence
A self equalizing pad roller generally indicated‘ into a free loop 6|, and ?nally into engagement
at I9 is provided to maintain the negative ?lm with a drive sprocket 62 against which it is held
by a pad roller 63., From the sprocket 62 the
9 in engagement with the sprocket l8 and com
prises an arm 20, mounted upon a rotatable shaft ?lm enters an aperture in the lightproof casing
2| projecting through the wall 5‘. The other end '36 similar to the aperture 42 and thence it passes 55
55 22 of the arm I9 is pivoted to the central por
around snubbing rollers 64 and 65 onto the take
tion of a curved lever 23 carrying pad rollers 24 up reel 34.
I will now describe the optical system in detail.
and 25 at its outer ends. The pad roller I9 is
spring pressed into engagement with the ?lm by Referring to Figs. 3 and 4, it will be noted that
the printing lamp 61 is mounted in a bracket 68 60
a snap-over spring arrangement generally indi
60
within a light-proof housing 69 which is secured
cated at I45 (Fig. 2). The snap-over arrange
ment I45 is used on all the pad rollers shown in any suitable way to the wall 5. A re?ector 10
in the drawings and is described and claimed in assists in directing the light ‘rays from lamp 61
co-pending application Serial No. 27,157 ?led downwardly, through a tube 1| situated below the
50
65
proper relative positions.
June 18, 1935, mentioned above.
An arm I46 is secured to the shaft 2| and is
pivotally attached at its free end to a second arm
I41. The arm I41 is slidably mounted in a bear
ing I48 rotatably mounted in the wall 5. »A spring
I49 is placed over the arm I41 and engages the
70
bearing I48 at one end and a shoulder I50, pr
vided on the lower portion of the arm I41, gt
its other end. The pad roller I9 may thus e
held in closed position by the spring I49 or it may
75 be swung upward by hand until the arms I46 and
lamp housing 69 and opening thereinto. The tube 65
1| communicates with a passage 12 within a ?lm
guide 13 forming part of the ?lm projecting gate
I6. The negative ?lm 9 is guided under the
curved edge 14 of the ?lm guide or support 13 and
is held into engagement therewith by a pressure 70
pad 15 which is pivoted to the wall 5 at 15' and
is pressed into engagement with the ?lm 9 by
means of a spring 16 (see Fig. 1). The bottom of
the pressure pad 14 is provided with an aperture 11
through which the light is allowed to pass. A 75
amass’!
3
carriesatits otherendthe?lmdrivingsprocket
. i2. Becurelymountedontheshaft llldirectlyin
condenser lens ‘II is provided within the pas
sage 12 of the ?lm guide 18.
As was stated before. masks having slits or~
apertures of various lengths may be interposed in
the path of the printer light rays so as to print
only desired portions of the ?lm. Such masks
are shown in Figs. 10, Hand 12 wherein the
mask It is provided with a slit II which is of
a length equal to that of the combined picture and
10
sound track. Therefore the mask II will print
both the picture and sound track'upon the posi
tive ?lm. The mask '2 is provided with an'aper
ture 82 of the same length as the picture part of
the ?lm while the mask 04 is provided with an
V15 aperture 85 commensurate with the width of the
sound track. Any one of the masks ll. .2 or II
may be placed within an aperture It provided in
thelowerpartofthe?lmguide ‘ll aswillbe seen
in Figs. 3 and 4. Below the ?lm projection gate
I. is mounted a tube 88 the lower end of which
communicates with a prismatic re?ector I! which
re?ects the light rays 0| at right angles to their
original path. Above the prism II is a com
pensating element I28. This compensating ele
backof the worm gear lllisachainsprocket ill
adaptedtodriveachain ll'lwhichinturndrives
a large sprocket Ill, mounted upon a shaft I".
Also mounted upon the shaft III is a ?ywheel
Ill’ shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 2.
Referring now to Fig. 5, the shaft III is low
naledwithin ball bearings ill and Ill, the hear
ing Ill vbeing mounted within an aperture “2
provided in the wall I while the bearing III is
mounted in an upstanding bracket ill mounted
on top of a box section III forming part of the
main casting. A ?ywheel II! is moimted upon
the shaft ll! adjacent the chain'sprocket Ill. 15
'Boththe?ywheellliandthesprocketlllarese
\curely fastened to the shaft as by a key I II. The
front end of shaft ill projects through the wall I
and carries the common lead sprocket II.
