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Патент USA US2133979

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1 Oct. 25, 1938.
w, M, FIRSHWG
2,133,979
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VAPOR GENERATOR
Filed April 13, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet l
M'ZZzzm 17.}?7"fit Ni.
INVENTQR.
ATTORNEY.
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Oct. 25, 1938.
I
w. M. FIRSHING
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2,133,979
VAPOR GENERATOR
Filed April 15, 1935
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2
4
M'ZZzhm Milk/25:27.
BY
ATTORNEY. ,
Pecan on. 25,1938
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2,133,979 ,
UNITED l STATES PATENT - OFFICE {,1
2,133,9i9‘ 1
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VAPOR GENERATOR
William M. Firshing, West New Brighton, Staten
Island,lN. Y., assignor to The Babcock & Wil-v
cox Company, Newark, N. ,J., a corporation ,of
New Jersey
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‘Application April-13, 1935; Serial No. 16,123
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3, Claims.
(oi. 1225-327X“.
‘This invention relates to boilers and more - ‘dicated. ‘Each of the lower water drums "and
particularly to water tube boilers of the : type l llisconnected to the upper steam, and ‘water
‘embodying a steam and water drum‘ disposed ‘drum it by a separate set of steam generating ,'
above the furnace chamber and connected by 'tubes IS; The hot gases resulting from combus
‘‘
‘ "5 ,, sets of. downwardly extending tubes with two tion of the-fuel in the chamber I ll rise fromthe 5
water drums, one on each side'of the combustion : latter and divide, one part ?owing. tolthe right
chamber, the arrangement being such that the
gases from the furnace chamber pass divergently
right and left through the respective sets of
10 water tubes to a suitable uptake or uptakes.
and traversing one of the sets of tubes I5 and
the other part ?owing to the left andtr'aversing
the other set of tubes. In traversing the sets of
tubes IS the major portion of the heat therefrom- l0
The objects of my invention are comprised in is given up to the water within the tubes. wThe
the provision of a water» tube boiler of the above ‘ gases pass out of the furnace chamber through
type which is highly compact, one which is light
in weight for a'given capacity, one which is so
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suitablegas outlets l6 and 11 respectively;
The boiler shown in», the accompanyingtdraw
, 15 designed as to ‘make possible a maximum. of
ings is particularly useful in marine applications,
combustion chamber space, one which is of a and, 150 this end, i8v Supported-?t its bettemlby
strong and durable construction, and lastly, one suitable'structural members 18‘ which support '
which is highly e?iclent in operation.
I the water drums l3 and- I‘ through saddles 19
These and other objects are effected by my in- ' and 20 respectively,‘ secured to the water drums.
20 vention, as will be apparent from an examination The upper Steam and Water drum i2 is Supported 20
of the following description and claims, taken in‘ from the v10We1' Water drums l3 and N by the Y
connection. with the accompanying drawings, in ‘ two sets of tubes ii;- In marine installations it
which:
I
isrparticularlydesirable to support the boilers
Fig. 1 is ‘a transverse, vertical, sectional view from the'bet-iiem as headroom i5 ate premium and
25‘ through a boiler constructed-in accordance with
the present invention;
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as the shipframes arein the bottom.‘
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25
-As will be ,observed from an examination :of
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional/view
illustrating the detail arrangement of a portion
of a set of steam generating tubes, the view being
30 taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1; and
Fig- 1, I have Shown each Set Of Steam generating
tube-S '5 as being divided into‘ e plurality of
groups, there being three vgroups to each‘ set the
a
groups being indicated by the reference numerals 30
Fig. 3 is'a view similar to Fig. 1 and illustrates
a modi?ed‘form of my invention,
‘
It will be recognized as the description proceeds that my improvement is especially applica-
2|, 22 and 23 respectively-
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In order to provide the necessary strength for
supporting the .upper steam :and water drum i2
from the lower Water drums l3 and '4, the groups
I 35 ble toiboilers used for the generation of steam II which are adjacent the combustion chamberv 35
on shipboard; however, itis tobe'understood that ere made "Straight for Practically their entire '
in so far as certain of the broader aspects of my
invention are concerned, my, improved form of
water tube boiler may be used for the generation
40 of steam wherever desired,
length, except for their terminal- portions‘ 24
thereof, which are Curved t0 lirovide'radial en
trances into their respective drums 80 as toas
sure good tube seats and the desired character- ‘40
Referring now in detail to the construction il1ustrated and particularly to the mgdj?cation
shown in Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings, the
reference numeral in indicates a, combustion
45 chamber wherein a suitable fuel, for example,
istics of lightness‘end Strength in the drums and
ease of manufacture. The furnace volume is ‘the
largest possible consistent withthe strength de
rived from the straight tubes‘and contributes to
light weight fora given steaming capacity by 4?»
oil is burned. The burners for projecting theoil
Permitting large‘ quantities of‘ fuel to be burned
and combustion supporting an- into the chamber » per unit of tube surface with a strong structure.
