close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2133783

код для вставки
Oct. 18, 1938'.
l
l
D. G. MERRILL -
,
2,133,783
MÉTHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR’. ANNEALING GLASISWARE
Filed Deo.' 14, 1935
'626
'
6
5
80
37
32
/24
°
s sheets-sheet 2
5
o@
ooo
Oct. 18, 1938.
D G MERRILL
2
,133,783VK
.
METHOD oF AND APPARATUS Foa ANNEALING. GLAsswAnE
- Filed Dec. v_1.4, 1935
73
Y3 Sheets-Sheet 3
/
27
i
68
`
In léenvtû?: " .
h/Íz'ín ess:
o@O71 ¿zíò'â mez/d1@
_by
A Í t0n? 619s. a
-
'2,133,783
Patented Oct. 18, 1938
UNITED STATES
PATENT OFFICE
\«
2,133,783
METHOD 0F ANDAPPARATUS FOR ANNEAL
ING GLASSWARE
Donald G. Merrill, West Hartford, Conn., assig'nor
to Hartford Empire Company, Hartford, Conn.,
a corporation of Delaware
Application December 14, 1935, Serial No. 54,448
»21 claims. (Cl. 49-47)
This invention relates to a method of and ap
paratus for the annealing of glassware and more
particularly to such a method and apparatus in
, sides of the conveyor, so that all the ware is
brought down to a fairly’uniform temperature.
A further object of the invention is to estab-l
cluding the cooling of the ware in the cooler por
lish a zone in which air is circulated as aforesaid
tion of a lehr tunnel by means of air circulation adjacent to the exit end of the tunnel and in
within the tunnel in a path which will pass re . which provision is made for the introduction of
peatedly through the path of the Ware and hav
air from the atmosphere into the circulation at
ing a major component of velocity transversely one portion thereof and in a'controllable amount,
` of such ware path and a minor component of this and preferably also for the discharge of a con
velocity longitudlnallyo/fthe tunnel opposite the trollable amount of air from the circulation to
direction of movement of the ware therethrough. the atmosphere.
Among the objects of the present invention are
A further object of the invention is to provide
to provide for the cooling vof the glassware in the for the cooling of the ware in several ‘zones in
cooler exit endportion of‘a tunnel lehr by means which the effectiveness of the cooling is progres
of air circulation within the tunnel as aforesaid,
the emphasis being placed upon circulation trans
versely of the path of the ware to increase the
sively increased. Specifically the cooling is pref 15
erably effected in three zones, the cooling in the
first Zone from the exit- end of the -lehr includ
ing the general circulation as aforesaid, and also
the same time the air moves gradually through including the introduction into and exhaust from
20 the tunnel countercurrent to the ware, so that the circulation of air at each cycle of flow of thel 20
at any given point along the tunnel in the zone in,> air transversely of the tunnel. In the second
which the air is circulated as' aforesaid, the air zone, air is circulated as aforesaid, _but without
will have been heated to some extent by- heat the introduction or Aexhaust of air to and from
derived from the ware at cooler portions of the the circulation intermediate the ends of the zone,
25 tunnel and thus the temperature difference be
and in the third zone, a controllable amount of - 25
tween the ware and the air will not be so great as air is caused' to flow countercurrent with respectv
to cause damage to the ware.
to the ware, but without positive transverse vcir
'A further object of the invention is to create culation.
a circulation as aforesaid by the use of a plurality
~A further object of the invention is to provide
30' of jet nozzles through which air or other gaseous for the controlled withdrawal of the cooling air 30
medium is injected into the tunnel at relatively from the tunnel intermediate the ends thereof at
high pressure and thereby the air in the tunnel one or more points, the withdrawal preferably
is caused to circulate along with the air or other being so controlled that there will be a desired
gaseous medium thus injected, the amount of air flow of air, including zero flow,- in the hotter
35 thus circulated being many times greater than portions of the tunnel between the withdrawal 35
y that of the gaseous medium injected into the tun
point for air nearest the hotter end of the tunnel
n_el through the nozzles.
l
and the> entrance end thereof, so that in effect
A further object of the invention is to provid
the apparatus provided may function as a drift
‘
Y
for the arrangement in the tunnel of jet nozzles control means for the lehr.
Y Other and more detailed objects of the present 40
-40 and deñectors in such arrangement as to create
a desired character of circulation in the tunnel, invention will become apparent from the follow
specifically one in which the air is circulated in ing specification and appended claims when taken
two` substantially helical paths, the axes of which in connection »with the accompanying drawings,
' .
’
lie longitudinally of the lehr and side by side in in which:
heat transfer between the ware and air while at
45
the tunnel, the air flowing, downwardly adjacent
to the longitudinal centerline of the tunnel, so
that the ware at the center of the conveying
50
means of the lehr willbe cooled to a greater ex
tent than that nearer the sides of such means
during its passage through the last zone of the
`tunnel. This in practice tends to balance the
cooling inñuence of the atmosphere on the ware
after it has emerged from the tunnel, which is
eifective to a major extent on the .ware at the
,
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view substantially
in longitudinal vertical section of a glass anneal
ing lehr embodying my invention;
ï
Fig. 2 is a detailed view similar to Fig. 1, but
on a larger scale and showing the exit end vpor
tion of the lehr including certain of my novel
provisions for cooling the wa're passing there
through;
'
«
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary view substantially in
side elevation of a portion of the lehr shown in.
Fig. 2:
.
