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Патент USA US2133809

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oct. 1s, 193s.-
L_ F. CAÉTER Er AL
2,133,809
GYROVERT ICAL
'Filed Deo. 2l, 1935
3 Sheets-Sheet 2 '
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‘Oct 18, 1938.
v L. F. CARTER ET AL
2,133,809
GYROVERTICAL
- Filed Deo. 21, 1935
3 Sheets-Sheet 3
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Patented Oct. 18, 1938
2,133,809
' UNITED sTATEsA PATENT OFFICE '
2,133,809
GYRovEn'rIcAL
Leslie F. Carter, Leonia, N. J., and William An
scott, Woodhaven, N. Y., assignors to Sperry
Gyroscope Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a
corporation of New York
Application December 21, 1935, Serial No. 55,606
21 claims. (Cl. 33_204)
This invention relates to artificial> horizons or the same applied to a gyro vertical of the naval
gyro verticals.
type.
One ofthe principal objects is toA construct`
such a device so that the sensitive element, or
gyro proper, is supported for freedom about its
:à
'
.
Fig. 7_A isßa sectional detail of one of the
bearings supporting the gyro gimbal ring from
the air floated cup.
'
horizontal axes entirely on air bearings, so that
Fig. 8 is a side_elevation, partly in section, of
the sources of error due to angular motion of the ' another
form of naval type gyro vertical.
platform on which the device is mounted, which
are usually transmitted through the friction of
)
the supporting bearings, are largely eliminated.
While we are aware that devices of this broadly
stated characteristic have heretofore been pro
posed, of the ball type in which a rapidly rotating
ball or sphere is supported at the base in a cup
s. Cil
by an air film, self-generated or otherwise, such
devices have the disadvantage that there neces
sarily exists a more or less tight coupling between
the element causing the spinning and the ball.
'They also give trouble in case the air supply is
shut off While the ball is spinning, since in such
case the' rapidly spinning ball scores the cup and
seriously damages the same.'
According to the preferred form of our present
invention, the rotor is mounted on an ordinary
anti-friction bearing and the rotor bearing cas
ing is universally supported on an air bearing or
'
Fig. 9 is an elevation, partly in section, taken
at right angles to Fig. 8 on broken line 9_9.
Fig. 10 is -a horizontal section through the
lower portion of the ball rotor, taken on line
Ill-I0 of Fig. 8.
'I‘he form shown in Fig. 1 is especially adapted
1o
for stabilizing a mirror I in a horizontal plane for
use as an artiñcial horizon in obtaining “fixes”
in navigation, aerial or water borne. The device
is shown as gimbal supported within‘a gimbal
ring 2 which is mounted for oscillation within.
brackets 3 on axis 4. Said gimbal, in turn, sup
ports the framework 5 for oscillation about a
horizontal axis 6_6 at right angles to axis 4_4. 20
Air for spinning the rotor and supporting the
device is forced in through one of bearings I in
the usual manner from a pump.(not shown) and
conducted around the hollow gimbal ring and
through one or both of bearings 6 throughv aper 25
-tures 'l around the stud 8, the air entering -pas
ing force may be applied to the casing from the _ sageways 9 within the member 5. The member
pendulous supporttherefor, said force being ap
5 is vshownlas pendulously supported in the bear
bearings, either directly or indirectly. An .erect
plied, preferably, at right angles to the inclina
tion so as to cause direct elimination of tilt
without setting up an oscillation.
In other forms
of the invention, the rotor is spun by reaction
jets so- as to avoid coupling between the rotor
and the support.
Referring to the drawings, illustrating several
forms our invention may assume,
-
Fig. 1 is a side elevation, partly in section, of
one kform of artificial horizon.
40
Fig. 2 is a plan view of the spherical rotor
bearing casing, the view being taken on trans
verse section line 2_2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a vertical section, partly in elevation,
of a modified form of horizon in which the gyro
4 element comprises a hollow truncated sphere.
Fig. 4 is a vertical section, partly in elevation,
of a still further modification.