In are indicated 'at H as extending through an
end wall of the chamber, -
50
My improved boiler comprises an upper steam
and
water
drum
vl2
disposed
above
the
combustion chamber l0 and a pair of lower
water drums i3 and. I 4 extending in the‘same
general direction as the drum l2 and arranged at
55 opposite sides of the combustion chamber, as in-
*The tubes forming the groups‘ 22 are similarly
bowed away from the combustion chamber to
permit expansion‘ and contractionv thereof duej5n
to temperature changes and also'forthe purpose >
of Providing the maximum heat ?bserbingesur
face, the curved tubes being longer than. the,
straight tubes. The tubes forming the ‘groups 23
at the outside of the sets of tubes are also simi- 55
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2,183,979
develop dry spots, because such overheating will
larly bowed away from‘the combustion chamber
soften the metal and cause the tubes to burst.
This is particularly true of the straight tubes in
the groups 2|, including the tubes 28, as over
heating will also impair their strength necessary
to support the drum l2. The tubes are protected
for the same reasonas just explained in connec
tion with the groups 22.
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With the improved design of the three drum
' boiler'furnace shown, it is possible to providean.
8%_ larger combustion chamber space, to burn a
correspondingly greater amount of fuel, and to from overheating ,by the water therein; but the
generate a correspondingly greater amount of
steam per hour than is possible with the con
ventional boiler furnace of this type havingthe
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same arrangement and spacing of drums, but
having the ?rst groups of tubes curved or bowed
toward the combustion chamber. As stated, the
enlarged combustion chamber space‘and greater
15 fuel burning capacity is madej'possible by the
provision of straight tubes adjacent the furnace
chamber, and the larger steam generating .rate
is aided by the large heat' absorbing ‘surface of
generation of steam reduces the water content
toward the top and tends to produce dry spots,
and this tendency varies inversely with the diam
eter. of the tube for a given length and directly
with the degree to which the tube is heated. It
is, therefore, apparent that by forming the tubes
Y28, which are in the hottest part of the furnace,
relatively large, the tendency to produce dry spots 15
therein is exceedingly small and their usefulness
as supports is not impaired. The remaining tubes
may be made smaller in the interest of a large
area of heat absorbing surface without danger
of overheating, as the large tubes 2| protect the
" sarily present, but not ordinarily used in the con- - smaller tubes from the radiant heat of combus
the curved or bowed groups of tubes 22 and 23.
The curved tubes occupy space which is neces
ventional boiler. ‘ Hence, my improved boiler fur
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nace does not require anymore room in the ship
than the conventional construction, just referred
to, yet my furnace is capable of burning more
fuel and .hence of generating more steam for a
given heat absorbing surface.
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.
In. each instance, the terminal portions of the
tion.
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' In the modified form of my'invention shown in
Fig. 3, the same desirable features of construc
tion are present as are present in Figs. 1 and 2.‘
In Fig. 3, however, I have shown a superheater
30 arranged within a space 3| provided between
groups Zia and 22a of one of the sets of tubes
l5a. The space Si is provided by the arrange
are bent to provide the desiredradial entrances ~ment of the tubes in the groups 2la and 22a
into their respective drums. .The groups 22 and and by omitting certain of these tubes: The su
- “are so constructed and arranged with respect perheater 30 is of the return bend tube type and
to each other and to the groups 2| as .to provide ,is supported by plate members 32 carried by‘.
spaces 25 and- 26 between adjacent-groups, the brackets "which are in turn secured _to large,
approximately straight tubes 34 (only one shown)
‘purpose of these spaces is to permit the instal
connecting the. water drum Ma with the upper
lation'of soot blowers, indicated at 21, which pro
‘
vide for'the quick and effective cleaning, of the steam-and water drum l2a.
While I have shown my invention in only two
highly compact boiler‘disclosed. Bafiies. 29 serve
curved or bowed tubes in the groups 22 and 22
to :equalize the gas ?ow,‘ particularly through the
loosely'spaced rear groups 23 of ‘tubes.
In order to provide for the maximum heat ab
sorbing surface for a given weight of boiler, all
of the-tubes with the exception of those tubes
‘which are immediately adjacent and! delineate
the upper portions of the combustion chamber
are relatively small in diameter, the latter being
’ relatively large in diameter, as will be presently
explained. High e?iciency is essential in the
interest of reduction of weight of fuel that'must
be carried by the shipxas well as cost of opera
tion. High ef?ciency meansa large fraction of
the heat of the fuel absorbed by the water'in the "
tubes within an ‘allowable limit of- draft loss or
. ‘gas-?ow resistance across the‘tube bank imposed
.by the capacity. High e?iciency is promoted in
the construction described by the provision of‘ a
large number of small diameter tubes across the
sets and by the provision of the maximum length
of tubes so aszto give a large heat absorbing sur
face.