¿
55
l
2
2,133,783
l Fig. 4 is an end elevation of the lehr tunnel as
bustion are supplied to th .flues I6 from a fire
would be seen from the right of the portion
shown in Fig. 2;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view substantially in
vertical longitudinal section‘showing the with
drawal means for tunnel atmosphere toward
the hotter end of the lehr, this means being dia
grammatically shown substantially at the mid
box diagrammatically ill trated at I I in Fig. 1,
dle in Fig. 1;
‘
‘
wherein these products are generated by com
bustion of fuel supplied >thereto through a burner
I2. The gases are withdrawn from the ilue or
ilues III through a tap-oli passage I3, Figs. 1
and 2, under control of a damper I4 and thence
pass through a pair of saddle pipes I5, one on
each-side of the lehr, to a wind box I6 above the
tunnel, which communicates with a suitable ex 10
haust fan I'l.> 'I'he fan I'I may be driven by any
suitable prime mover, as for example an electric
motor I8. The dgases from the fan I1 are dis
charged through a suitable stack, as indicated
Fig. 6 is a view in transverse vertical section
taken on the line 6_6 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 'l is a view in transverse vertical section
taken on the line 'I--1 of Fig. 2; and
Fig'. 8 is a fragmentary view substantially in
15
horizontal section showing in detail one ofA thel at I9, Fig. 1.
At desired intervals along the flues I0 and im
injector nozzles and its relation to the duct
mediate the fire box II and the tap off I3, there
through which compressed air is supplied there
are provided air inlet openings 26 which are each
to.
'
While I contemplate that my-invention may controlled by a suitable damper. In this way,
20 be applied to various types of lehrs, including controllable amounts of air may be admitted at 20
both direct fired and muilie types, and lehrs in intervals to the ilues Il) forldiluting and cooling
-Which there is provision for muille cooling or the gases passing therethrough and consequently '
where such provisions are omitted, I`have chosen for controlling the temperature in corresponding
10
to illustrate my invention as applied to a lehr25 of a type now in general commercial use, which
lehr is substantially the same as that disclosed
in Mulholland Patent No. 1,560,481, granted Nov.
3, 1925. This lehr will be described but brieñy
in the present application except as it is varied
according to my present invention.
Reference
portions of the tunnel.
»
At the end of the flue or flues I0 adjacent to the
exit end of the tunnel, there is provided an inlet
opening 2| (Figs. 1 and 2), which is controlled by
a damper 22. Thus air may pass into the exit end
portions of the flues I0 through the opening 2|
under control of the damper 22 and flow in a path
may be had to the aforesaid Mulholland patent countercurrent of the movement of the ware to
the outlet passage I3 for effecting a muiiled cool
for a specific description of any details cof con
,. ing of the ware in this zone.
struction not included herein.
' As shown, the lehr comprises an elongate tun
35 nel I which may be made up of a plurality of
metallic sections as shown and which is sur
rounded for the major portion of its length by
suitable insulation generally indicated at-2. The
lehr is suitably supported upon a lplurality of
40 spaced legs or pedestals 3.- Provision may be
made for permitting the expansion of the tunnel
when it is heated, such provision preferably in
cluding the mounting of the major portion of
the tunnel upon wheels as shown at 4, Figs. 3
45 and '7, these wheels running upon suitable rails
5, which are in turn secured to longitudinally
Above the tunnel and extending from the exit L
there are provided one or more ilues 23 (Figs. 1,
2 and 7) , these ilues being open to the atmosphere
at the exit end of the tunnel as generally indicated
at 24 as hereinafter set forth, and being pro
vided With a plurality of tap-olf passages 25, each
of which is controlled by a damper 26 and all of
which communicate with a takeoiî conduit 21,
which in turn communicates with the »wind box
I6, and there being a damper as indicated at 2l,
Fig. 2, for controlling the flow through the take 45
oiî conduit 21. In this way, the cooling air may
be drawn a desired distance from the exit end
of the lehr toward the entrance end through the
verse -structural members 'l and being supported
muiñe ilues 23 and portions of such cooling air
50 upon the pedestals 3.
‘
-
may be withdrawn from this ` ilue as desired 50
Means are provided for conveying the ware through each of the several tap-oil` passages 26
through the tunnel, comprising a conveyor belt under the respectivecontrol of the dampers 26.
The construction thus far described is substan
8, which is preferably of suitable woven wire
construction and which has >its ware-bearing'or tially the; same as that of the Mulholland patent
55 active strand passing through the tunnel and ' above referred to.
Means are provided according to my invention
slidably supported upon the floor thereof
throughout the major portion of the tunnel and for creating a circulation of air in the cooler por
upon a plurality of rollers 9 in theexit end por -tions of the tunnel, this circulation having a
tion of the tunnel, as shown best in Fig. 2. 'I'he major effective component of velocity transverse
return strand of the belt 8 passes to the forward ly of the tunnel and a minor effective component
end of the lehr` beneath the same, as diagram? of velocity longitudinal of the tunnel and counter
matically illustrated in Fig. 1. The means for current to the direction of movement of the ware
drawing- the belt 8 through the tunnel are not therethrough. More specifically, the circulation
shown in the accompanying drawings as they is created in two substantially helical paths which
are located to the right of the portions shown traverse the path of the glassware, have their
in Figs. 1 and 2, but may be assumed to be the axes extending side by side and substantially
same as or equivalent to the corresponding
means of the Mulholland patent above re
K Means
to,are provided for supplying heat to the
70 ferred
lehr and for controlling the temperature of the
ware in its passage through the tunnel I, such
means including one or more ilues III extending
longitudinally beneath the tunnel substantially
Q as m the Muinonand patent. Products of com
30
end thereofy part way toward the entrance end, 35
cured together in a suitable manner, as by trans
extending channels 6, the channels being se
25
55
'
60
65
longitudinally of the tunnel and are so arranged
that the air circulated therein will be moved
downwardly adjacent to the longitudinal center
line of the tunnel. Such circulation is preferably
created by the injection into the tunnel of air ‘or
_other cooling medium under a desired relatively
high pressure as compared to the pressure of the
air in the tunnel, the air being injected through
a plurality of nozzles disposed at spaced inter
70
751
,
.3_
2,188,783
«vals `along a; pair of longitudinally extending
or ,other suitable material and suitably secured
to the top of the tunnel. 'I'his deflector has slop
ing sides 41 against which the air supplied by
_ f As shown, there are provided a pair of ducts
29 and 30 which are disposed in the upper corners the nozzles 39 in this zone of the lehr will im
of the tunnel as best shown in Figs. 6 and 7. The . pinge, so as to cause the air to be circulated _sub
form of the ducts varies intermediate their ends,
stantially as shown by the arrows in Fig. 6. It
the" endmost portions being substantially round
will be understood, of course, that when the lehr
is filled with glassware in its normal operation,
as’ shown in Fig.l 6, while the portions nearer the
1.o
hotter end of the lehr are ñattened as shown in
Fig. ’1. This also makes for a control of the air
distribution as the cross sections of the portions
of the lducts shown in Fig. '1 are less than those
of the upstream portions of the ducts shown in
Fig. 6. The ducts are suitably supported as by
15 brackets shown at 3|, Fig. "l, from the side walls
'of the lehr.
