close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2133644

код для вставки
Oct. 18, 1938.
2,138,644
G. w. PIERcE
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
Filed Jan. 9, 1928
. 2
.W
„?
W
.Äm
2,133,644
Patented Oct. 18, 1938
4UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
2,133,644
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
George W. Pierce, Cambridge, Mass. '
Application January 9, 1928, Serial No. 245,310
18 Claims. (Cl. 250.-36)
unequally spaced from the cathode 26, the elec
The present invention relates to electrical sys
tems, and more particularly to producing and
sustaining the oscillations of electrical systems
employing electro-mechanical vibrators, like
trode 28 being the inner cold electrode and the
electrode 30 being the outer cold electrode. Thev
pieni-electric crystals.
battery 3|. A plate battery 32 is connected with
the ?lament 26 by a conductor 33, and with the
plate 30 by a conductor 35. The plate battery
Such vibrators, as is now well known, execute
mechanical vibrations under vibratory electrical
stimulus and, conversely. develop electrical po
tentials as a result of their mechanical vibra
10 tions.
They have, in general, a plurality of par
ticular modes or periods of mechanical vibration,
of different frequency. For convenience, the
action of the electric forces that cause mechani
cal displacements of the crystal, resulting in its
15 vibration, will be termed "stimulation”; and the
development by the vibrating crystal of the elec
tromotive forces that react upon the circuit will
be termed Uresponse".
.
These mechanical and electrical effects are
20 normally transitcry, for the crystal body will not,
vof itself, persist in continuous vibration. An ob
' ject of the present invention, however, is to pro
vide a novel system for rendering these effects
oscillatory in Character, and persistent.
A further object is to provide an improved sys
25 tem for producing oscillations at very nearly con
stant frequency.
i
Another object is to improve the e?'iciency of
oscillatory systems.
3
It is still another object to improve upon and
simplify the electrical connections of oscilla
tory systems.
Other and further objects of the invention will
be explained hereinafter, and will be pointed out
in the appended claims, it being understood that
it is intended to cover in the appended claims
all the novelty that the invention may possess.
In the accompanying drawing, Fig. 1 is a dia
4O
gram of circuits and apparatus illustrating the
invention as applied to a radio-receiving system;
and Fig. Z is a similar diagram of a modification.
The preferred form of electro-mechanical vi
brator is illustrated as a two-electrode piezo
electric crystal plate 2, adjacent to the oppositely
4
disposed sides or surfaces of which are provided
the two opposed conducting electrodes, terminals
or plates 8 and |2 by means of which the vi
brator is adapted to be connected in an electric
circuit. Such a crystal plate is sometimes
-0 termed a piezo-electric resonator. The elec
trodes 8 and |2 are disposed substantially per
pendicular to an electric axis of the crystal.
For illustrative purposes, a hermetically sealed,
electron-discharge, vacuum-tube container 24 is
diagrammatically shown provided with three
Sensitive elements or electrodes, namely, an elec
tron-emitting cathode ?lament _26, a first, cold
electrode, shown as a control grid 28 and a sec
ond, cold electrode, shown as a plate 30. As
60 illustrated, the cold electrodes 28 and 30 are
?lament 28 is connected with a ?lament-heating
32 constitutes a source of energy for charging the
plate 30 with a unidirectional, suitably operat
ing potential. If desired, a biasing battery 6| 10
may be employed to bias the grid 28, the battery
64 constituting a means for charging the grid 28
with a different predetermined unidirectional,
suitably Operating potential, so that the poten
tial of the grid may fluctuate about the biased 15
value.
.The two-electrode, piezo-electric crystal 2 is
shown connected in the plate Circuit, that inter
connects and includes the plate and the cathode,
and is shown in Fig. 1 effectively connected in 20
parallel with, or shunted by, that portion of the
plate circuit that is illustrated as a bypass 'll for
direct current. The bypass 'H may be a radio
choke, an inductance coil or winding, a resistor,
or 'a combination of these. The bypass 14 is
preferably chosen so that the circuits shall have
parameters such as to make the system stably
non-oscillatory when the crystal is removel or
restrained from vibration. A blocking condenser
16, shunted by a leak resistor 18, and a winding
or inductance coil 80, shunted by a tuning con 30
denser 82, to render the grid circuit tunable, are
connected in the grid circuit, that interconnects
and includes the cathode and the grid. The
plate and the grid circuits are substantially me
chanically and electrically disassociated from 35
each other except for the association introduced,
or caused by the electron stream between the
plate and the cathode within the space-dis
charge, electron-tube container 24. If the pa 40
rameters of the circuits are properly chosen, as
by approximate adjustment of the condenser 82,
continuous oscillations will be set up in the sys
tem at a frequency determined by that mode of vi
bration of the vibrator corresponding to a natural
45
or resonant frequency of the crystal in the direc
tion of its electric axis, though it will not oscil
late in the absence of the crystal. The elec
trodes 8 and |2 act conjointly both for stimula
tion and response, the vibrator being stimulated 50
by the oscillations so as to be maintained in vi
bration, and responding to maintain the system
in oscillation, with a ?xed period determined by
the vibrator. The system will oscillate even
though the parameters be varied to within very 55
wide limits, and the frequency will be main
tained constant irrespective of variations in plate
or ?lament voltage, load or other factors.