Fig. 5 is a front elevation of the form shown in
50
Fig. 4. -
'
Fig. 6 is a. sectional detail through the spheri
cal shell of the rotor bearing casing in Figs. 1
and 2.
Fig. 7 is a side elevation, partly in section, of
another modiñed form of the invention, showing
ings 4 and 6. Said member, in turn, universally
supports the _rotor bearing casing I0 in neutral 30
equilibrium about three axes. Said casing is
shown as substantially in the form of a hollow
sphere which is floated within member 5 on air
bearings. For this purpose, a portion of the air
from a passageway 9 passes through opening II
to a chamber I2 underneath the sphere. The air
then pass-es between the close fitting annular
surface' I3 around` member 5 and the sphere ‘to`
provide an air bearing for the saine, supporting it
for freedom around all three axes, i. e., both
horizontal axes and the vertical axis. An upper
air bearing is provided above the center of the
40
sphere at I4, the air passing through the channel
9 to emerge between the spherical surface of
member 5 at I4 and the sphere. The sphere is
thus prevented from bouncing out of the lower
cup or `bearing I3~
'I‘he sphereisv shown as made in upper and
lower halves for assembly purposes, the halves
being secured together. Member 5 is also shown 50
as constructed in two parts bolted together by
bolts 80. Within the sphere is'journaled the
rotor I5 on upper and lower anti-friction bear
ings I6 and I1.
The rotor is shown as spun from
2
.
.
`
.
,
„
2,133,809
air- jetsn‘l8> within the sphere I8, the jets engag
the- horizon line 31'
ing buckets I9 on a lower extension of the rotor.
of the rotor 25' itself. `In this case vthe rotor
is shown as spun from tangential jets 48 in a
dlsc'4l securedpto an inner stem 42 along the
axis oi' the ball. Said stem is shown as provided
with a knob 43 at the top which forms an air
bearing in conjunction with a cup 44 formed
The air to-said jets passes upwardly from the
chamber I2 through radial aperture 28 and
transverse apertures 2|. Since the hollow sphere
is universally supported, the reaction of the jets
may tend to drive it in the opposite direction to
marked on the periphery
ing up period, Athus reducing the gyroscopic ac
10 tion. In order to prevent this and at the same
in the hollow downwardly extending ,stem 21'
from the casing 29". The air entering through
the stem. 21’_ furnishes an air support between
dulously mounted member 5, an unbalanced
upon inclination, being in line‘ with the lower
the spin of the rotor especially during the _start
time secure gravitational control of the casing, l the >cup 44 and knob 43. A portion of the air
we provide tangential jets or openings 22 around -- also passes downwardly through the bore 46 in
the top of the sphere and directed so as to oppose ‘ the stem 42, which is connected by a transverse
the normal tendency of the sphere to rotate. bore 41 to the jets 40. A portion of the air also
15 After spinning the ball, the air' emerges through emerges fromthe bottom of the bore 46 to sup
tangential jets 22 into the outside atmosphere ply the air bearing support between the bottom ~
and by adjusting the relative size of the jets, the of the spinning ball and the cup 48 formed in
'
sphere may be made to stand still or rotate slowly the lower portion of the housing 29'.
For erecting this form of horizon, we have
in either direction, as desired.
Said jets preferably emerge -on a line with the shown a plurality of small tangential equatorial 20
20
top 23 of the supporting member 5 so as to be jets 50 in the knob 43, supplied with air from
the _bore 46. ` Said jets preferably are directed
bisected thereby. Therefore, in case the hous
in the proper direction to erect the gyroscope
ing |0 becomes inclined with respect to the pen
25 torqueyabout the horizontal axis would be ex
erted on the 'sphere at right angles to the axis
of inclination, thereby directly erecting the gyro
scope. In such gyroscopes, the gyroscope very
slowly follows the position of the pendulum. that
30 is, it assumes its average position. Hence the gy
edge of the cup 44, so that a portion of the jets
is covered upon inclination of the ball with re
spect to the casing. Since these jets ma’y be
made smaller than the jets 40 and are on a less
radius, they will- not interfere seriously with the
spinning of the ball.