'
Means are provided for supplying air under
pressure to the ducts 29 and 30, such means in
the present instance comprising a blower 32, Figs.
20 1, 2 and 4, which is suitably driven _as >by a prime
mover shown as an electric motor 33. The blower
32 has an intake centrally thereof at 34 and an
outlet passage 35, which is provided with a suit
able damper control 36 and which branches as
25 shown into two passages 31 communicating re
spectively with the ducts 29 and 30._
The ends of the ducts 29 and 38 toward the
hotter end of the lehr are closed as indicated at
38, Fig. 8, in which a portion of one of the ducts
30 is shown, the duct in this figure being given both
the path of the 'air will not be in a truly helical
path as generally indicated by the arrows, but 10
will take some substantially helical path travers
ing the path of the ware and passing down
through the perforate conveyor belt 8 intermedi
ate the supporting rollers 9 near the center of
the lehr and thence upwardly again adjacent to
the sides of ,the lehr tunnel to be recirculated by
the jet action of the nozzles. This recirculation
is assisted by deflector members 48, which are
lprovided in this zone intermediate the sides of
the tunnel and the under portions lof the ducts 29 20
and 30.
~
Means are provided for the introduction of at
mospheric air into the tunnel through the lateral
sides thereof to join in the circulation in the first
zone as aforesaid. For this purpose, ,the- tunnel 25
walls are provided with a plurality of apertures
as indicated at 49, Figs. 3 and 6. the- air passing
thereinto as indicated by the arrows in Fig. 6
to join in the circulation Ain the tunnel. The in
flow of air through the apertures 49 is controlled 30
reference numbers to indicate that it is represent _ by vertically sliding damper members 58- ar
ative of both ducts; Each of the ducts 29 and 30 ranged one at each side of the lehr in guide L
is provided with a plurality of jet nozzles 39, members 5I', which are secured to the side walls
these nozzles being directed generally transversely of the lehr. v Vertical adjustment of the damper
35 of the lehr in a substantially horizontal plane but
being inclined at a small angle, perhaps 15°, with
respect to a line exactly transverse of the lehr
members '50 may be effected by suitably thread
ing up or down nuts 52, which clamp an upper
flange of each of the damper members to spaced
and v'in a direction toward the hotter end of the f depending bolts 53, the upper ends of which are “
lehr. The specific arrangement of one of -these secured in flange portions of the top and sides of.
the lehr at 54. Thus, the damper members 58 l40
40 nozzles is illustrated in Fig. 8. As shown in this
flgure, the ducts 29 and 30 may be formed of sheet may be suitablyvertically adjusted and secured '
in adjustable position to control the inñow of
metal and are provided at the point where a noz
zle is to `be arranged with a fitting- 40 suitably air through the apertures 49.
In a somewhat similar way means are pro
secured thereto as by rivets 4I. In this fitting is
vided for controlling the exhaust of air from this
445 threaded a nozzle member 42 through which the
air or other cooling fluid may pass >from the inside first zoneat the bottom thereof. For this pur
of the duct to the inside of the tunnel. Around _ pose a portion 55 (Figs. 2 and 6) of the bottom of
the end of each of the nozzle members 42 there the tunnel in this zone is arranged to be verti-A
cally adjustable or, if desired, wholly removable
may be arranged a member 43 to assist in induc
50 ing a. flow of air under the action of the pressure to provide for the controlled exhaust of air be 50
tween this vertically adjustable bottom' portion
and the edges of the side land bottom walls of the
space 44 intermediate the nozzle member 42 and -tunnel through openings indicated at 56. As
the member 43 and thus being caused to circulate shown, theAk adjustable bottom portion 55 is pro
55 with the air injected into the tunnel through the vided wi‘th suitable brackets 51 in which are> se 55
cured threaded bolts 58, the upper ends of which
nozzle. In this way, I am enabled to cause a
somewhat larger amount of air to be circulated pass through suitable fixed brackets secured to
than would be possible with the use of the nozzles the side walls of the lehr, there being nuts as in
42- without the members 43 associated therewith. dicated at 59 threaded on the bolts 58 above the
jet supplied through the nozzle member 42, the
air being induced to ñow through the annular
60 It will be understood, however, that the jet ac
tion of the nozzle's without the use therewith 'of
the members 43 will be effective to circulate a
relatively large amount of airyin the tunnel as
, compared to the amount of air injected thereinto
through the nozzle members.