This
is not true of self-oscillating circuits in which the
crystal acts merely as a stabilizer. In the latter 00
2
9, 188,644
case, variation in the parameters of the circuit
the circuits of the tube I", as by means of a
will result in the crystal ceasing to vibrate,
tuning condenser 88. so that the circuit 12, ll
though ;the circuits continue to oscillate.
resonates to the desired harmonic. The con
stancy of the frequency makes it possible to use
The
system can be used as an oscillatory circuit.
As the invention is illustrated as employed in
a receiving circuit, the winding 80 is shown cou
pled to a winding 8|, in series with a reoelving
antenna 86 and a condenser 81, and grounded or
connected with a counter-poise. It will be un
10 derstood, however, that the invention is not
restricted to use in'rcceiving systems,- the illus
trated receiving system being chosen merely as .
a convenient medium for illustrating the inven
tion. A telephone receiver 42, with or without
15 a bypass condenser M, may be inserted in the
plate circuit of the receiving tube. Where the
telephone is not needed, it may be replaced by
high-peak transformers and the increased am
pli?cation obtained thereby.
Other methods of connection for harmonic
ampliflcation may be effected by replacing the
telephone 42, in Fig. l, by the input terminala of
an ampli?er, as before stated, with any suitable
disposition of the amplifler connections.
'I'he invention may be applied also to many
other uses. The oscillations, together with their
harmonics, may, for example, serve as fixed
values for the calibration of wavemeters and
frequency meters. as is explained in my paper
entitled “Piezo-electric crystal resonators and
an inductance, the primary winding of a trans
former, or the input terminals of an ampli?er, or
20 it may be wholly short-circuited. The locally
generated oscillations of the circuits of the tube
2| will beat with the oscillations received by the
crystal oscillators applied to the precision cali
bration of wavemeters", published in the “Pro
antenna 86, according to well known principles,
rendering the received signals audible in the tele
25 phone 42.
The present invention, therefore, provides an
without ampli?cation, to serve as sources in
electric system comprising an electric circuit that
is not, in~ itself, oscillatoryI in combination with
a vibrator, the electrical parameters or constants
30 of the system being such as to render the system
stably non-oscillatory when not under the con
tr' `
of the electro-mechanical vibrator;
and
sur hc- ever, that the resulting electrical sys
tem t c lates at a frequency substantially equal
to the frequency of one of the modes of mechani
cal vibration of the vibrator.
The word uadmittance", which is quantitatively
the reciprocal of an impedance, is herein used to
designate an electrical circuit element or combi
nation of elements, looked at with reference to its
facility for passing current under a given elec
tromotive force. The winding 80 and the con
denser 82, for example, constitute an admittance.
A piezo-electric crystal provided with electrodes
also constitutes an admittance.
mary coil of an audio transformer the secondary
coil 12 of which is connected in the grid circuit
of the tube |24. It is possible to use the element
IH as a transformer coil because the high-fre
quency oscillations do not need to pass through
element. This
arrangement,
Sciences", vol. 59, No. 4, October, 1923.
The oscillators may also be employed, with or
carrier-wave systems, or to act in the receiving
apparatus of a carrier-wave system.
The vibrations of the electro-mechanical vi
brator may, in accordance with the present in
vention, be communicated to air or to some other
elastic medium, as water, to produce sound for
intercommunication or any other desired pur
poses.
30
Other uses and applications and other modifi
cations within the scope of the present invention
will readily occur to persons skilled in the art.
It is therefore desired that the above-described
embodiments of the invention shall be regarded
as illustrative of the invention, and not restric
tive, and that the appended claims shall be con
strued broadly, except insofar as it may be nec
essary to impose limitations in view of the prior
art.