Mounted on the shaft III behind the sprocket
I” is a second sprocket (not shown) which is
adapted to drive a chain ill. The chain ll'i
travels under a tensioning roller Ill, thence up
over a sprocket Ill mounted on a shaft‘ I20 which
ment i2. is here shown as a bi-convex spherical
isjournaledwithinthewalllandcarriesatits
element, but it may equally well be a plain parallel
other end the drive sprocket 22. From the
sprocket III the chain II‘I travels down lmder a
sprocket "I which is connected through a shaft
l2l' to the drive sprocket 62. From here the
chain travels under sprocket I22 which drives the 30
sprocket 0 and thence back to the drive sprocket
element or a cylindrical element according as
one may wish to print one or another standard
type of sound track.
-'
Adjacent to the re?ector It is a pair of objec
tive‘ lenses II and 92 through which the re?ected
light rays pass before reaching the ?lm print
ing gate 46. The ?lm gate 46 comprises a ?lm
guide or support 02 placed in a vertical position
35 with one end It thereof adjacent the smaller
toothed surfaces I21 and ill of the lead sprocket
II. The positive ?lm Ills led over the curved
30
face I! of the guide I! and thence tangentially
onto a portion of the periphery of the toothed sur
40 vfaces I" and I”.
Edge guiding rollers .0 keep
the positive ?lm 20 in edgewise alignment while
traveling through the ?lm gate ll. A pressure
25
situated on the shaft I".
Referring now to the means for driving the
take-up reels‘, it will be noticed that the spindle
2ofthetake-upreellhasontherearend
thereof a pulley I23 adapted to be driven by an‘
endless belt I24 which in turn is driven by a
pulley l2‘ mounted on the shaft l2. adjacent the
sprocket'l it. The belt I24 is provided with suf
?cient tension to operate the take-up reel I but 40
is adapted to slip sufficiently to prevent over
tensioning of the ?lm.
-
pad 01 which is pivoted at I. is spring pressed The spindle of the take-up reel 3! is also
against the ?lm It as by springs 80 (see Fig. 1).
provided'witha pulley I25’ which is driven by a
Referring again to Fig. 4, it will be noted that chain l2‘. The chain I26 is driven by a pulley
45
as the negative ?lm I passes in the direction of
I21 mounted on‘ the shaft Hi’.
the arrow A through the printing gate it, there
will be a scanning action of the image of the nega
tive due to the ?lm moving across the illuminated
area. This scanning action or movement of the
image will be in the direction of the arrow B.
When re?ected by the prism ‘I the sweep of the
image will be changed into downward direction as
shown by the arrow C. This downward mo
55 tion of the image is inverted by the objective lens
II and as into an upward motion in the direc
tion of the arrow D which will be in the same
direction and at the same speed as that of the
positive ?lm 38.. It is to be noted that the size
and speed of the image produced upon the posi
tive ?lm It bears the same relation to the size
and speed of the image produced by the negative
‘ ?lm 9 at the ?lm gate l0 asthe‘speed of the posi
65
tive ?lm 29 does to the speed of the negative ?lm
9. Therefore the image will be stationary rela
tive to the moving podtive ?lm It.
- I will now describe the driving mechanism for
the various drive sprockets and reels. Referring
to Fig. 2, it will be noted that a single motor ll.
70 drives the‘ entire mechanism. The motor I” is
mounted on a bracket II I, provided on the rear of
the wall 5 and drives a worm "2 through a
coupling I". The worm I02 drives a worm gear
I“ rigidly secured to a shaft III which is jour
75
naledwithinabearlngformedinthewallland
What is claimed is:
1. An optical reduction printer comprising a
pair of feed sprockets for ?lms of different sizes,
a pair of take-up reels for said ?lm, a hold-back
sprocket for each of said ?lms, a common
sprocket having sets of sprocket teeth of diiferent
diameters and adapted to advance said ?lms in
termediate said feed sprockets and’ said hold-back
sprockets, free loops being formed between said 55
common smocket and said hold back sprockets.
separated apertures at substantially right angles
to one another, said ?lms being advanced by
said common sprocket at different speeds corre
sponding to the difference in sizes of said ?lms
past respective apertures, and means positioned
intermediate the larger set of sprocket teeth for
maintaining a ?lm on said smaller set of sprocket
teeth. said means comprising pad rollers poa
tioned within the circumference of said larger
set of said sprocket teeth.