/
In the extreme exit end zone of the tunnel.
or the first zone from the exit end, which may be
said to include that portion of the tunnel from
the exit end substantially to the point 45 (Figs. 1
70 and 2), I provide means for deñecting the air
circulated by the injector nozzles as aforesaid
and also for the introduction and exhaust of'a'i'r
into and from the circulation in the tunnel. As
shown in Figs. 2 and 6, there is provided a de
75 flector 46 which may be formed of sheet metal
fixed brackets by which the bolts and -therefore
the bottom member 55 may be vertically adjust
ed in a manner which will be obvious from the
drawings and from the above description.
Thus in this flrstfor coolest zone of the lehr, I
have provided not- only for the circulation of 65
tunnel atmosphere ln a path as aforesaid, but
have also provided for the controlled introduc
tion of air into the circulation as created and
the controlled exhaust of air therefrom inter
mediate the ends of this zone. 'I‘his will effect 70
a maximum cooling of the >ware passing through
this zone, which is desired at this point in order
that the ware be brought down to a temperature
approximating that at which it may be handled
by the workers whose ,duty is to select and nack 75
. 2,133,783
it upon the packing table of theylehr, which ex#
ing through the iiues 23 which is drawn directly
through the opening 24. In_ this way, the fan
tends tothe right as seen in Figs. l and 2 of the
lehr construction there shown.
I1 is caused to be eiiective on the duct 3i to
‘
-In the second coolest zone of the lehr, which
may be considered as extending approximately
from point 45, Figs. 1 and 2, to the point 83, I
provide for the circulation of air as in the
withdraw from the tunnel at the hotter end of
the second zone a selected amount of air which
has been- circulated as aforesaid.
’
The next cooler zone of the -lehr may be con
sidered as that portion extending approximately
between'the lpoint ‘33 or the hotter end` of the
this circulation or for discharging circulated air ` second zone and substantially the point indiv
cated at 63, Fig. l. Substantially at or adjacent
` therefrom intermediate the ends of such ~zone.
'I'he ducts 29 and 30 extend through this second to the point 33. there is provided in the roof
zone as best illustrated in Fig. '1, but are flattened of the tunnel a hollow section 33 (Figs. l and 5)..
which is independent of the ilues 23, vbut may
as shown so as to accommodate them to the re
duced vertical space available in view of the pres- Á be formed in a similar manner, it being sepa
ence of the iiue's 23 above referred to, these i‘iues rated from the remainder of the ñues 23 by a
ending substantially at the point 45 as shown in suitable stopper member 13. This section com
' Fig. 2.
municates with the interior of the tunnel through
For directing the circulation in this second a plurality of apertures 1I, as shown in Fig. 5.
first zone with the exception that no means are
provided for introducing atmospheric air into
20 zone, there is provided a duct 6|, which is formed
and communicates through a take-oi! passage 20
12 and an extension 13 of the take-oi! conduit
inapproximately the same general shape as the
baille 46, that is, with beveled sides as shown at
32 (Fig. 7) against which the air from the nozzles
21, with that conduit and therethrough with the '
wind box I6 and exhaust fan I1. ` Flow of air
through the takeoii! passage 12 is controlled by
39 in this zone will impinge, so as to direct the
25 circulated air substantially in the paths shown by
the arrows in Fig. 7. Thus, intermediate the
end of this second zone, the air will be circulated
as aforesaid to ñow on and between the articles
a damper 14 as shown.
will be a substantially straight countercurrent
iiow of air which is derived from the Aair circu
lated .in the second zone Iand which is with
drawn -through the openings 1| ‘and the pas 30
sages above described by the exhaust fan I1.
This will produce a relatively less cooling veil'ect
upon the glass than the substantially transverse
circulation setup in the second zone, and that
circulation will in turn have a less cooling eñect 35
than the circulation including the introduction
of glassware passing through the tunnel and with
30 such a component of velocity transversely of the
~ lehr as to insure a fairly high coefficient of heat
transfer between t
re and the air, so that
the cooling of the ware will be quite eftlcient.
Due to the fact that there is no additional air
35 supplied to the circulation intermediate the ends
of the zone, the air gradually moving in repeated
and exhaust of air in the first cooling zone. The
circulations from the cooler toward the hotter
glass passing through the tunnel will then be
subjected to progressively increasing cooling in
end of the lehr will gradually be heated up by
heat received from the ware and not dissipated to
ñuences in passing from the third, to the second, 40
to the ~ilrst of the above mentioned zones.
40 the side and bottom walls of the lehr. Thus the
temperature difference between the ware and the
air will be kept withinthe desired limits and
breakage of the ware by too sudden cooling pre
vented.
`
45
At the hotter end of this second zone, there is
provided means for withdrawing from the tunnel
a desired portion of the air which has been circu
lated throughout this zone as aforesaid. For this
purpose, there is an opening into the tunnel from
.50 the interior of the duct il, which as shown at
A55
25
In this third cooling zone of the tunnel, there
'
An advantageous function of the arrangement,
provided and Vhereinabove described is that of
controlling the drift in the hotter portions of the
tunnel specifically from the point 33 to the 45
hotter end of the tunnel. It is desired usually
that there be little or no drift through this
,hotter zone or in some instances that there be
a slight drift out the hotter end of the tunnel,
so as to prevent the inflow of air at such end.
the extreme end of this duct, the air entering
the duct as indicated by the arrow v83. Fig. 2
This air thus withdrawnfrom the'tunnel passes
through the duct toward the exit end of the
which might damage the ware. vAny of these
drift` conditions may be eßected by a suitable
control of the amount of air withdrawn from
the tunnel at the two points, iirst through the
lehr and then passes into a chamber 34, which
communicates withy this duct, with the end of
the fiues 23 and with the atmosphere at 24 as
shown. The communication between this cham
duct il as indicated by the arrow 33 under -con
ber and the atmosphere is controlled by a damper
member 65, which may4 be secured in adjusted
through the nozzles 33, controlled by damper 33
position as by providing it with a chain 6B, any
link of which may be secured to a suitable _hook
trol of the damper 35, and, second, through the
apertures 1| under control of the damper 14,
55
in coordination with the amount-of air admitted
and the air admitted and exhausted in the first 60
zone controlled by dampers 5l and the setting
of the bottom member 53. ' It will be understood
that any suitable means, such as those dis
vided suitable means for controlling the com
closed -in the' prior art, some of which are now
munication between the chamber 34 and the , in commercial use, may be employed for provid 65
atmosphere. Inasmuch as the ilues 23 are under ing an automatic control or drift if such control
sub-atmospheric pressure. due to the influence is preferred to a manual control, but as thesev
of the exhaust fan l1 by which all the air is means are now in use in the art and are de
withdrawn from the flues 23 as above described, scribed in the patented art, no further descrip
tion will"be >given herein at this time and they 70
70 the closing of the damper member 3i will in
crease the amount of air drawn through the have not been lshown in the accompanying
duct 6I and thence through fiues 23; and con
versely, the opening of this damper member will
The .flow of air into the exit end of the tunnel
reduce the amount of air drawn through the may be controlled by the provision of the usual
door 1I, which is usually kept at the lowest 75
75 duct 3| and increase the proportion of air pass
or detent as shown at 31.
Thus there is pro
drawings.
.
l
'
'
5
2,133,783
height at which it will clear the ware passing
through the tunnel. 'I'his door is shown as hinged
to the end portion of the lehr at 16 and is pro
_ 4. The method of annealing glassware, `which
11 passing over sheaves at ‘I8 and -19'f and ar_-`
ranged to be wound upon a drum 80 under the
comprises the steps of passing the ware to be
annealed through a tunnel lehr, and accelerating
the cooling of the ware during its ‘passage
through a zone adjacent to the exit end of the 5
tunnel vby introducing a plurality of jets of air
control of a crank 8| as shown.
under relatively high pressure and directed in
vided with an adjusting means including a chain
-
'
Also, the several adjustable means may be_ paths, the principal component of which is trans
completely shut to maintain the lehr hot or to versely of the lehr and a minor component 1on
10 heat it up when no ware is for the time being ' gitudinal thereof in the direction opposite that 10
of the movement of the ware therethrough, and
passing therethrough.
I contemplate that certain of the individual admitting air from the atmosphere in such man
cooling arrangements described herein may be ner that the air thus admitted is caused to cir
used independently of others and that they may culate in the tunnel due to the action of the
15 be employed in conjunction not only with the jets aforesaid, thereby circulating air in the l5
tunnel in a zone adjacent to the exit end there
muilie type annealing lehr as shown in the ac
companying drawings, but also with direct iired of in a path passing repeatedly transversely of
types of lehrs and that many variations may the path of the Ware through the tunnel.
5. The method of annealing glassware, which
be made to the specific constructions herein de
comprises the steps of passing the `ware to be 20Á
20 scribed and shown in the drawings. I do not
wish to be limited, therefore, except by the scope annealed through a tunnel lehr, and accelerating
of the appended claims, which are to be con ’ the cooling of the ware during its passage through
strued as broadly as the state ofthe prior art a zone adjacent to the exit end of the tunnel
by introducing a plurality of jets of air under
permits.
I claim:
xrelatively high pressure and in paths, the major 25
v
1. The method of annealing glassware, which
comprises the steps of passing the ware to’be
annealed through a tunnel lehr, and accelerating
the cooling of the ware during its passage
30
component of which is transverse of the lehr
and a minor component is longitudinal thereof
in the direction opposite that of the movement
of the ware therethrough, controllably admitting
air from the atmosphere into the tunnel in> such 30
through a zone adjacent to the exit end of the ` manner- that the air admitted is caused to cir
tunnel by circulating a gaseous cooling medium
in said zone in a path passing repeatedly
culate in the tunnel by action of the air jets
through the path of the ware and in such manner i aforesaid, and controllably exhausting a part
that the current thus circulated will have >a
35 relatively high effective velocity transversely of
the path of the ware and a relatively low eiîec
tive velocity in the direction opposite the direc
tion of movement of the ware through the tunnel
to establish a relatively high heat transfer from
the ware to the circulated gaseous medium.
2. 'I'he method of annealingglassware, which
comprises the steps of passing the ware to be
annealed through a tunnel lehr, accelerating the
cooling of the ware during its passage through
a zone. adjacent to the exit end of the tunnel by
circulating a gaseous cooling medium in said
zone in a path passing repeatedly through the
path of the ware and in such manner that the
current thus circulated will have a relatively
of the air thus circulatedfand thereby circulat-\ '
ing air in the tunnel in a zone adjacent to the 35
exit end thereof in a path passing repeatedly
transversely of the path of the warethrough the
tunnel.
-
'
6. The method of annealing glassware, which
comprises the steps of passing the ware to be 40
annealed through a tunnel lehr, accelerating the
cooling of the ware during its passage through
a zone adjacent to the exit end of the tunnel
by setting up in said zone two substantially par
allel laterally disposed helical 'circulations of air: 45
by the provision in said zone of a plurality of
longitudinally spaced air jets which are respec-`
tively substantially tangent to the circulations „
thus setup and which cause the circulations to
high effective velocity transversely of the path
flow in paths, the major component of `which is 5i)
of the ware and a relatively low eñective Velocity
in the direction opposite the direction of.movement of the ware through the tunnel to establish
a relatively high heat transfer from the ware
transverse of the tunnel and a minor component` _
of which is longitudinal thereof in the direc
tion opposite that of- the movement of the glass
ware therethrough, and withdrawing at least a '
to the circulated gaseous medium, and withdraw
portion of the »air thus circulated from the 55
ing a part of the gaseous medium thus cir
culated from the tunnel adjacent to the hotter
tunnel adjacent to the hotter end of said zone. o v
end'of said zone.
comprises the steps of passing the ware to be an
nealed through a tunnel lehr, and accelerating
the cooling of the ware during its passage through 60
a zone adjacent to the exit end of the tunnel
by circulating air in said zone by the introduc-`
tion of a plurality of jets of air under a relatively
high pressure as related to the pressure ofthe
air in the tunnel, which jets are so disposed and 65
directed as to cause. the circulation ,of air in
two substantially helical paths, the axes of which
`
3. The method of annealing glassware, which
comprises the steps of passing'the ware to be
annealed through a tunnel lehr, and accelerating
the cooling of the ware during its passage
through a zoneadjacent to the exit end of the
tunnel by creating a circulation of air in `said
zone in a substantially helical path passing `re-v
peatedly,- transversely of the path of the ware
and having a relatively high effective velocity
transversely of the path of the ware and a rela
tively low effective velocity in the direction op
70 posite the direction of movement~v of the ware
7. The method of annealing glassware, which
are parallel and extend side by side longitudinal-v
ly of the lehr and- so that the _air will move in
paths each having a» major effective component
through the tunnel by~ introducing into the of velocity transversely of the lehr toincrease
tunnel a plurality of jets of air at relatively high> the rate of heat transfer from the ware to the air
pressure as compared with the pressure of the air whilehaving a minor component of velocity in
within the tunnel and substantially tangent to a direction longitudinal of the lehr and opposite
75 the helical path of the circulation.
’the direction of movementof the ware there-
70
~
'
75'
6
:$183,783
through, the air moving above the path of the
'aware toward the center of the tunnel and thence
downwardly so that the ware nearer the center of
the lehr is cooled to a greater extent than the
ware at the sides bythe circulation as aforesaid.
8. The method of annealing glassware, which
v
.hencal circulations m the tunnel with the axes
of said circulations extending longitudinally- of
the tunnel, the air so circulated having a major
component of its velocity transverse of the tun
nel so as to cause a relatively high rate of heat
transfer between the ware and the air and a
comprises the steps of passing the ware to be an ' minor component of said velocity longitudinal of
nealed through a ~tunnel lehr, accelerating the the tunnel in the direction opposite that of the
cooling of the ware during its passage through movement of the ware therethrough, and means
10 the cooler portion of the tunnel in a plurality of disposed intermediate the ends ~of said tunnel 10
zones, ythe effectiveness of the cooling o_f which for conducting therefrom at least a part of the
is progressively increased toward the cooler end
of the tunnel, including the circulation of air in
the iirst zone considered from the exit end of 'the
15 tunnel by the use of a plurality of jets of air under
relatively high pressure to induce air from the
atmosphere entering laterally of the tunnel and
dto cause it to ñow in twosubstantially helical
paths traversing the path of -the ware and hav
20 ing their major components of velocity trans
verse of the- path of the ware while having their
minor components of velocity longitudinal of the
path of the ware and opposite its direction of
movement, removing a controllable portion of the
air circulated as aforesaid.
11.' Apparatus for annealing glassware, comprising a tunnel lehr, means for conveying the
glassware therethrough, _a pair of similar ducts s. U
extending longitudinally of the lehr in the upper
portion of the tunnel adjacent to the lateral sides
thereof and in a zone of the tunnel adjacent to the
exit end thereof, means for supplying air under
pressure to _said ducts, means including spaced 20
nozzles constructed and arranged to discharge the
air from said ducts into the tunnel in such man
ner as to create two substantially helical circu
lations, the axes of which extend longitudinally
25 air thus circulated in the ñrst zone from the cir
of the tunnel and are so arranged that the major
culation on each turn thereof to cause cooling of
the ware at a relatively high rate, causing a sim
ilar circulation in the second zone from the cooler
end but without the introduction or exhausting
30 of air to and from the circulation as in the ñrst
zone as aforesaid and thus circulating in said
second zone an vamount of air which is drawn
only from the air circulated in said first zone
except for the air supplied by the jets in the sec
component of the velocity of the air thus cir
35 _ond zone, withdrawing a portion of the air thus
circulated in the second zone from the tunnel
substantially at the hotter end of said second
zone, cooling the ware in a third zone of the tun
nel from the cooler end by countercurrent flow
of air through this zone of the tunnel without
positively induced transverse circulation of the
air in this zone, and withdrawing the air moving
culated in the tunnel extends transversely thereof
while a minor component of said velocity is 1on
gitudinal of the tunnel in the direction opposite
that of the movement of the ware therethrough,
and means intermediate the ends of the tunnel
for conducting therefrom at least a part of the'
air circulated as aforesaid.
12. Apparatus for annealing glassware, -com
prising _a tunnel lehr, means for conveying vthe
glassware therethrough, a duct extending longi
tudinally of said tunnel in a zone thereof adia
cent to the exit end and at each side of the tunnel
in the upper portion thereof above the path of
the glassware, nozzles disposed at spaced inter
vals along each of said ducts and directed later
ally toward the center of the lehr and inclined
2.10y
-\ through this third zone from the tunnel at the in a direction longitudinally of the lehr and op
hotter end of the third zone at such a rate as to - posite the direction of the movement of the glass
establish a condition of substantially zero _ñow-
ware therethrough, a deflector extending longi
longitudinally of the tunnel in the portion there
tudinally of the lehr arranged to be impinged
of intermediate the hotter endA of the thirdI zone‘" by the jets from> all of said nozzles for directing
and the entrance end of the tunnel. `
9. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com-prising a tunnel lehr, means for conveying the
‘glassware therethrough, a duct extending longi~
tudinally of the lehr in a zone thereof adjacent
to the exit end of the tunnel, means for sup
plying a cooling medium to said duct under a
relatively high pressure, and means disposed at
spaced intervals along said duct and constructed
and arranged to discharge such medium from
said duct into the tunnel in such manner as to
create in the tunnel a substantially helical cir
culation, the major component of velocity of
which will be transverse of the tunnel and of the
path of the ware therethrough, while a minor
component of said velocity of which will be longi
tudinal of the tunnel in the direction opposite
65 that of the movement of the ware therethrough.