What is claimed is:
1. An electromechanical system having, in
combination, vacuum-tube apparatus compris
ing three electrodes, namely, a fllament, a grid
The invention is readily adapted to power
amplifying systems, as illustrated in Fig. 2. The
bypass 'H is here in the form of an element IH
that is actively related to the grid circuit of a
second tube |2| to produce audio-current ampli
?cation. The element I" is shown as the pri
this
ceedings of the American Academy of Arts and ~
therefore,
effects an economy of apparatus, as the same
bypass I" serves also as a coupling between the
two tubes 24 and IM. The vibrator 2 deter
mines the frequency of oscillation of the master
oscillating circuit comprising the vacuum tube
2|, and the latter controls, through a fundamen
tal or one of the many harmonics, an output in
the tube |24 of much larger power. The oscilla
tions existing in the present crystal oscillator,
and a plate, a condenser and an inductance con
nected with the fllament electrode and the grid
electrode in parallel relation, an electromechan
ical vibrator having only two electrodes serving
both for stimulation and response, and means 50
connecting the vibrator electrodes with the ?la
ment electrode and the plate electrode to cause
said system to oscillate with a frequency deter
mined by said electromechanical vibrator.
2. An electromechanical system for producing .
oscillations having, in combination, a vacuum
tube, a grid electrode, a plate electrode, and a
fllament electrode actively cooperating therein,
a tunable electric element between the fllament
electrode and the grid electrode, and an electro 60
mechanical vibrator between the fllament elec
trode and the plate electrode, said system being
adjusted to oscillate with a frequency deter
mined by said electromechanical vibrator and
essentially independent of variations of the
parameters of the electrical elements of the sys
due to the action of the crystal and the distort
ing effects of the vacuum tubes and the circuit,
are rich in harmonics, as disclosed in the here
tem.
inafter-mentioned, American-Academy publica
electrode, a grid electrode and a plate electrode,
a circuit including said plate electrode and said
cathode electrode, another circuit including said
grid electrode and said cathode electrode, means
for charging said plate electrode with a unidi
rectional potential, means for charging said grid 75
tion. To obtain and amplify any desired har
monic frequency in he circuits of the tube 2|, the
audio transforme` 11|, 12 may be replaced by
a radio transfo' er, with proper impedance in
the coils l'll and 12 and proper adjustments of
3. An oscillatory system having, in combina
tion, vacuum-tube apparatus having a cathode
2,188,644
electrode with a different unidirectional poten
tial, a piezo-electric crystal having two electrodes
only, and means connecting the first-named
means and the crystal in the ?rst-named Circuit
to constitute an oscillatory system, the param
oters of the system having electrical character
istics such as to render the system oscillatory
under the control of the crystal at a substan
tially Constant frequency determined by a mode
10 of vibration of the crystal, andA such as to render
3
electrode, a grid electrode and a plate electrode,
a coil connected between the grid electrode and
the cathode electrode, means for subjecting the
grid electrode to a desired unidirectional, operat
ing potential, a piezo-electric crystal having two
electrodes only, means connecting one of the
electrodes with the cathode electrode and the
other electrode with the plate electrode to con
stitute an oscillatory system in which the crystal
electrodes shall act conjointly both for stimula 10
the system stably non-oscillatory when not under tion and response, and means Conductive to di
the control of the crystal.
.rect current for subjecting the plate to a desired
4. An oscillatory system having, in Combina . Operating potential, the parameters of the sys
tion, vacuum-tube apparatus having a cathode tem having electrical characteristics such as to
15 electrode, a grid electrode and a plate electrode, render the system oscillatory under the control 15
a Circuit including the grid electrode and the of the crystal at a substantially constan't fre
cathode electrode, a piezo-electric crystal having quency determined by a mode of vibration of
two electrodes only, and means connecting one
the crystal, and such as to render the system
of the crystal electrodes with the cathode elec
stably non-oscillatory when not under the con
20 trode and the other crystal electrode with the trol of the crystal.
plate electrode to constitute an oscillatory sys
8. An oscillatory system having, in combina
tem in which the two crystal electrodes will act tion, a multi-electrode device having, within a
conjointly both for stimulation and response, the hermetically sealed container, a cathode elec
parameters of the system having electrical char
trode, a grid electrode and a cold electrode, a
25 acteristics such as to render the system oscilla
Circuit including the grid electrode and the cath
tory under the controi of the crystal at a sub
ode electrode, a piezo-electric crystal having two
stantially Constant frequency determined by a electrodes only, and means connecting one of
mode of vibration of the crystal, and such as the Crystal electrodes with the cathode electrode
to render the system stably non-oscillatory when and the other crystal electrode with the cold
30 not under the control of the crystal.
electrode to constitute an oscillatory system in
5. An oscillatory system having, in combina
which the crystal electrodes will act conjointly
tion, a vacuum tube having a cathode electrode,
a grid electrode and a plate electrode, a Circuit
including said plate electrode and said cathode
electrode, another circuit including said grid elec
trode and said cathode electrode, a piezo-elec
tric crystal having two electrodes only, and
means connecting the crystal in the ?rst-named
Circuit to constitute an oscillatory system in
40 which the electrodes shall act conjointly both
for stimulation and response, the parameters of
the system having electrical characteristics such
as to render the system oscillatory under the con
trol of the crystal at a substantially Constant fre
45 quency determined by a mode of vibration of the
crystal, and such as to render the system stably
non-oscillatory when not under the control of
the crystal.