2. A printer for printing a certainsize posi
tive from a larger size negative comprising a sup
ply reel for said negative and a take-up reel for
said negative, 9. supply reel and take-up reel for 70
said positive, respective feed. sprockets for said
negative andpositive and respective hold-back
sprockets for said negative and positive, sprocket
wheels adapted to rotate with said sprockets.
means for interconnecting all of said sprocket 75
'4
2,188,537 ’
wheels for common operation thereof, an integral
combination sprocket intermediate said hold
back and said feed sprockets, said common
sprocket being driven synchronously with said
feed and hold-back sprockets, means _for pro
jecting a light beam from said larger negative
to said smaller positive at points adjacent said
common sprocket, and means for stiffening said
?lm between said projection points and the re
10 spective portions of said common sprocket, said
means including curved shoes for guiding said
?lm tangentially on said portions,
3. In asystem for optically printing a smaller
positive from a larger negative, the combination
15 of a sprocket having a pair of large sprocket teeth
rings and an intermediate smaller pair of
sprocket teeth rings, said larger pair advancing
said negative and said smaller pair advancing
said positive, a pair of dampened resilient means
20 for retaining said ?lms on said sprocket, one of
said pairs being positioned intermediate said
larger sprocket teeth rings and within the cir
, cumference of said larger sprocket teeth rings,
a pair of aperture gates for said ?lms, said gates
25 being positioned at right angles to one another,
and means for maintaining said ?lms in 'a pre
determined curved position intermediate the ap
ertures in said gates and the respective sprocket
teeth rims, said last mentioned means provid
30 ing sti?ness to said ?lms between said respec
tive sprocket teeth rings and the respective aper
tures of said gate.
'
4. An optical printer comprising a supply reel
and means for projecting a beam of light from
one aperture to the said other aperture of dii- .
ferent dimensions in accordance with the record
on said negative ?lm to be printed on said
positive ?lm.
5. A printer in accordance with claim 4 in
which said last mentioned means includes dif
ferent sized aperture plates and an optical reduc
tion system.
6. A reduction optical printer comprising a 10
unitary sprocket with sets of sprocket teeth rings
of different sizes, the smaller set being interme
diate the larger set, a pair of damped resilient
means for maintaining ?lms on said rings, one of
said pair being positioned within the circum 15
ference of the larger set of rings, rollers on said
resilient means for contacting respective ?lms,
a light aperture for each of said ?lms, said aper
tures being spaced from said rings, a curved ?lm
shoe extending from one of said apertures to the 20
larger set of said rings for guiding ?lm tangenti
ally on said rings, and a curved ?lm shoe extend
ing from the other of said apertures to the other
set of said rings for guiding ?lm tangentially on
said rings, the curvature of said shoes being in 25
opposite directions at said apertures.
7. An optical printer comprising a supply reel
and a take-up reel for a negative ?lm, a supply
reel and take-up reel for a positive ?lm, a feed
sprocket and a hold-back sprocket for said nega 30
tive ?lm, a feed sprocket and a hold-back sprocket
for said positive ?lm, means adapted to rotate
with said sprockets, means for interconnecting
and a take-up reel for a negative ?lm, a supply , said rotating means for simultaneously operating
35 reel and take-up reel for a positive ?lm, a feed all of said sprockets, a combination sprocket in 35
sprocket and a hold-back sprocket for said nega
termediate said feed sprockets and said hold-back
tive ?lm, a feed ‘sprocket and a hold-back sprockets for advancing‘ both of said ?lms, said
sprocket for said positive ?lm, means adapted to
rotate with said sprockets, means for intercon
necting said rotating means for simultaneously
operating all of said sprockets, a combination
sprocket intermediate said feed sprockets and
said hold-back sprockets for advancing both of
combination sprocket being driven simultane
ously with said other sprockets, a pair of sepa
rated aperture gates adjacent said combination
sprocket and positioned at right angles to one
another, means for positioning said ?lms in
curved positions between the apertures of said
said ?lms, said combination sprocket being ‘ gates and said combination sprocket, and means
driven simultaneously with said other sprockets,
a pair of separated aperture gates adjacent said
combination sprocket and positoned at right
angles to one another, means for positioning
said ?lms inv curved positions between the aper
50 ture of said gates and said combination sprocket,
for projecting from said, negative ?lm to said 45
positive ?lm a beam of ‘light of di?erent dimen
sions selective in accordance with the record on
said negative ?lm vto be printed on said posi
tive ?lm.
"
W. CARPENTER.
50
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