so
In the form shown in Figs. 8, 9 and 10, the
i roscope> may be said to integrate the positions
of the pendulum. It should be noted that the` ball rotor 25" is shown as supported by air bear
gyroscope is entirely f_ree about all three axes, ings within a gimbal supported ring 5|. Said
the only bearings being air bearings, so that ring is shown as secured by brackets 52 to a ring
53 which is universally supported by means of
35 rolling and pitching of the platform will not dis
a gimbal ring 54 from fixed brackets 55. Air is
turb the gyroscope.
The forms of the invention' shown in Figs. 3 shown as "supplied through a ñexible tube 56 to
the interior of the ring 5|. The main body of
and 4 are more adapted for use as a horizon in
dicator on aircraft. Referring to these-forms, the air is forced within the ball through a cir
cumferential slot 51 and apertures 58, the air 40
40 the rotor consists of- a hollow truncated sphere entering the axial bore 59 and emerging through
25, which is preferably spun by reaction jets 28
so that there is no coupling to the spinning the spinning jets 88 and 6| which are shown
means. For this purpose, air is introduced into near the top and bottom of the ball, respectively.
Additional air may be supplied to the lower bear
the center of the sphere through a tube 21 ex
ing 63 formed by ring-5|, through channel 64 45
tending downwardly from the top 28 of the cas
45
ing 29 and communicating at 'its top with the connected to the passage 56'.
A pendulously supported cup 65 is placed un
atmosphere, air being continuously pumped from the ball~ 'so that the exterior rim thereof 86
the casing fthrough» pipe coupling- 8|.4 I'I'he bot 'der
lies adjacent the nozzles 6|, so as to exert an
tom of said'tube is shown as having a knob 38
torque on the ball in case of inclina
thereon'where it entersthe middle of the rotor, erecting
as in the other< forms. The-cup 65 is uni
the knob forming an air bearing 3| in cooperation tion,
versally supported `on a gimbal system 81, inde
with a small ring- 32 secured within the top of pendent from ring 5|, gimbal ring 61 having its
the rotor. The spinning air emerges through a
pivots on ring 5|-at 68, and ring 68', be
plurality of tangential jets 28. For erecting pur vmain
ing'pivoted thereon at |28, the'cup 85 being se isisl
poses there is provided a mass 33 which is floated
55
in a cup 34 at the bottom of the casing. Air cured to the latter by bracket |2|.
The outer gimbal~ system is preferably stabi
enters through aperture 35 in the cup and passes
upwardly between the cup and mass 33, Yto ñoat lized from the ball by any suitable follow-up
the same within the-cup. A portion of the air _ system, such as disclosed in the patent _to Gill
mor and Wittkuhns, No. 1,984,874, dated Decem
60 also passes up through a central aperture 38 in ber 18, 1934, for Gyro verticals. According to
the mass 33 to assist in supporting the spinning
ball on the mass 23. The jets 28 emerge on a this system, there is provided a cruciform induc
line with the top edge of the mass, so that in tive controller 10 mounted on a bracket 1 |' on top
case thev ball gyroscope becomes inclined with of the supporting ring, which cooperates with a
soft iron button 38' on the rotor andwhich con
respect to the mass, -an erecting torque is ex
erted thereon which slowly erects the same due trols motors >12 and 13, acting about the two
.to the fact that the spinning jets on the low side major axes of support of the ring 5|. The mo
are partially covered, resulting in a greater torque tor 12 is shown as geared directly to the trun
on the high side in the proper direction to erect nion 14 of ring 54, while thev motor 13 is coupled
the gyroscope. A horizon line or indicator 31 to a bail or loop 15 mounted on brackets 16 in
may be painted or otherwise marked on a shell ~ line with the minor trunnion axis 11 of the gim- ,
38 secured to the ball rotor, which is visible from
the front through a window 38.
The form shown in Fig. .4 is quite similar, ex
cept that the pendulous mass 33 is omitted and
bal ring 53, and connected to' ring 5|' through a
trackway 18 on loop 15 and a roller connection
18 on loop 1|. Transmitters 12’ and 13' may
be actuated therefrom for transmitting the true
2,133,809
vertical to trunnion tilt correctors and the like.
A similar type of gyro vertical is shown in Fig.
'7. In this case, however, the rotor |5' is support
ed on conventional anti-friction bearing I1' in
casing 82, which, in turn, is universally supported
on hollow trunnions 93 and 83' by gimbal ring 83
within a second ring 84. The latter is mounted
on or forms the top of a hemispherical cup or
bowl 85 which is'floated on air bearings 86 within
10 a supporting spider or frame 81. Said frame, in
turn, is universally supported on an independent
gimbal system 88, as ring 53 is supported in Figs.
8 and 9. Air may enter the gimbal system
3
ship. 'I‘his may be conveniently accomplished by
a solenoid |I2 at the base of the frame which,
when excited, pushes upwardly a centralizing
sleeve » I I3, the tapered end of which engages a
conical seat H5 on the bottom of the cup at the
mouth of aperture 9|, to centralize and tempo
rarily lock the cup to the frame. The operator
merely holds a button III down during turning-or
acceleration,_ or automatic means' may be pro
vided to this end, if desired.
10
i
As many changes could be made in the above
construction and many apparently `widely dif
ferent embodiments of this invention could be
through hollow trunnions of the gimbals as in Fig. » made without departing from the scope thereof,
15 -l, -the air then passing through pipes 89 and it is intended that all matter contained in the
central vertical aperture 89' to 'pass into a cham
above description or shown in the accompanying
ber 90 between the spider and bowl. A portion of drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and
the air passesyupwardly through the air bearings
86 to float the cup universally. Another part of
20 the air passes upwardly through aperture 9| and
pipe 92 and through the hollow trunnion 93 and
hollow ring 84. A pipe 95 is shown as connected
to the hollow trunnion 83’ to carry air`into the
lower bearing I1' of the rotor. The rotor shaft
is shown’as hollow at least half way u`p, for lead
ing air into radial passages 96 which connect with
tangential spinning jets 91 in the face of Athe
rotor.
`
As in Fig. 8, the device is providedwith means
30 for stabilizing the outer gimbal system and frame
81 from the gyroscope, the pick-off being shown
as a cruciform inductive device 10, as in the other
form, which cooperates with a magnetic button
98 on a stem 99 secured to the gyro casing. Said
inductive transformer control follow-up motors
12 and 13, as in Fig. 8. which may drive trans
mitteds I0 to repeater devices for stabilizing a
trunnion tilt corrector or other device.
As is well known, a free gyroscope will ap
40 parently assume a tilt due to the earth’s rotation,
which varies in accordance with latitude and lies
to the west. To prevent this, We have shown a
latitude corrector comprising a ring I 0| .rotatably
mounted onan annular trackway |02 secured to
45 the frame 81. A single air nozzle |03 is mounted .
thereon to exert a small continuous torque on the
gyroscope on thenorth or south side of the gyro
scope, dependingupon the direction of rotation.
In order to maintain said nozzle ñxedin azimuth,
ring IOI is shown as driven from a repeater motor
|04 driven from the gyro compass. Air is shown
as supplied to said nozzle |03 through pipe |05
connected with an annular channel I 06 formed
in the adjacent surfaces |01 and I 08 on the spider
and rotatable ring |0I, respectively.
.
Since the cup 85 is pendulous, we depend on the
same to impart an erecting coupling on the gyro
scope` through the gimbal support connecting the
same to the gyro. In order to secure this effect,
it is necessary that the cup rotate slowly in the di
rection of the rotor. According to our construc
tion, this is accomplished automatically since it
is found that the air' drag ofthe rapidly spin
ning rotor on the casing 82 and the friction of
bearings |1' will carry the cup around slowly in
-the direction of rotation of the rotor. There is
thus exerted an erecting force on the gyro casing
through this cup, which in itself is not connected
by any metallic or frictional bearings with the
support. In order to limit the speed _of rotation '
of the cup 85, air bafile plates H0, III may be
mounted on the cup.
‘
`
We also prefer to lock the cup against displace
ment during turning or other acceleration of the
not in a limiting sense.
~
Having described our invention, what we claim
and desire to secure by Letters Patents is:
20
l. In a free gyroscope, a rotor, av hollow spheri
cal casing within which said rotor is journaled
for spinning, ay cup for -supporting said casing for
freedom about'all three principal axes, means for
supplying ai? between said cup and casing to float 25
the latter, means for pendulously supporting said '
cup, and erecting means acting between said cup
and casing to apply atorque to said casing at
right angles tothe plane of tilt thereof.
2.-In a gyro vertical, a rotor, a rotor bearing 3.0
casing supporting said rotor, and air borne
spherical bearing means for supporting said cas
ing for freedom about all three principal axes.
3. In a gyro vertical, a'rotor, a rotor bearing
casing supporting said rotor, an air borne spheri
cal bearing means for supporting said casing for
freedom about all three principal axes, and
pendulous erecting means for said casing acting
between said bearing means and said casing, di
rectly eliminating the tilt thereof.
, 4. A free gyroscope as claimed in claim 1, hav
ing air -jet means for spinning the rotor Within
its casing, and -air jet means in said casing
through which the spinning air escapes, said last
named means forming the erecting means in con
45
junction With a lip of the cup adjacent thereto.
said means also acting to reduce the rotation of
said casing induced by the reaction of said rotor
spinning means.
5. Ina free gyroscope, a rotor, a hollow spheri
cal casing within which said rotor is journaled, a'
cup for supporting said casing` for freedom about
all three principal axes, and means for supplying
air between said cup and casing to float the latter
and to spin the rotor within said casing, said
casing having air ports for the discharge of the
spinning air directed'to oppose reactive rotation
of said casing.
6. In a free gyroscope, a rotor, a hollow spheri
cal casing within which'said rotor is journaled, a 60
cup for supporting said casing for freedom about
all three principal axes, means for supplying air
between said cup and casing to`fioat the latter
and to spin the rotor within saidcasing, said
casing having air ports for the discharge of the 65
spinning air preferably directed to oppose re
active rotation of said casing, and means- for
pendulously supporting said cup, said ports lying
in the same plane as an adjacent edge of the said
cup, whereby an erecting torque is exerted on said 70
casing upon inclination thereof.
7.’In a gyro vertical, a hollow ball-like rotor,
means for supplying air under pressure within
the rotor, said ball having peripheral apertures
therein through which the air escapes to spin
4
2,133,809
the rotor by`> reaction, and a gravitationally re
ingua jet means for applying a corrective torque
sponsive member adjacent the apertures in said
rotor to intercept -alportion of said apertures upon
on said casing to counteract tilt due to the earth’s
rotation, and compass controlled means for main
taining said’jet means ñxed in azimuth. ,
inclination of said rotor to erect the same.
,15. In a gyro vertical, the combination with a
8. In a gyro vertical, a rotor, means for sup-.`>
plying air under pressure within the rotor, said
rotor having peripheral apertures therein through
which the air escapes to spin the rotor by re
action, 'a rotor- bearing casing supporting said
10 rotor, a cup member or bowl„a gimbal support
neutrally universally mounted gyroscope, `pen
dulous _means for erecting the> same, a. device
stabilized in azimuth adjacent said gyroscope,
and an air jet thereon to impinge the gyroscope
to counteract tilt caused by rotation of the earth.
16. A gyroscopic horizon as claimed in claim
whereby said bowl supports said casing, and air
dotation means for pendulously supporting said 12, having meansÁ for locking the spherical sup-y
porting member during acceleration of the ship.
bowl about the three principal axes, and permit
17. An air spun, air borne gyroscope having
ting slow rotation about the vertical axis in the
15 direction of spin of the rotor.l
- 9. In a gyro vertical, a rotor, a rotor bearing
casing supporting said rotor, an air borne spher
ical bearing means for supporting said casing for
freedom about all three principal axes, pendulous
20 erecting means for said casing acting between
said first named means and said casing, directly
eliminating the tilt thereof, and means for locking
said pendulous means during acceleration or turn
of the vehicle on which the- gyro vertical isl
mounted. ,
l
10. A gyro vertical as claimed in claim 7,
having an outer casing surrounding the ball-like
rotor, a hollow stem therein for leading air under
pressure within the ball, and a spherical air bear-`
30 ing between the end of said stem and a part on
the ball at the center thereof.
`
11. An air spun, air borne gyroscope having a
ball-like rotor, a casing for supporting the same
on a spherical air bearing at the bottom, a hollow
stem on said casing for leading air within the
ball, a cooperating stem in the rotor having a
bore receiving suchair, a spherical air bearing
between said stems at the center of the ball, and
air jet means communicating with the bore in
the last named stem for spinning and erecting »
'
the rotor.
12. `A gyroscopic horizon having a pendulous
device and a free gyroscope acting as an in»
tegrating device for the position of said pen
45 dulous device in which said pendulous device is in
the form of a hollow member of spherical con
tour, air bearings for floating said member for
complete freedom, and gimbal means within said
member for universally supporting said gyro
scope, and means for normally revolving said
member slowly in the direction of spin of the
gyro rotor.
55
a ball-like rotor, a casing for supporting the same
0n a spherical air bearing at the bottom, a hol
low stem on said casing for leading air within the
ball, a ¢cooperating nstem in the rotor having a
bore receiving such air, a spherical air bearing
between said stems at the center of the ball ,
through which said air passes, and air jet means
connected with the‘bore in the last named stem
for spinning said rotor.
~18. In a gyro Vertical, arotor, a hollow rotor
bearing casing therefor of spherical contour, a
pendulous gimbal support in which said casing
is floated on spherical air bearings for freedom
about all axes, air jet means within said casing
for spinning the rotor, and air jet means through
which the used air escapes from said casing, said 30.
support acting as a cut-oiI shield for cutting off
a portion of said last named jet means upon in
clination of the rotor.
v19. In a_ gyro vertical, a rotor; a hollow rotor
bearing casing therefor of spherical contour, a 35
pendulous gimbal support in which said casing is
floated on spherical air bearing means for free
dom about all axes, there being air vents in said
casing from which air jets emerge tangentially,
said s'upport acting as a cut-off shield for cutting 40
oiï a portion of said jets upon inclination of the
casing, whereby the gyroscope is directly erected
to the vertical.
20. A gyro vertical as claimed in claim- 18,
„wherein the second mentioned air jet means are
tangentially directed in the same direction as the
ñrst mentioned air jet means, whereby the vspin
ning of the support by the reaction from thespinning jets is substantially reduced or nullified.
2l. In a free gyroscope, a rotor, a hollow spher
ical casing within which said rotor is journaled,
a cup- for supporting said casing for freedom
13,. In a gyro vertical, a hollow spherically
about a plurality of axes, and means for supplying
shaped member, air bearings for ñoating the
air between said cup and casing to_ float the
latter and to spin the rotor within said casing,
said casing having air ports for the discharge
same for freedom about all three axes, a neutrally
mounted gyroscope having a verticalspin axis
universally supported within said member,`and
means for eilecting slow rotation of said mem
ber in the directionof spin of the gyroscope rotor,
60 whereby the gyroscope is maintained with its
spin axis vertical.
14. A gyro vertical as claimed in claim 2, hav
of the spinning air so constructed and arranged
as to partially suppress freedom about at least
one axis.
'
LESLIE F. CARTER.
WILLIAM ANSCO'IT.
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