6. An oscillatory system having, in combina
50 tion, a hermetically sealed container having
therein a cathode electrode and a plurality of
cold electrodes unequally spaced from the cath
ode electrode, circuits connecting said cold elec
trodes with said cathode electrode, said circuits
55 being substantially electrically and mechanically
disassociated except at the common connection
to the cathode electrode and except by virtue of
theassociation of the cathode electrode and the
cold electrodes within said container, a piezo
both for stimulation and response, and means
conductive to direct current for subjecting the
cold electrode to a positive potential with respect
to the cathode electrode, the parameters of the
system having electrical characteristics such as
to render the system oscillatory under the con
trol of the crystal at a substantially Constant
frequency determined by a mode of vibration
of the crystal, and such as to render the system 40
stably non-oscillatory when not under the con
trol of the crystal.
9. An electron-discharge-device oscillator com
prising an electron-discharge device having an
anode, a cathode and a control electrode, means 45
for polarizing the electrodes of said electron-dis
charge device, a piezo-electric-crystal resonator
coupled to the anode and the cathode electrodes
of said electron-discharge device, and a choke
coil effectively in shunt with said piezo-electric 50
crystal, the inductance of the coil together with
the capacity of the electrodes of said Crystal and
the interelectrode Capacity of said electron-dis
charge device being such as to resonate at a fre
quency substantially less than the frequency at 55
which said crystal is caused to operate.
10. An electron-discharge-device oscillator
Comprising an electron-discharge device having
an anode, a cathode and a control electrode,
60 electric crystal having two electrodes only, and*
means for polarizing the electrodes of said de
means connecting the Crystal electrodes between
the cold electrode farther from the cathode
electrode and the cathode electrode to constitute
an oscillatory system in which the crystal elec
65 trodes shall act conjointly both for stimulation
and response, the parameters of the system hav
vice, a piezo-electric crystal for controlling the
frequency of oscillations generated by said de
vice, said piezo-electric crystal being connected
between the anode and the cathode electrodes
of said device, and a choke coil for supplying 65
ing electrical characteristics such as to render
the system oscillatory under the control of the
crystal at a substantially Constant frequency de
70 termined by a mode of vibration of the crystal,
unidirectional potential to one of the electrodes
to which said piezo-electric Crystal is connected,
the inductance of the choke coil together with
the capacity of the electron-discharge device and
the electrodes of said crystal being such as to 70
and such as to render the system stably non
resonate at a frequency from 50% to 80% of the
oscillatory when not under the Control of the
frequency of oscillations generated by said elec
tron-discharge device oscillator.
11. In apparatus of the Character described,
crystal.
7. An oscillatory system having, in combina
tion, vacuum-tube apparatus having a. cathode
00
an electron-discharge device having, within an 75
4.
2, 1 88,844
hermetically sealed container, an electron-emit
ting cathode, an anode, and a grid structure in
termediate the anode and the cathode, a piezo
electric crystal connected to the anode and the
cathode of said electron-discharge device for
starting and maintaining oscillation generation
by said device at a frequency corresponding to
a natural frequency of said crystal, and a cir
cuit effectively in shunt with said crystal for
10 establishing a unidirectional current path to an
electrode of said device to which said crystal is
connected, said circuit in combination with the
capacities associated with said piezo-electric
crystal being of such a value in impedance as to
ll resonate at a frequency substantially lower than
the frequency of oscillation of said crystal.
12. In apparatus of the character described, an
electron-discharge device having, within an her
metically sealed container, an electron-emitting
cathode, an
mediate the
tric crystal
cathode of
anode, and a grid structure inter
anode and the cathode, a piezo-elec
connected to the anode and the
said electron-discharge device for
control electrode, means for polarlzing the elec
trodes of said eiectron-discharge device, and a
piezo-electric crystal resonator having two elec
trodes only coupled to the anode and the cathode.
electrodes of said electron-discharge device, the
parameters of the oscillator having electri
characteristics such as to render the oscillator``
oscillatory under the control of the resonator at a
substantially 'constant frequency determined by a
mode of vibration of the resonator, andsuch as
to render the oscillator stably non-oscillatory
when not under the control of the resonator.