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I 'As stated above. those tubes of the groups 2|
which ‘delineate or ?ank'the combustion chamber
are of larger diameter than the remaining tubes.
The relatively larger tubes are ‘indicated by the
reference numeral 28 and in the construction
illustrated comprise the I ?rstltworows of tubes
considered in the ‘direction of gas ?ow. The
tubes 28 are made relatively larger so as to assure
presence of water at all times in that portion of
the boiler which is ‘exposed directly to the radiant
heatof combustion and, at the same time, so as
to‘provide the necessary supporting strength for
the upper steam and water drum.v
‘It is essential that all of the tubes be protected
15 against overheating which will result if the tubes
forms, it will be obvious to those skilled in the
art that it is not so limited but is susceptibleof
various other changes and modi?cations without
departing from the spirit thereof, and .I desire,
therefore, that only such limitations shall be
placed thereupon as are imposed by the prior art
or as are speci?cally set forth in the appended
claims.
I claim:—
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1. A water tube-boiler comprising, in combina
tion, means defining a combustion chamber for
a furnace, a steam and water drum arranged at
the upper part of the furnace and above the com
bustion chamber, a pair of lower water drums
disposed at opposite sides of the combustion
chamber and extending in the same general di
rections as the upper drum, a set of steam gener
ating tubes connecting each lower water drum to
the upper. drum, each set being divided into first
and second groups with the first groups being
arranged adjacent and delineating the upper
portions of the combustion chamber and the
second groupsv being disposed remote from the
combustion chamber and in the rear of vthe ?rst
groups with spaces provided therebetween, the
tubes forming the‘ ?rstgroups being formed
straight for practically their entire length; the
tubes forming the second groups being similarly
bowed away. from the combustion chamber so
as to permit expansion and contraction thereof
incident to temperature changes,.a superheater
disposed within the space between one of the 70
second groups and the adjacent ?rst group form
ing a set, each set of steam generating tubes
constituting a single pass section with the
furnace gases moving in a single direction from
front to rear across the section and the tubes of II
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2,188,979
said ?rst groups being of materially larger di
ameter than the tubes of the remaining groups
whereby the tubes of the ?rst groups constitute
the main support for the steam and water drum
while the tubes of the other groups provide a
predominating part of the entire steam generat
ing surface, a gas outlet on each side of, the
drum, and gas distribution bail‘les each starting
at an intermediate portion of one of said out
lets and extending part way down over the rear
tubes.
2. A boiler comprising in combination, means
de?ning a combustion chamber of a furnace, a
steam. and water drum arranged at the upper
v15 part of the furnace and above the combustion
chamber, a pair of lower water drums disposed at
“10
520
opposite sides of the combustion chamber, sets
of steam generating tubes connecting each lower
water drum with the upper drum, each set being
divided into ?rst, second and third groups with
the ?rst groups being arranged adjacent and de
lineating the upper portions of the combustion
chamber and the second and third groups ar
ranged at the rear of the ?rst groups in the order
25 named, tubes forming the ?rst groups being
formed straight for practically their entire
length, the tubes forming the second and third
groups being bowed away from the combustion
chamber so as to provide spaces between the ?rst
30 and second groups‘ and the second and third
groups and so as to permit expansion and con
traction incident to temperature changes, soot
blowers disposed in the spaces between the ?rst
3.
and second groups, and the second and third
groups, each set of steam generating tubes con
stituting a single pass section with the furnace
gases moving in a single direction from front to
rear across the section and the tubes of said ?rst
groups being of materially larger diameter than
the tubes of the remaining groups whereby the
tubes of the ?rst groups constitute the main sup
port for the steam and water drum while the
tubes of the other groups provide a predominat 10.
ing part of the entire steam generating surface,
a furnace gas outlet on each side of said drum,
and gas distribution-ba?les each starting at an
intermediate portion of an outlet and extending
part way down over the rear bowed tubes,
15.
3. In a three-drum marine boiler, two sub
merged drums, an upper steam and water drum,
a furnace, upwardly converging banks of steam
generating tubes “connecting the upper drum
with the lower drums and arranged on opposite 20
sides of the furnace, the furnace gases being
directed across each of said banks in a single pass,
the tubes of said banks adjacent the furnace of
large diameter and being substantially straight
throughout the major portions of their lengths,
while the remaining tubes of the banks rear
wardly of the straight tubes are of materially
smaller diameter and are curved throughout their ‘
entire lengths, a gas‘ outlet on each side of the,
drum, and gas distribution ba?ies each starting
at an intermediate portion of a gas outlet and
extending part way down over the rear tubes.
WILLIAM M. FIRSIHNG.
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