10.*Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
prising a tunnel lehr, means for conveying the
the airy» circulated thereby downwardly along the
central zone longitudinally of the lehr, the afore
said parts being so constructed and arranged that 50
there will be created in the tunnel two substan- .
tially helical circulations of air, the axes of which
extend longitudinally of the lehr and with the air
in both circulations moving- downward adjacent
to the center of the tunnel to cool the glassware
at the central -portion of the conveying means
to a greater` extent than that nearer the edges
thereof, and means intermediate the ends of the
tunnel for conducting therefrom at least a part
ofthe air circulated as aforesaid.
60
13. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com-~
prising a tunnel lehr, means for conveying the
glassware therethrough, a longitudinally extend
ing duct arranged in a zone adjacent to the exit
end of the lehr at each side thereof above the
path of the ware through the tunnel, a plurality
of nozzles at spaced interyals along each of said
ducts and directed to a major extent transversely
- glassware therethrough, means for conducting air
under pressure longitudinally of said tunnel in ' of the lehr and to a minor extent longitudinally
70 the cooler portion thereof adjacent to the exit
. end of the tunnel, means for supplying air under
pressure to 'the last named means, means con
structed and arranged to discharge the air from
_said air conducting means into the tunnel in such
76 manner as to set up two substantially parallel
thereof in the direction opposite that of the move 70
ment of the ware therethrough, a centrally' lo
cated and longitudinally disposed conduit formed I
as a deñecting means and arranged to be im
pinged by the air circulated by said nozzles and
t0 deilect the air thus circulated downwardly ad
2,138,188
jacent to the center line of the lehr in said zone,
said conduit opening into the tunnel adjacentl to
the end thereof toward the hotter end of the
lehr, and' means communicating withssaid con
ci duit for withdrawing therethrough at least a part
of the air circulated as aforesaid.
intermediate the ends of the tunnel for conduct
ing therefrom air circulated as aforesaid, and
means for independently controlling the amount
of air withdrawn from the tunnel through the .
last named means and for thereby controlling
the flow of air longitudinally of the tunnel in the
zone ~intermediate said last named means and
v
14. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
the entrance end of the tunnel.
prising a tunnel lehr, means for conveying the
prising a tunnel lehr, means for conveying glass
ing duct disposed in a zone of the tunnel adjacent
to the exit end thereof, means for supplying air
under pressure to said duct, means for discharg
ing the'air from said duct into said tunnel along
the length of said duct, means for admitting air
from the atmosphere into the tunnel adjacent
to said duct to be induced and circulated by the
air discharged from said duct, a deñector as
sociated with said duct to assist in directing the
.circulation as aforesaid and to assist in the in
duction of air into the tunnel, whereby a rela.
tively large amount of- air will be circulated in
the tunnel by the introduction of a relatively
small amount of air under pressure through said
duct, and means associated with said duct for
causing the air circulated as aforesaid to flow in
a path the major component of the direction of
which is transverse of the tunnel while a minor
component of such direction is longitudinal of
the tunnel in the dir‘ection -opposite that of the
tunnel adjacent to the exit end thereof construct
ed and arranged to circulate air in said zone in
the tunnel in a helical path, the major com- '
ponent of the velocity of >which extends trans
versely of the tunnel and of the path of the ware
therethrough while a minor 'component -of said
velocity extends longitudinally of the tunnel in
the direction opposite that of the movement of
the ware therethrough, other means for admit- »
ting air into the circulation as aforesaid adja-I
cent‘ to the extreme cooler' end of the tunnel,
means for conducting a part of the air'thus cir
culated from the tunnel adjacent to the extreme
cooler end of the tunnel, means intermediate the
ends of the tunnel for withdrawing therefrom air
circulated as aforesaid, and means for control
ling the amount ,of air withdrawn from the tun
nel by the last named means to the end that be-`
tween such means and the hotter end of the tun
nel there will be a desired flow /of air longitudi- , '
for conducting at least a portion of the air thus
circulated from the tunnel intermediate the ends
Y
-
nally of the tunnel.
18. Apparatus. for annealing glassware, com
-
15. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
prising a tunnel lehr,> means for conveying the
glassware therethrough, a longitudinally extend
ing duct disposed in a zone of the tunnel adjacent
to the exit end thereof, means for supplying air
under pressure tosaid duct, means for discharg
40 ing the air from said duct into said tunnel along
the length of said duct, means for admitting an
adjustably controllable amount of air from the
atmosphere into the tunnel in said zone, the above
named means for discharging the air from said
duct into the tunnel ?being- so constructed- and
arranged as to cause circulation of air in the
tunnel in a path, the major component of which
is transverse of the tunnel while a minor com
ponent of which is longitudinal thereof inv the
direction opposite that of the movement of the
ware therethrough, means disposed in said zone
for discharging therefrom a portion of the air
thus circulated, and means for adjustably con
trolling the amount of air so discharged from
the circulation within the tunnel.
16. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
prising a tunnel lehr, means for conveying .the
l0
ware therethrough, means in a cooler zone of the i
30 movement of the ware therethrough, and means
thereof.
j
17. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
glassware therethrough, a longitudinally extend
l10
7
prising a tunnel lehr, means for conveying the ‘
glassware therethrough, means in a first zone ad 35
jacent tothe exitend of the tunnel for creating a
circulation of air within such zone in a path the
major component of which extends transversely
of the tunnel and of the path of the ware there
through while a minor component of which ex
40
tends longitudinally of the tunnel in the direc
`tion opposite that of the vmovement of the ware
therethrough, means at the hotter end of said
first zone for withdrawing a portion of the air
thus circulated -_in the tunnel, and means inter 45
_ mediate the ware-entering end of the tunnel
and the point of withdrawal of air as aforesaid
A* for withdrawing an independently controllable
glassware therethrough, a duct extending longi
tudinally of the lehr in a zone thereof adjacent
to the exit end of the tunnel, means for supply
ing air under pressure to said duct, means con
structed and arranged to discharge 'air from said
duct into the tunnel in such manner that the
maior component of velocity ofthe air circulated
in the tunnel by the inductive action of the dis
charged air will be transverse of the tunnel and
of the path of the ware therethrough and a minor
component of said velocity will be longitudinal
v of the tunnel in the direction opposite that of
the >movement `of the ware. therethrough, means
for controlling the volume and velocity of the
air discharged from said duct as aforesaid to
control the rate of circulation of the air in the
tunnel and also the volume of air moving through
the tunnel countercurrent to the ware, means
amount of air from the tunnel to cause a counter
-curre'ntîñow of another portion of the air circu 50
lated in said first zone aforesaid through a second
zone of the tunnel for cooling the ware at a slower
. rate in such second zone, whereby the ware is sub
~ jected to progressively greater cooling as it travels
through the tunnel to the exit end thereof.
55
p 19. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com- l
prising. a tunnel lehr, means for conveying the
glassware therethrough, a duct extending longi
tudinally of the lehr in a zone thereof adjacent
to the exit end of the tunnel, means for supply 60
ing air under pressure to said duct, means for dis
charging aii‘ from said, ductinto the tunnel in
such manner that the ^ major component -of~
velocity of the air circulated in the tunnel by the
inductive action of the discharged air will be
transverse ofthe tunnel and of the path ofthe
ware therethrough while a minor component of
said velocity will be longitudinal of the tunnel
in the direction opposite that of the movement
of the ware therethrough, means for _withdraw 70
ing a part of the air thus circulated from said tun
nel adjacent to the hotter end of said zone, other
means for withdrawing air from the tunnel inter
mediate the last named withdrawal means and
the ware-entering end of said tunnel, and means ‘ 75
8
l
`
2,133,783
for independently controlling the amount of lair
withdrawn from the tunnel through each of said
withdrawal means, whereby independently to
control the rate of cooling in the two zones inter
mediate the ilrst named withdrawal means and
the exit end of the tunnel and intermediate
the two named means and to control the rate of'
flow of air through the remaining zone of said
tunnel intermediate the second named with
drawal means and the ware-entering end of said
l
tunnel.
l
20. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
prising a tunnel lehr, means for conveying glass
,
jected to progressively increasing cooling eiIects
as it passes from the third to the second tothe
lfirst of said zones.
' 2-1. Apparatus for annealing glassware, com
prising a tunnel lehr, means for conveying the
glassware therethrough, ducts extending longi-y
tudinally of the tunnel in the upper corners there
of above the path of the ware, a plurality of noz- _
zles disposed along each of said ducts in a cool
portion of the lehr and having the major com~
ponent of their directions extending transverse- '
ly of the lehr while a minor component thereof
extends longitudinally of the lehr, means for
ware therethrough, means in a ilrst zone starting » supplying-air under pressure to said ducts, means
S from the cooler end of the lehr constructed and
arranged to circulate air therein in such manner
that the major component of the velocity of the
air thus circulated will be vtransverse of the tunnel
and of the Ipath of the ware therethrough while
a minor component of said velocity will be longitudinal of the tunnel in the direction opposite
that of the movement of the ware therethrough,
means in said first zone for admitting ainto the
for adjustably controlling the supply of air to said
ducts as aforesaid, bame means disposed longi
tudinally of thetunnel and centrally of the roof
thereof for deflecting the air supplied through‘ V
said nozzles downwardly adjacent to the longi
tudinal center line of the lehr to cause increased
cooling of the ware adjacent to the center of the
conveying means in respect to the rate of cool
ing of ware adjacent to the sides thereof, means
circulation from the atmosphere through ports .for admitting an adjustably controllable amount
opening laterally of the tunnel,- means in said first of air from the atmosphere laterally of the tunnel 25
zone for discharging a portion of the lair thus cir
adjacent to said nozzles to be induced thereby lin
culated in said zone subsequent to its‘passage at the ilrst or exit end zone of the lehr, means in
least once through the path of the warefmeans in such exit end zone for the discharge of an ad
a second zone from the exit end oi’ the tunnel con-l
structed and arranged to circulate the air as in
the ñrst of said zones as aforesaid but without
the introduction and discharge of air from and
to the atmosphere intermediate the ends of such
second zone, means at the hotter end of said
35 second zone for withdrawing from the tunnel a
controllable portion of the air circulated in said
second zone, and means at the hotter end of a
third zone from the cooler end of the tunnel for
withdrawing a controllable portion of air which
has passed to the last named withdrawal means
from the exit end of the tunnel through the ilrst,
second and third zones successively, whereby the
glassware passing through the tunnel will be sub
justably controllable amount of the air circulated
in such zone, means including the portion of Said
baille means in the next or second zone of the
lehr toward the hotter 'end thereof for withdraw-k '
ing a controllable portion of the air circulated in
said second zone from the tunnel, and means at
the hotter end of a third zone toward the hotter 35
end of the tunnel from the ñrst two named zones
for withdrawing a selected adjustable amount of
air from the tunnel and for thereby controlling at
willthe drift or flow of air through the hottest
zone of the tunnel from the last named with
drawal means to the ware-entering end thereof.
DoÑALn G. MERRILL.
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
1 514 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа