Патент USA US2133809код для вставки
oct. 1s, 193s.- L_ F. CAÉTER Er AL 2,133,809 GYROVERT ICAL 'Filed Deo. 2l, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 ' @v_N.m1 “M_ _ __ .Rn MMU __[Wm 1MB ____ _m .0 _ __ Í .T, ,n A ___@ ,Ñ m m n _ Cm f , _m www „1_ Mmm ‘Oct 18, 1938. v L. F. CARTER ET AL 2,133,809 GYROVERTICAL - Filed Deo. 21, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 :NVE mons ¿asus F CARTER îè _l WIB/#IHM Hlvscoïr l è .THE/R AT‘ÉM Patented Oct. 18, 1938 2,133,809 ' UNITED sTATEsA PATENT OFFICE ' 2,133,809 GYRovEn'rIcAL Leslie F. Carter, Leonia, N. J., and William An scott, Woodhaven, N. Y., assignors to Sperry Gyroscope Company, Inc., Brooklyn, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application December 21, 1935, Serial No. 55,606 21 claims. (Cl. 33_204) This invention relates to artificial> horizons or the same applied to a gyro vertical of the naval gyro verticals. type. One ofthe principal objects is toA construct` such a device so that the sensitive element, or gyro proper, is supported for freedom about its :à ' . Fig. 7_A isßa sectional detail of one of the bearings supporting the gyro gimbal ring from the air floated cup. ' horizontal axes entirely on air bearings, so that Fig. 8 is a side_elevation, partly in section, of the sources of error due to angular motion of the ' another form of naval type gyro vertical. platform on which the device is mounted, which are usually transmitted through the friction of ) the supporting bearings, are largely eliminated. While we are aware that devices of this broadly stated characteristic have heretofore been pro posed, of the ball type in which a rapidly rotating ball or sphere is supported at the base in a cup s. Cil by an air film, self-generated or otherwise, such devices have the disadvantage that there neces sarily exists a more or less tight coupling between the element causing the spinning and the ball. 'They also give trouble in case the air supply is shut off While the ball is spinning, since in such case the' rapidly spinning ball scores the cup and seriously damages the same.' According to the preferred form of our present invention, the rotor is mounted on an ordinary anti-friction bearing and the rotor bearing cas ing is universally supported on an air bearing or ' Fig. 9 is an elevation, partly in section, taken at right angles to Fig. 8 on broken line 9_9. Fig. 10 is -a horizontal section through the lower portion of the ball rotor, taken on line Ill-I0 of Fig. 8. 'I‘he form shown in Fig. 1 is especially adapted 1o for stabilizing a mirror I in a horizontal plane for use as an artiñcial horizon in obtaining “fixes” in navigation, aerial or water borne. The device is shown as gimbal supported within‘a gimbal ring 2 which is mounted for oscillation within. brackets 3 on axis 4. Said gimbal, in turn, sup ports the framework 5 for oscillation about a horizontal axis 6_6 at right angles to axis 4_4. 20 Air for spinning the rotor and supporting the device is forced in through one of bearings I in the usual manner from a pump.(not shown) and conducted around the hollow gimbal ring and through one or both of bearings 6 throughv aper 25 -tures 'l around the stud 8, the air entering -pas ing force may be applied to the casing from the _ sageways 9 within the member 5. The member pendulous supporttherefor, said force being ap 5 is vshownlas pendulously supported in the bear bearings, either directly or indirectly. An .erect plied, preferably, at right angles to the inclina tion so as to cause direct elimination of tilt without setting up an oscillation. In other forms of the invention, the rotor is spun by reaction jets so- as to avoid coupling between the rotor and the support. Referring to the drawings, illustrating several forms our invention may assume, - Fig. 1 is a side elevation, partly in section, of one kform of artificial horizon. 40 Fig. 2 is a plan view of the spherical rotor bearing casing, the view being taken on trans verse section line 2_2 of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a vertical section, partly in elevation, of a modified form of horizon in which the gyro 4 element comprises a hollow truncated sphere. Fig. 4 is a vertical section, partly in elevation, of a still further modification. Fig. 5 is a front elevation of the form shown in 50 Fig. 4. - ' Fig. 6 is a. sectional detail through the spheri cal shell of the rotor bearing casing in Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 7 is a side elevation, partly in section, of another modiñed form of the invention, showing ings 4 and 6. Said member, in turn, universally supports the _rotor bearing casing I0 in neutral 30 equilibrium about three axes. Said casing is shown as substantially in the form of a hollow sphere which is floated within member 5 on air bearings. For this purpose, a portion of the air from a passageway 9 passes through opening II to a chamber I2 underneath the sphere. The air then pass-es between the close fitting annular surface' I3 around` member 5 and the sphere ‘to` provide an air bearing for the saine, supporting it for freedom around all three axes, i. e., both horizontal axes and the vertical axis. An upper air bearing is provided above the center of the 40 sphere at I4, the air passing through the channel 9 to emerge between the spherical surface of member 5 at I4 and the sphere. The sphere is thus prevented from bouncing out of the lower cup or `bearing I3~ 'I‘he sphereisv shown as made in upper and lower halves for assembly purposes, the halves being secured together. Member 5 is also shown 50 as constructed in two parts bolted together by bolts 80. Within the sphere is'journaled the rotor I5 on upper and lower anti-friction bear ings I6 and I1. The rotor is shown as spun from 2 . . ` . , „ 2,133,809 air- jetsn‘l8> within the sphere I8, the jets engag the- horizon line 31' ing buckets I9 on a lower extension of the rotor. of the rotor 25' itself. `In this case vthe rotor is shown as spun from tangential jets 48 in a dlsc'4l securedpto an inner stem 42 along the axis oi' the ball. Said stem is shown as provided with a knob 43 at the top which forms an air bearing in conjunction with a cup 44 formed The air to-said jets passes upwardly from the chamber I2 through radial aperture 28 and transverse apertures 2|. Since the hollow sphere is universally supported, the reaction of the jets may tend to drive it in the opposite direction to marked on the periphery ing up period, Athus reducing the gyroscopic ac 10 tion. In order to prevent this and at the same in the hollow downwardly extending ,stem 21' from the casing 29". The air entering through the stem. 21’_ furnishes an air support between dulously mounted member 5, an unbalanced upon inclination, being in line‘ with the lower the spin of the rotor especially during the _start time secure gravitational control of the casing, l the >cup 44 and knob 43. A portion of the air we provide tangential jets or openings 22 around -- also passes downwardly through the bore 46 in the top of the sphere and directed so as to oppose ‘ the stem 42, which is connected by a transverse the normal tendency of the sphere to rotate. bore 41 to the jets 40. A portion of the air also 15 After spinning the ball, the air' emerges through emerges fromthe bottom of the bore 46 to sup tangential jets 22 into the outside atmosphere ply the air bearing support between the bottom ~ and by adjusting the relative size of the jets, the of the spinning ball and the cup 48 formed in ' sphere may be made to stand still or rotate slowly the lower portion of the housing 29'. For erecting this form of horizon, we have in either direction, as desired. Said jets preferably emerge -on a line with the shown a plurality of small tangential equatorial 20 20 top 23 of the supporting member 5 so as to be jets 50 in the knob 43, supplied with air from the _bore 46. ` Said jets preferably are directed bisected thereby. Therefore, in case the hous in the proper direction to erect the gyroscope ing |0 becomes inclined with respect to the pen 25 torqueyabout the horizontal axis would be ex erted on the 'sphere at right angles to the axis of inclination, thereby directly erecting the gyro scope. In such gyroscopes, the gyroscope very slowly follows the position of the pendulum. that 30 is, it assumes its average position. Hence the gy edge of the cup 44, so that a portion of the jets is covered upon inclination of the ball with re spect to the casing. Since these jets ma’y be made smaller than the jets 40 and are on a less radius, they will- not interfere seriously with the spinning of the ball. so In the form shown in Figs. 8, 9 and 10, the i roscope> may be said to integrate the positions of the pendulum. It should be noted that the` ball rotor 25" is shown as supported by air bear gyroscope is entirely f_ree about all three axes, ings within a gimbal supported ring 5|. Said the only bearings being air bearings, so that ring is shown as secured by brackets 52 to a ring 53 which is universally supported by means of 35 rolling and pitching of the platform will not dis a gimbal ring 54 from fixed brackets 55. Air is turb the gyroscope. The forms of the invention' shown in Figs. 3 shown as "supplied through a ñexible tube 56 to the interior of the ring 5|. The main body of and 4 are more adapted for use as a horizon in dicator on aircraft. Referring to these-forms, the air is forced within the ball through a cir cumferential slot 51 and apertures 58, the air 40 40 the rotor consists of- a hollow truncated sphere entering the axial bore 59 and emerging through 25, which is preferably spun by reaction jets 28 so that there is no coupling to the spinning the spinning jets 88 and 6| which are shown means. For this purpose, air is introduced into near the top and bottom of the ball, respectively. Additional air may be supplied to the lower bear the center of the sphere through a tube 21 ex ing 63 formed by ring-5|, through channel 64 45 tending downwardly from the top 28 of the cas 45 ing 29 and communicating at 'its top with the connected to the passage 56'. A pendulously supported cup 65 is placed un atmosphere, air being continuously pumped from the ball~ 'so that the exterior rim thereof 86 the casing fthrough» pipe coupling- 8|.4 I'I'he bot 'der lies adjacent the nozzles 6|, so as to exert an tom of said'tube is shown as having a knob 38 torque on the ball in case of inclina thereon'where it entersthe middle of the rotor, erecting as in the other< forms. The-cup 65 is uni the knob forming an air bearing 3| in cooperation tion, versally supported `on a gimbal system 81, inde with a small ring- 32 secured within the top of pendent from ring 5|, gimbal ring 61 having its the rotor. The spinning air emerges through a pivots on ring 5|-at 68, and ring 68', be plurality of tangential jets 28. For erecting pur vmain ing'pivoted thereon at |28, the'cup 85 being se isisl poses there is provided a mass 33 which is floated 55 in a cup 34 at the bottom of the casing. Air cured to the latter by bracket |2|. The outer gimbal~ system is preferably stabi enters through aperture 35 in the cup and passes upwardly between the cup and mass 33, Yto ñoat lized from the ball by any suitable follow-up the same within the-cup. A portion of the air _ system, such as disclosed in the patent _to Gill mor and Wittkuhns, No. 1,984,874, dated Decem 60 also passes up through a central aperture 38 in ber 18, 1934, for Gyro verticals. According to the mass 33 to assist in supporting the spinning ball on the mass 23. The jets 28 emerge on a this system, there is provided a cruciform induc line with the top edge of the mass, so that in tive controller 10 mounted on a bracket 1 |' on top case thev ball gyroscope becomes inclined with of the supporting ring, which cooperates with a soft iron button 38' on the rotor andwhich con respect to the mass, -an erecting torque is ex erted thereon which slowly erects the same due trols motors >12 and 13, acting about the two .to the fact that the spinning jets on the low side major axes of support of the ring 5|. The mo are partially covered, resulting in a greater torque tor 12 is shown as geared directly to the trun on the high side in the proper direction to erect nion 14 of ring 54, while thev motor 13 is coupled the gyroscope. A horizon line or indicator 31 to a bail or loop 15 mounted on brackets 16 in may be painted or otherwise marked on a shell ~ line with the minor trunnion axis 11 of the gim- , 38 secured to the ball rotor, which is visible from the front through a window 38. The form shown in Fig. .4 is quite similar, ex cept that the pendulous mass 33 is omitted and bal ring 53, and connected to' ring 5|' through a trackway 18 on loop 15 and a roller connection 18 on loop 1|. Transmitters 12’ and 13' may be actuated therefrom for transmitting the true 2,133,809 vertical to trunnion tilt correctors and the like. A similar type of gyro vertical is shown in Fig. '7. In this case, however, the rotor |5' is support ed on conventional anti-friction bearing I1' in casing 82, which, in turn, is universally supported on hollow trunnions 93 and 83' by gimbal ring 83 within a second ring 84. The latter is mounted on or forms the top of a hemispherical cup or bowl 85 which is'floated on air bearings 86 within 10 a supporting spider or frame 81. Said frame, in turn, is universally supported on an independent gimbal system 88, as ring 53 is supported in Figs. 8 and 9. Air may enter the gimbal system 3 ship. 'I‘his may be conveniently accomplished by a solenoid |I2 at the base of the frame which, when excited, pushes upwardly a centralizing sleeve » I I3, the tapered end of which engages a conical seat H5 on the bottom of the cup at the mouth of aperture 9|, to centralize and tempo rarily lock the cup to the frame. The operator merely holds a button III down during turning-or acceleration,_ or automatic means' may be pro vided to this end, if desired. 10 i As many changes could be made in the above construction and many apparently `widely dif ferent embodiments of this invention could be through hollow trunnions of the gimbals as in Fig. » made without departing from the scope thereof, 15 -l, -the air then passing through pipes 89 and it is intended that all matter contained in the central vertical aperture 89' to 'pass into a cham above description or shown in the accompanying ber 90 between the spider and bowl. A portion of drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and the air passesyupwardly through the air bearings 86 to float the cup universally. Another part of 20 the air passes upwardly through aperture 9| and pipe 92 and through the hollow trunnion 93 and hollow ring 84. A pipe 95 is shown as connected to the hollow trunnion 83’ to carry air`into the lower bearing I1' of the rotor. The rotor shaft is shown’as hollow at least half way u`p, for lead ing air into radial passages 96 which connect with tangential spinning jets 91 in the face of Athe rotor. ` As in Fig. 8, the device is providedwith means 30 for stabilizing the outer gimbal system and frame 81 from the gyroscope, the pick-off being shown as a cruciform inductive device 10, as in the other form, which cooperates with a magnetic button 98 on a stem 99 secured to the gyro casing. Said inductive transformer control follow-up motors 12 and 13, as in Fig. 8. which may drive trans mitteds I0 to repeater devices for stabilizing a trunnion tilt corrector or other device. As is well known, a free gyroscope will ap 40 parently assume a tilt due to the earth’s rotation, which varies in accordance with latitude and lies to the west. To prevent this, We have shown a latitude corrector comprising a ring I 0| .rotatably mounted onan annular trackway |02 secured to 45 the frame 81. A single air nozzle |03 is mounted . thereon to exert a small continuous torque on the gyroscope on thenorth or south side of the gyro scope, dependingupon the direction of rotation. In order to maintain said nozzle ñxedin azimuth, ring IOI is shown as driven from a repeater motor |04 driven from the gyro compass. Air is shown as supplied to said nozzle |03 through pipe |05 connected with an annular channel I 06 formed in the adjacent surfaces |01 and I 08 on the spider and rotatable ring |0I, respectively. . Since the cup 85 is pendulous, we depend on the same to impart an erecting coupling on the gyro scope` through the gimbal support connecting the same to the gyro. In order to secure this effect, it is necessary that the cup rotate slowly in the di rection of the rotor. According to our construc tion, this is accomplished automatically since it is found that the air' drag ofthe rapidly spin ning rotor on the casing 82 and the friction of bearings |1' will carry the cup around slowly in -the direction of rotation of the rotor. There is thus exerted an erecting force on the gyro casing through this cup, which in itself is not connected by any metallic or frictional bearings with the support. In order to limit the speed _of rotation ' of the cup 85, air bafile plates H0, III may be mounted on the cup. ‘ ` We also prefer to lock the cup against displace ment during turning or other acceleration of the not in a limiting sense. ~ Having described our invention, what we claim and desire to secure by Letters Patents is: 20 l. In a free gyroscope, a rotor, av hollow spheri cal casing within which said rotor is journaled for spinning, ay cup for -supporting said casing for freedom about'all three principal axes, means for supplying ai? between said cup and casing to float 25 the latter, means for pendulously supporting said ' cup, and erecting means acting between said cup and casing to apply atorque to said casing at right angles tothe plane of tilt thereof. 2.-In a gyro vertical, a rotor, a rotor bearing 3.0 casing supporting said rotor, and air borne spherical bearing means for supporting said cas ing for freedom about all three principal axes. 3. In a gyro vertical, a'rotor, a rotor bearing casing supporting said rotor, an air borne spheri cal bearing means for supporting said casing for freedom about all three principal axes, and pendulous erecting means for said casing acting between said bearing means and said casing, di rectly eliminating the tilt thereof. , 4. A free gyroscope as claimed in claim 1, hav ing air -jet means for spinning the rotor Within its casing, and -air jet means in said casing through which the spinning air escapes, said last named means forming the erecting means in con 45 junction With a lip of the cup adjacent thereto. said means also acting to reduce the rotation of said casing induced by the reaction of said rotor spinning means. 5. Ina free gyroscope, a rotor, a hollow spheri cal casing within which said rotor is journaled, a' cup for supporting said casing` for freedom about all three principal axes, and means for supplying air between said cup and casing to float the latter and to spin the rotor within said casing, said casing having air ports for the discharge of the spinning air directed'to oppose reactive rotation of said casing. 6. In a free gyroscope, a rotor, a hollow spheri cal casing within which'said rotor is journaled, a 60 cup for supporting said casing for freedom about all three principal axes, means for supplying air between said cup and casing to`fioat the latter and to spin the rotor within saidcasing, said casing having air ports for the discharge of the 65 spinning air preferably directed to oppose re active rotation of said casing, and means- for pendulously supporting said cup, said ports lying in the same plane as an adjacent edge of the said cup, whereby an erecting torque is exerted on said 70 casing upon inclination thereof. 7.’In a gyro vertical, a hollow ball-like rotor, means for supplying air under pressure within the rotor, said ball having peripheral apertures therein through which the air escapes to spin 4 2,133,809 the rotor by`> reaction, and a gravitationally re ingua jet means for applying a corrective torque sponsive member adjacent the apertures in said rotor to intercept -alportion of said apertures upon on said casing to counteract tilt due to the earth’s rotation, and compass controlled means for main taining said’jet means ñxed in azimuth. , inclination of said rotor to erect the same. ,15. In a gyro vertical, the combination with a 8. In a gyro vertical, a rotor, means for sup-.`> plying air under pressure within the rotor, said rotor having peripheral apertures therein through which the air escapes to spin the rotor by re action, 'a rotor- bearing casing supporting said 10 rotor, a cup member or bowl„a gimbal support neutrally universally mounted gyroscope, `pen dulous _means for erecting the> same, a. device stabilized in azimuth adjacent said gyroscope, and an air jet thereon to impinge the gyroscope to counteract tilt caused by rotation of the earth. 16. A gyroscopic horizon as claimed in claim whereby said bowl supports said casing, and air dotation means for pendulously supporting said 12, having meansÁ for locking the spherical sup-y porting member during acceleration of the ship. bowl about the three principal axes, and permit 17. An air spun, air borne gyroscope having ting slow rotation about the vertical axis in the 15 direction of spin of the rotor.l - 9. In a gyro vertical, a rotor, a rotor bearing casing supporting said rotor, an air borne spher ical bearing means for supporting said casing for freedom about all three principal axes, pendulous 20 erecting means for said casing acting between said first named means and said casing, directly eliminating the tilt thereof, and means for locking said pendulous means during acceleration or turn of the vehicle on which the- gyro vertical isl mounted. , l 10. A gyro vertical as claimed in claim 7, having an outer casing surrounding the ball-like rotor, a hollow stem therein for leading air under pressure within the ball, and a spherical air bear-` 30 ing between the end of said stem and a part on the ball at the center thereof. ` 11. An air spun, air borne gyroscope having a ball-like rotor, a casing for supporting the same on a spherical air bearing at the bottom, a hollow stem on said casing for leading air within the ball, a cooperating stem in the rotor having a bore receiving suchair, a spherical air bearing between said stems at the center of the ball, and air jet means communicating with the bore in the last named stem for spinning and erecting » ' the rotor. 12. `A gyroscopic horizon having a pendulous device and a free gyroscope acting as an in» tegrating device for the position of said pen 45 dulous device in which said pendulous device is in the form of a hollow member of spherical con tour, air bearings for floating said member for complete freedom, and gimbal means within said member for universally supporting said gyro scope, and means for normally revolving said member slowly in the direction of spin of the gyro rotor. 55 a ball-like rotor, a casing for supporting the same 0n a spherical air bearing at the bottom, a hol low stem on said casing for leading air within the ball, a ¢cooperating nstem in the rotor having a bore receiving such air, a spherical air bearing between said stems at the center of the ball , through which said air passes, and air jet means connected with the‘bore in the last named stem for spinning said rotor. ~18. In a gyro Vertical, arotor, a hollow rotor bearing casing therefor of spherical contour, a pendulous gimbal support in which said casing is floated on spherical air bearings for freedom about all axes, air jet means within said casing for spinning the rotor, and air jet means through which the used air escapes from said casing, said 30. support acting as a cut-oiI shield for cutting off a portion of said last named jet means upon in clination of the rotor. v19. In a_ gyro vertical, a rotor; a hollow rotor bearing casing therefor of spherical contour, a 35 pendulous gimbal support in which said casing is floated on spherical air bearing means for free dom about all axes, there being air vents in said casing from which air jets emerge tangentially, said s'upport acting as a cut-off shield for cutting 40 oiï a portion of said jets upon inclination of the casing, whereby the gyroscope is directly erected to the vertical. 20. A gyro vertical as claimed in claim- 18, „wherein the second mentioned air jet means are tangentially directed in the same direction as the ñrst mentioned air jet means, whereby the vspin ning of the support by the reaction from thespinning jets is substantially reduced or nullified. 2l. In a free gyroscope, a rotor, a hollow spher ical casing within which said rotor is journaled, a cup- for supporting said casing for freedom 13,. In a gyro vertical, a hollow spherically about a plurality of axes, and means for supplying shaped member, air bearings for ñoating the air between said cup and casing to_ float the latter and to spin the rotor within said casing, said casing having air ports for the discharge same for freedom about all three axes, a neutrally mounted gyroscope having a verticalspin axis universally supported within said member,`and means for eilecting slow rotation of said mem ber in the directionof spin of the gyroscope rotor, 60 whereby the gyroscope is maintained with its spin axis vertical. 14. A gyro vertical as claimed in claim 2, hav of the spinning air so constructed and arranged as to partially suppress freedom about at least one axis. ' LESLIE F. CARTER. WILLIAM ANSCO'IT.