16. An electron-discharge device oscillator
having, within an hermetically-'sealed container,
an electron-emitting cathode electrode, an anode
electrode, and a grid electrode structure inter
mediate said anode and cathode electrodes, and
a piezo-electric crystal having two electrodes
only connected to the anode and the cathode elec
trodes of said electron-discharge device for start
ing and maintaining oscillation generation by
said device at a frequency corresponding to a
natural frequency of said crystal, the parameters
starting and maintaining oscillation generation ' of the oscillator having electrical characteristics
by said device at a frequency corresponding to a such as to render the oscillator oscillatory under
natural frequency of said crystal, and a circuit the control of the crystal at a substantially con
stant frequency determined by a mode of vibra
effectively in shunt with said crystal for estab
lishing a unidirectional current path to an elec .tion of the crystal, and such as to render the
oscillator stably non-oscillatory when not under
trode of said device to which said crystal is con
the control of the crystal.
'
nected, said circuit in combination with the capa
17. Apparatus of the character described hav
cities associated with said piezo-electric crystal
being of such a value in impedance as to resonate ing, in combination, an electron-discharge device
oscillator having a single hermetically-sealed
at a frequency from 50 to 80 percent of the fre
quency of oscillation of said piezo-electric crystal. container provided with an electron-emitting
13. Oscillatory apparatus comprising an elec
cathode electrode, an anode electrode, and a grid
electrode structure intermediate the anode and
tron-discharge device having, within an evacu
ated container, an anode, an electron-emitting the cathode electrodes, a single piezo-electric
cathode, and an electrode intermediate the anode crystal connected to the anode and the cathode
electrodes of said electron-discharge device for
and the cathode, means for polarizing the inter
starting and maintaining oscillation generation
mediate electrode to a negative potential rela
tive to said cathode, means to polarize the anode by said device at a frequency corresponding to a
natural frequency of said crystal, and a circuit
to a positive potential with respect to said cath
ode, an electromechanical resonator, connections effectively in shunt with said crystal for estab
connecting said electromechanical resonator to lishing a unidirectional current path to an elec
trode of said device to which said crystal is con
the anode and the cathode electrodes for start
ing and maintaining generation of oscillations at nected, the parameters of the oscillator having
a frequency corresponding to a frequency of said electrical characteristics such as to render the
electromechanical resonator, the inductance of oscillator oscillatory under the control of the cry
said connections together with the electrical stal at a substantially constant frequency deter
mined by-a mode of vibration of the crystal, and
characteristics of said resonator and the inter
electrode capacity of said device being such as such as to render the oscillator stably non-oscil
to resonate at a frequency substantially less than latory when not under the control of the crystal.
18. Oscillatory apparatus comprising an elec
the frequency at which said resonator vibrates.
14. An electron-discharge device oscillator tron-discharge device having within an evacuated
comprising an electron-discharge device having container an anode electrode, an electron-emit
55
an anode electrode, a cathode electrode and a
control electrode, means for polarizing the elec
trodes of said device, a piezo-electric crystal for
controlling the frequency of oscillations gener
ated by said device, said piezo-electric crystal be
ing connected between the anode and the cathode
electrodes of said device, and a choke coil for
supplying unidirectional potential to one of the
electrodes to which said piezo-electric crystal is
connected, the parameters of the oscillator hav
ing electrical characteristics such as to render the
oscillator oscillatory under the control of the
crystal at a substantially constant frequency de
terrnined by a mode of vibration of the crystal,
10 and such as to render the oscillator stably non
oscillatory when not under the control of the
crystal.
15. An electron-discharge device oscillator
comprising an electron-discharge device having
an anode electrode, a cathode electrode and a
25
30
35
40
45
50
ting cathode electrode and an electrode inter
mediate said anode and cathode electrodes, means
for polarizing the electrodes of said electron
discharge device, an electromechanical resonator
having two electrodes only, and connections con
necting said electromechanical resonator to the
anode and the cathode electrodes for starting
and maintaining generation of oscillations at a
frequency corresponding to a frequency of said
electromechanical resonator, the parameters of 05
the oscillatory apparatus having electrical char
acteristics such as to render the oscillatory ap
paratus oscillatory under the control of the reso
nator at a substantially constant frequency de
termined by a mode of vibration of the resonator,
and such as to render the oscillatory apparatus
stably non-oscillatory when not under the con
trol of the resonator.
GEORGE W. PIERCE.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
691 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа