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Патент USA US2134011

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Oct. 25, 1938.
H. A. TRIPLETT ET AL
2,134,011
THERMAL CUT-OUT
Filed April 25, 1934
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Oct. 25, 1938.
H‘. A. TRIPLETT ET AL
2,134,011
THERMAL CUT -OUT
Filed April 25, 1934
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Oct. 25, 1938.
H, A. TRIPLETT ET AL
2,134,011
THERMAL CUT - OUT
Filed April 25, 1934
5 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Patented, Oct. 25, 1938
'
. 2,134,011
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
2,134,011
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mamas CUT-OUT
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I
‘ nun A. 'l‘ri'plett, Wilmette, and ‘sum-a r. Hndell,
.
Chicago, 111., assignors to Schweitzer a Conrad,
Inc., Chicago, 111., a corporation of Delaware
Application April 25, 1934, Serial No. 722,280
41 Claims. (01. 200-142)
The present invention relates to thermal pro
I tection of transformers and the like.
Whereas
thguspeci?c‘disclosure relates to the protection
of
gh tension transformers of the potential type,
5 it is to be understood that the invention is not
of circuit breakers, but better adapted to the
particular service.
_
' The present invention is particularly concerned
with a compact circuit interrupter of the single
operation type-intended to be enclosed either
former, nor in fact is the invention to be limited within the transformer shell or in a separate
to the protection of transformers only. Certain - housing and to be controlled by the temperature
' limited to any particular type or voltage of trans
features and combinations herein disclosed are
m applicable to the same or analogous service in
other equipment or apparatus.
In known transformer installations, fuses and
circuit breakers on the high tension side are-at
present employed for the twofold purpose of ?rst
l5 protecting service in the event of a transformer
winding or bushing failure, and, second, pro~
tecting the transformer from the thermal e?'ects
of a short circuit or overload occurring on the
load side of the transformer.
_
20
of the transformer oil.
-
In the copending application of Beckett and
Lindell; Serial No. 721,706, died April 21, 1934, 10
there is disclosed a form of thermally controlled
circuit interrupter adapted to be disposed in
thermal contact with the oil and disposed in the
transformer casing, and being of the shop re
loadable type.
The present invention aims ‘to improve the 15
aforesaid device and devices of the aforesaid class
or
type.
V
.
'
>
One of the chief objects of the present inven
A conditionv of partial breakdown may occur
tion is to provide a device of this class or type
in a transformer. This may arise through break
h the features of thermal control and of cir 20
down of the insulation between adjacent turns
cuit
interruption individually organized to a high
- occurring, for example, inthe high tension wind
ing. The primaryfuse or circuit breaker will not er degree, and so coordinated as to ensure reliabil
operate if the current drawn does not exceed the ity and certainty of operation at the desired tem
rating of the fuse or circuit breaker. That is perature and with adequate interrupting capacity 25
to say, the actual current ?owing may not exceed to withstand service requirements.
Another object of the invention is to provide
the rating of the transformer, but the heat gen
erated in the short circuited coil is localized and a circuit interrupter wherein the contacts of the
30 may be very considerable. This heat is imparted device are releasable by external means, prefer
to the oil, raising it to the ?ash point. The fault ably mechanical in character and applied or po- 30
‘sitioned exterior to the assembly of the inter
tends to proceed to the short circuitstage be
rupter.
.
cause the heating tends to destroy theinsulation.
Arclng which occurs at the instant of ?nal break
35 down is capable of igniting the oil vapors, result
ing in an explosion and ?re. This is a hazard
' to life and property, which the fuse or circuit
. A further object ofthe invention is to provide
a sealed interrupter unit having automatically
separable contacts locked in engagement with a
separate thermal element with a mechanical 35
transmission of motion to unlock or release the
contacts for‘ automatic separation. The thermal
breaker of commercial type is incapable of pre
venting. To avoid explosions from such causes,
0 the transformer must be disconnected before the element may be remotely situated, if, desired.
temperature of the oil is raised to the ?ash point. ‘The transmission, instead of being mechanical,
The present invention aims to provide a novel
circuit interrupter provided with controlling
means, and‘ organized to interrupt the circuit
45 when the temperature of the oil of the trans
former or the like exceeds a predetermined value.
We are aware that it has heretofore been pro
posed to provide a thermal control for a conven-_
tional circuit breaker. Such a circuit breaker
50 may also be controlled by excess current ?ow, or
be hand controlled.
'
may be a ?uid pressure transmission, or an elec- 4°
tric transmission, but, in any case, the unlocking
or release of the contacts is effected by an ex
ternally applied thermal element assembly, and
without unsealing the interrupter unit.
I
45
A further object of the invention is the pro
vision of a power element which is applied under
control of the thermal element to the unlocking
or release of the automatically separable con
tacts. Preferably, this powereelement is a spring 50
The preferred form of ‘the present invention which has ‘two stages of motion, the ?rst stage
aims, however, to provide a simpli?ed and ‘com; ensuring the complete release of the thermally
pact form of circuit interrupter which shall be controlled element, and the second stage unlock
ing or releasing the contacts. By this provision,
56 not only less expensive than conventional forms the
two phases of operation are separated to 55
,
.2_
2,134,011-
avoid interference of one with the other, and it
lease means after complete release from possibil
ity of thermal change or other factor interfering
Figure 8 is a longitudinal section, on an enlarged I
scale, of the push rod and its seal, which is em»
ployed to actuate the releasing device in the interrupter shown in Figure 7 and in Figure 9;
with full actuation of the thermallycontrolled
.
A
-
.
of the circuit interrupter installed in a different
manner from that shown in Figure 1;
permits of delivering a blow or thrust to the re
means.
-
Figure 7 is a vertical section, partly in elevation,
,
Another object of the invention is to provide
a thermally controlled circuit interrupter of great
sensitivity and de?niteness of operation, and of
great interrupting capacity in small space.
Another object is to provide a thermal actu
ating mechanism capable of rapid response to
Figure 9 is a view, partly in side elevation and
partly in vertical section taken along the line
9-9 of Figure 10, showing the elements of the 10
installation. in which a plurality of circuit inter
, rupters are‘ employed;
temperature changes in the circum-ambient me
. Figure 10 is a side elevational view of the trip
dium.
ping spring mechanism and the release therefor;
.
,
15
and
Another object is to provide means under ther
Figure 11 is a fragmentary cross sectional view
mal control for simultaneous control of the actu
taken on the line ll-"-ll of Figure 10, showing one
ation‘of a plurality of circuit interrupters.
A further object is to provide a novel form of , of the spring actuated trip hammers,
Referring now to Figures 1 to 6, inclusive,
automatic circuit interrupter of high interrupting
the transformer tank 1 contains the windings o! 20
20 capacity in small space and arranged for me
- chanical release all in a ?uid tight; housing. a transformer submerged in a‘body, of oil 5. The
‘Such'a circuit interrupter may be submerged in interrupter I is mounted upon the insulators-8
oil and housed in a metal casing without e?ect and__9 through .suitable split clamp contacts 10
and I2, these contacts having clamping lugs such
upon its interrupting capacity.
’
A further object of the invention is to provide as l3—l3,‘drawn together by bolts provided with 25
clamping nuts Ill-l4 to provide good electrical
a suitable organization of interrupter and ther
contact and solid mechanical support for the in
mal control with a mechanical transmission al
lowing separation and separate housing of the terrupter I. ‘The insulators 8 and‘ 9 carry the
clamping contacts l0 and I2 and the insulators
interrupter and ‘the element. a
I '
80
-80 ’ A further object of the invention is to provide are, in turn, supported upon a suitable frame,
15
acircuit interrupting device either for individual
operation or gang operation, which may be con
trolled by any selected phenomenon. The circuit
interrupter-mechanism, with its necessary struc
ture and environment for operation, and suitable
governing mechanism providing control at a large
mechanical advantage, may advantageously be
employed‘ wherever the controlling phenomenon,
or its responsive element, is designed to produce
or provide only a small operating force. Thus,
for example, the circuit interrupter with its detent,
operating mechanism therefor, and control mech
anism therefor, might be governed by a pressure
sensitive element, instead of a thermally sensi
tive element. Or it might be controlled-by an
45
element responsive to any other desired or se
lected phenomenon, either automatically or under
hand control.
',
which may be a channel member l5, disposed ver
tically at one side wall of the tank I. The con
tacting clamps l0 and I! are preferably formed
electrically integral with’ connecting lugs lB-I 6,
one of which may lead to the line connection and 85
the other to the transformer winding.
The interrupter comprises an intermediate in
sulating sleeve H, which may be of bakelized fiber,‘
or. glass, or any other suitable material, with
metallic ferrules-such as l8—l9 ‘cemented, or 40
otherwise bonded upon the ends of the sleeve.
These ferrules are arranged to pass axially with
in the clamps l0 and I2 and be engaged mechan
ically and electrically by ‘said clamp. g The ferrule
i8 is provided with a reduced piloting portion at 45
its lower end to assist in conducting the contact
ing portions of the ferrules into the correspond
ing clamp contact. The ferrules‘ and stationary '
>
Other andfurther objects of the invention will contacts may obviously be arranged in any other
become apparent from the following speci?cation, suitable fashion for mechanically and electrically 50
supporting the interrupter properly in position
drawings and claims.
»
Now in order to acquaint those skilled in the and‘ connection. The upper ferrule I! (see par
ticularly Figure 3) has an extension beyond the
art with the manner of constructing and operat
inga device embodying our invention, we shall end of the sleeve I-‘I within which the upper con
describe, in conjunction with the' accompanying tact 20 is supported. This extension 22 of the 55
upper ferrule is threaded at its lower end to receive
drawings, a specific embodiment of the inven
the insulating bushing 23 which, as will be pointed
tion._
_
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In the drawings: ,
.
Figure 1 is a vertical longitudinal section
through one embodiment of our invention;
Figure 2 is a front elevational view of the‘cir
cuit interrupter shown in Figure 1;
m
Figure 3 is a fragmentary vertical section
through the thermally sensitive element and the
interrupter contact, on an enlarged scale;
Figure 4 is a transverse section through the
clutch element and movable contact, substan
tially on the line 4-4 of Figure 3;
Figure 5 is a side elevational view, partly in
70 section, ‘of the thermally sensitive element and
the leverage ‘system for providing a mechanical
advantage:
,
'
v
v
v
Figure 6 is a top plan'view of the element shown
75 in Figure 5;
out later, provides an arc constricting passage
way and a passageway for directing the ?ow of
arc extinguishing ?uid through the arc.’ The 60
bushing 23 has a ?ange which is threaded to an
internal thread 24 within‘the extension‘ 22, and
the said’ bushing is recessed to receive the' lower
end of the sleeve 25 of insulation.
The sleeve 25 -
serves the double function of forming a part of a 65
clutch or holding means for holding the movable
terminal 26‘ in contact with the stationary ter
minal 20. The movable contact 26 is preferably
a separable tip at the upper end of a rodlike
plunger 28, which rodlike plunger 28 is connected 70
at its lower end to a head or spring support 28
connected to the upper end of the tension spring
30, the lower end of which‘ spring is anchored in
the lower ferrule l8. The spring head 29 is
connected by a ?exible stranded conductor 32 to 76
3
9,184,011
the said lower ferrule ll. An annular liquid di
Operation of the circuit interrupter
rector is supported upon a sleeve 34 which is
The circuit interrupter thus far described, as
slidably mounted on the rod 25. The junction
of the rod 28 and the tip 25 provides a shoulder suming that the movable and stationary contacts
55 which engages the sleeve 34 when the rod” are in engagement and that current is being con
ducted through the device, will operate to inter
is drawn down by the spring 24. By this con
struction the rod and its arcing tip are ?rst drawn rupt the flow of current when the movable ter
down through the sleeve 25 and the bushing 25 minal is released and permitted to descend under
before the liquid director 35 is picked up. 'Ihe .theaction of the tension spring 80. As soon as
liquid director 35 ?ts fairly closely within the
lining sleeve 35 provided at the upper end of the
main sleeve II. This lining sleeve 35 performs
the, double function of ?rst increasing the thick
ness of insulation to prevent puncture between
the live parts within the sleeve l‘l and'the ferrule
i9 outside of the same when interruption pro
gresses to the point of creating a potential dif
ference between the parts. The sleeve 35 further
provides a removable liner which, if damaged by
the contacts separate an arc is formed and, as
the movable terminal retreats into the tubu
lar passageway, arc extinguishing material is
brought into play, both because the interior sur
faces are substantially wet with'the same and
because the lowering of the rodlike member 24
instantly results in extending the are into posi 15
tion where the heat thereof will evaporate some
of the liquid, creating a ?uid pressure below the
bushing 25, so that as the rodiike member 28
20 the arc, may be removed and replaced without - descends, drawing the are into the restricting
passageway of the sleeve 25 and the bushing 23, 20
the necessity of replacing the main sleeve II,
which might otherwise be injured by the arc.
The upper end of the-ferrule extension 22 has
communicating therewith an expansion and con
25 densing chamber 31 which is closed off from
atmosphere and communicates only with the
upper end of the ferrule extension 22.
Within
the expansion and cooling chamber 31, the walls
of which are preferably formed of metal through
30 out, although this is optional, there is disposed
a mass of subdivided metal to form‘ condensing
and cooling means, this mass 3| preferably con
sisting of a large number of circular plates ap
ertured at the center and clamped in spaced,
parallel relation, upon a central mounting rod
or sleeve. The rod upon which the plates 38 are
the metal vapor and ionized gases which may be
contained within the are are driven longitudi
nally. upward into the condensing and cooling
chamber 31, where they are out of the in?uence _
of the arc, and further ?ow of arc extinguishing
medium occurs. When the rodlilre member 28
has descended to the point where the shoulder
35 engages the sleeve 54, the liquid director 34
tends to descend and the liquid below the direc
tor is projected upwardly into the space where
the arc is formed and maintained.
The scav
enging action of the ?ow of the gaseous medium
endwise of the are through the restricted pas
sageway which con?nes the arc laterally, and
the increase in pressure of the said medium, is
mounted is preferably centrally located and is highly effective in extinguishing the arc and
indicated at 39. To the lower end of the rod stopping the ?ow of current. Itis to be under
there is connected a spring contact member 20 ‘ stood that the aforesaid scavenging action may
be secured by the use of a solid are extinguish
40 consisting of a sleeve, the upper end of which
is threaded upon the rod 38 and the lower end ing material, which, under the heat of the arc,
yields a gaseous medium for effecting the same
of which is slotted to provide a plurality of con
tact ?ngers extending below the lower end of the purpose. The gaseous medium is driven up into
the space I1, where it tends to be cooled and
rod 35, these spring ?ngers being further rein
_
forced by' a garter spring 2i, that is, a coil spring condensed.
The contraction of the spring 30 carries the 45
lying in a groove on the outer periphery ‘of the
spring ?ngers of the sleeve 40, and tending to arcing tip down into the liquid after current ?ow
constrict the ‘same. The lower end of the rod ceases, further interposing a dielectric medium
between the terminals.
39, which lies within the sleeve 20 and above the
The device is intended to be reset or reloaded '
tips of the spring ?ngers, constitutes an arcing
in the shop or factory after a single operation,
tip 491:. It functions largely to centralize and but we do not wish to con?ne the invention to 50
position the spring ?ngers of the sleeve 20 and
that speci?c procedure. The employment of a
provides an arc terminus having suf?cient sec
tion and surface during the circuit interrupting
55 process.
The upper end of the arcing tip 26 is
preferably chamfered oil’ to correspond to the
' funnel-like socket formed by the spring ?ngers
of the sleeve 20. The body of the interrupter is
preferably provided with an arc extinguishing
material, herein shown as liquid, having suitable
arc extinguishing and insulating properties, the
the level of the liquid preferably being approxi
mately at or below the bushing 23. The level
of the liquid may be ‘considerably varied, but it
should be in such position as to act promptly
upon the are as soon as the same is con?ned
within the sleeve 25 and the bushing 23. For
this purpose it may stand at approximately the
top of the bushing 23.
70
7
We contemplate also the utilization of a solid
arc extinguishing material instead of the liquid
or, in fact, any suitable form of arc extinguish
ing material which will produce the desired ef
fect hereafter described in connection with a
statement of the operation of the present device,
completely closed unit in a situation such as
herein illustrated is highly desirable, inasmuch
as the products of the are or the arc extinguish
ing materials are not brought into contact with
the insulating oil 5, and hence do not tend to
contaminate the same, even by repeated opera
tions.
The detent or clutch mechanism
The movable rodlike member 28 is held in cir
cuit-closing position, that is, in engagement with
the stationary contact 20, by a clutch or detent
which is formed in part by the sleeve 25.
65
The upper end of the rod 28 or the arcing tip
25 has a peripheral groove 4| which registers
with a pair of diametrically disposed op'enings
4l—4ll in the sleeve 25. The sleeve 25 is ?at
tened or slabbed off on opposite sides where the 70
openings 40-40 are formed, and a holding mem
ber in the form of a yoke or U-shaped clamp 43
has its arms 44-44 overlying the ?at sides of the
sleeve 25. The wall thickness of the sleeve 25 at
the ?attened portions and the diameter of the 76
4
2,134,011
balls 42-42 is so proportioned that when the
this member being indicated by the reference
arms 44-44 overlie the openings 46-46 the
balls 42-42 are pressed into the groove 4| and
letter M in Figures 3- to 6. ‘ The mechanical ad
clutch the tip 26 to the sleeve 25.
_V
The faces of the arms 44-44 which are turned
toward the .sleeve 25 are, adjacent their outer
ends, ?at‘planar surfaces, but these arms have
. recesses 44'—44'.which may bebrought into' reg
10
ister with the balls 42-42 by shifting of the
fork or clamp member 43 to the left, therebyto
release theclutch between the sleeve 25 and, the
I rod 26. Thus the member 43 constitutes a clutch
' releasing member, or a detent releasing mem
V ber for releasing the movable contact 26 to allow
15 the springf36 to operate the device.
5 The normal position of the parts is shown in
Figures 3 and 4, and it is to be understood that
when the member 43 is moved to the-left, as,
viewed in Figure 4, to the point where the recesses
20 44'-44' register with the openings 46-46, the
balls42-42 will be driven out of the groove 4| by
the tension of the spring 36 and can drop into the
recesses 44'—44’, thereby allowing the arcing-tip
26'and associated parts to be’released. This re
25 lease member 43 is actuated by the power ele
ment P which I shall now describe. The power
element P is controlled, directly or indirectly, by
the thermostatic responsive element T which will
be described later.
30
'
.
The powereZeme'ntT
vA sidewall of the ferrule extension 22 is aper
tured transversely and‘ threaded to receive. a
threaded nipple or stud. The power element com
35 prises a tubular cylindrical housing member 45
having an integral threaded neck portion 46
threaded into the opening in the side wall of the
ferrule extension 22, as, shown in Figs. 3 and 4.
The opposite endof the barrel or tubular housing
40 member 45 is formed with an open end which is
closed by a cap member 41, threaded to the end
of , the barrel and sealed as by a gasket 48. The
‘central part of the head member 41 is provided
with a threaded opening 49 through which is
threaded the stem 56 of the thermally sensitive
element T, Within the barrel 45‘there is pro
vided a heavy coil spring 52 which is compressed
between the head 41 and a spring follower 53.
The spring follower has a tubular plunger 54
50 guided within the hollow neck 46. At its outer or
left-hand end, as seen in Figures 3 and 4, this
hollow plunger 54 has a reduced diameter. The
reduced diameter portion and the main portion
of the plunger 54 meet at an annular shoulder
55 which, as shown in Figure 3, normally lies withm
the neck 46. The outer end of- the reduced por
tion of the plunger 54 extends through an open
vantage device M anchors the tension link 59 to
the head 41 of the barrel member 45 under the
control of the thermostatically controlled element
T, as will be described later.
.
The operation of the powerdevice is as follows:
The compressed coil spring 52 contains a very
considerable power which is applied to two pur
poses. The ?rst purpose is to free the tension
link 59 from‘the restraint of the mechanical ad
vantage device M and the thermally responsive
device T, as will be described later, and the sec- I
ond function is to operate the clutch release de-‘
vice 43. The reduced diameter portion 55 of the 15
plunger 54 is adapted to'slide freely in the hole
through the release member 43, hence the spring
52 may’ expand and drive the follower 53 and
plunger 54 to the left until the shoulder on said
plunger 54 ‘engages the release member 43, where 20
upon the release member 43 is carried to the left,
bringing the releasing recesses 44' in register
with the openings 46‘ and allowing the clutch
balls 42 to release the plunger 26. It is to be ob
served that the barrel 45 is united in a'?uid 25
tight joint with the ferrule extension 22. The
threaded neck “has a shoulder which clamps a
sealing gasket against a suitable seat surrounding
the opening in the ‘ferrule extension. The head
7 41 is secured in ?uid-tight fashion to the end of
the barrel 45 by means of the interposed gasket
held by the screw threads.‘ The anchorage of the
threaded stem 56 in the head 41 is rendered ?uid
tight by a conical shoulder 66 which seats in a
conical seat and forms a tight closure, like a 35
valve, sealing off the opening through the head
41. A hollow shield member 62 formed in the
shape of ‘a perforated cup or guard, has its bot
tom wall threaded onto the threaded stem 56
against the head member "and it protects the
thermally responsive member T from mechanical 40
injury while'permittingfree access of the sur
rounding medium. The thermally responsive de
vice T and mechanical advantage device 'M for
controlling the tension link 59, are built into a
unit which is shown more clearly in Figures 5 45
' and 6.
The mechanical advantage device and the ther
‘ mally responsive device
The body of the thermally responsive device and 50
the mechanical advantage device comprises a.
tubular stem 56 having a conical sealing surface
66, as heretofore described, for making a ?uid~
tight joint. This conical surface 66 is formed
upon an enlarged head member 63 on the oppo 55
site side of which extend two ?at ears 64-64. To
ing in the release member 43, as indicated at 55, . the opposite sides of these two cars 64-64 a pair
and the release member is held on the reduced .of plates 65-65 are riveted, these plates being
60 portion 55 by a split ring or other means forming preferably of metal. The plates 65-65 are spaced 60
apart by a block member 66 which is disposed
a shoulder upon the outer end of the reduced por
tion 55 beyond the fork of the release member 43. substantially midway of the length of the plates
As herein shown, a groove is formed in- the outer 65. Registering slots 61 in each of the plates 65
periphery of the reduced portion 55 and‘a wire extend from the left-hand end as viewed in Fig
65 ring 56 is contracted into the groove to form a ures 5 and 6 to substantially the spacing block 66.
shoulder on said member 55. The outer end of .This slot is to receive the tension link 59. A 65
the reduced member 55 is counterbored to pro
plurality of levers 68, 69, 16 and 12 are hinged or
vide a shoulder, as indicated at 51 in Figure 4, pivoted on pins which extend through the plates
and a cross-pin 58, to which is connected a ten
65 and through the ends of the levers. These
sion link 59, is seated in said counterbore 51 pins are placed close to the outer margins of the
against the shoulder at the end of the same. This
tension ‘link 59 is preferably a thin, ?at strip
which extends through the hollow plunger 54 and
has its rear end held by the‘ anchorage provided
75 by. amember providing a mechanical advantage,
plates 65 and are indicated by the reference nu
merals 68', 69', 16’ and 12', to correspond to the
levers aforesaid. These levers form a compound
leverage system which provides a high multiplica
tion of the mechanical advantage which this
0,184,611
mechanism obtains over the tension link II. The
tension link is, is perfc-rated as indicated at ‘I!
(see Figure 6) and the levers, heretofore de
scribed, extend through this perforation. The
(a tension link 59 bears upon the ?rst lever 88 inter
mediate its pivot and its free end. The free end
of the lever it rests upon the lever 69 adjacent
the pivot point of the lever 69. In turn, the free
end of the lever 69 rests upon the lever ‘III adjacent
its pivot point, and the lever 10 has its free end
is such,‘ however, that the button of alloy It must
completely soften before the wire will be pulled
out of the same. Thus, to a large extent, the
mere bonding between the wire and the button
such as would be presented by mere surface con
tact, and the uncertainty of operation connected
therewith, is avoided. Itlis desirable in the oper
ation of the power device that the resistance of
the tripping mechanism and the alloy button 80
be not additive. otherwise the calibration of the
bearing upon the ?nal lever ‘I2 adjacent the pivot - device might be‘ effected by the wrong factor. It
point of the latter. The ?nal lever ‘I2 is long is for this reason that the‘ plunger 54 has a lost
enough to extend beyond the side plates. This
lever 12 has its end slotted and pinched upon a
15 high tensile strength wire of small diameter
shown at ‘H. A formed tubular guide member
‘ll lies partly between the plates 85-65 and ex
tends between the ears 64-64 and is lodged in an
enlarged portion of the bore within the stem 50.
20 Thus it forms a guide or conduit for the high ten
sile strength wire 14. This wire 14 is preferably
a nlckel-chromium-iron alloy wire such as chro
mel or nichrome. The stem ill has a threaded
part H which terminates in a neck ‘l1 and has
25 a cap or cover member 18 sealing the end of the
- bore through which the wire ‘I4 passes. The end
of the neck 11 and inside of the cap ‘II are oppo
sitely coned to provide space for a button 80 of a
thermally sensitive alloy. This alloy is of a char
acter to melt at approximately 100° C., that is, at a
temperature below that at which the oil will form
vapors or fumes which are ignitable.
The end of the ?ne wire ‘H within the button 80
is formed into a hairpin turn, or hook, so as to
anchor the wire therein. The alloy button 80 is
preferably cast in place, but it may be preformed
upon the wire and the wire then inserted through
the bore 19 and the guiding tube 15, and the cap
18 is thereafter fastened in place upon the neck
40 ‘II to form a ?uid-tight seal. The rim of the cap
‘II is preferably seated into a groove, or ?uid
tightness may be secured merely by press fit. The
alloy button 80, as above stated, is preferably cast
in place, but it may be preformed, and provided
motion connection with the trip or release mem
ber 43 so that the sole resistance to the initial
expansion of the spring I! is: the thermally sensi
tive device T, as exercised through the mechan
ical advantage device. The tension in the link It
comes mechanically through the levers upon the
plate 6! and from the plate 65 upon the head I!
and the barrel head 41. Only a verysmall part 20
of said tension (in the present case about tiwth)
comes upon the thermally sensitive device T.
Assume that the oil in the transformer casing in
which the thermally sensitive device T is im
mersed reaches a temperature which is_._that for
which the ailoy'is designed to melt. Thereupon 25
the alloy melts and the hooked end of the wire ‘I!
is freed so that it may be drawn either through
the bore 10 in hooked condition, or straightened
out as it is drawn through the bore. This allows 30
the lever 12 to swing in a counterclockwise direc
tion as viewed in Figure 5. It will be observed
that as the leverage system begins to move it
loses its ratio of mechanical advantage quite
rapidly.
That is to say, as the levers begin to
swing under the in?uence of the tension link 59, 35
the free ends of the levers recede from the piv
oted ends of the companion levers, thus reducing
their ability to. resist the tension of the link it
and finally swinging clear of the link 5! and al
lowing the same to pass on to the last lever ‘II,
45 with a slight neck to center the same suitably in
which has merely the function of pulling the wire
1| through the bore of the guiding tube 15 to hold
it. Therefore the initial motion of the spring 62'
is devoted to insuring the release of the thermally
sensitive device, and the succeeding motion of
expansion of the spring 52 is devoted to the trip
50 contact. The button 80', while in good thermal
contact with the cap 18 and the portion of the
neck contained within the cap, is nevertheless
ping or operating of the release member 43.
Obviously, the amount of preliminary motion to
ensure rupture of the bond of the alloy may be
increased or the total stroke may be increased or
diminished, as desired. In Figure 4 we have indi
cated the part of the stroke devoted to the bond
the open end of the bore 19.
The alloy button 80 is confined under consider
able pressure between the cap 18 and the end of
the neck TI to bring these parts into good thermal
thermally quite remote from the adjacent me
chanical structure. The guard 62, which serves to
55 protect the device from mechanical injury, is also
directly supported in the oil, or other surround
ing medium, and hence is fairly closely responsive
to the temperature of the oil. However, it is ther
mally remote from the thermally sensitive ele
60 ment by the length of the interposed neck and the
space between the barrel portion of the shield
62 and the cap ‘I8. This button 80 is,-therefore,
rapidly and closely responsive to temperature
changes in the oil surrounding it.
The operations of the thermally responsive de
65
vice and mechanical advantage device are as fol
lows. The leverage system gives a mechanical
advantage in the specific construction herein il
lustrated of approximately 150 to 1, although it
70 will be understood that this may be widely varied.
The tension of the link 59 produced by the coil
spring 52 tends, through the compound leverage
system, to pull the wire ‘ll out of the button"
in which the end is anchored. The anchorage
76 of the wire 14 in the button 80 by the hooked end
rupture of the thermally sensitive device and the
part of the stroke devoted to tripping the cutout.
The dimensions and proportions may obviously
be varied.
'
After operation of the device, the clamping
contacts Ill-i2 are released, and a new device is
substituted by the operator. The actuating de—
vice is thereupon restored to working condition in
the shop or factory by replacing any parts which
may have been damaged by opening of the cir
cuit or otherwise, supplying a new thermally sen
sitive button It and wire ‘H, resetting the me
chanical advantage device to tension link 59, the
plunger 54 and the spring 52, closing the contacts
of the interrupter and holding them by means of
the clutch device, and supplying a suitable
charge of arc extinguishing material.
70
Whereas, in the device just described. the inter
rupter with its thermal control and intermediate
mechanism is mounted directly in the tank, the
interrupter may advantageously be placed outside
the tank and the thermally sensitive element,
6
2,134,011 '
with or without the power device, disposed in the
tank in the oil through the temperature of which
it is to be responsive. Thus, as shown in Figures
7 and 8, the interrupter I may be disposed in a
housing I82 surrounds the metal bellows 91, this
separate tank, the temperature responsive device
The operation of this device is like that of the
device of Figures 1 to 6 in all essential respects,
as modi?ed by the interposition of the transmis
sion, and the necessity for sealing off the unit
from the transmission. The fitting 95 is threaded
and‘ the power element, which are disposed'in the
transformer oil tank, being provided with a me
chanical transmission, or other suitable form of
transmission, to produce operation of the inter
10 rupter when the thermally sensitive device re
sponds to a dangerous oil temperature.
Separated thermally responsive device and
interrupter
1.5
' Referring now to Figures 7 and 8, the inter
rupter I is mounted in a pair of split champ con
tacts Ill-l2 which may be identical with those
shown in Figures 1 and 2, the lower clamp contact
l8 being mounted upon a suitable bracket mem
82 which is connected at its lowerend to a
20 ber
conductor 83‘extending through the insulating
bushing 84 leading to the outside of the auxiliary
tank 4. The upper clamp contact i2 is mounted
upon another bracket, such as 85, which also, in
25 turn, is mounted upon a conductor 86 extending
through an insulating bushing 81 in the wall of
the main tank i. The conductor 86 is a hollow
conductor providing a passageway through which
extends a push rod 88 forming the mechanical
30 transmission between the power element and the
release element of the interrupter I. An electri
cal terminal 89 is connected to the end of the hol
low conductor 86, this terminal 89 being adapted
to be con'nected‘to one of the transformer wind
‘as
mgs.
.
The brackets 85 and 82 are braced with respect
to each other by a bar of insulating material such
as 90 and the clamps l8 and I2 may also be
40
braced with respect to each other by a similar
bar of insulating material 92. These bars also
form guides. to facilitate the introduction of the
interrupting units within the clamp contacts 18
'and- I2 and to register the releasing mechanism of
the interrupter with the push rod 88.
The interrupter, with its clutch and ‘release,
45 members, is substantially identical with the cor
' responding mechanism described in connection
50
55
60
65
70
guard having a head I83 with a suitable aperture
I84 through which the thrust rod 88 may project
in operating the device.
.
A .in ?uid-tight relation into the opening in the fer
10
rule 22 and the ?exible bellows 91 seals o? the end
of the rod 94 so that the interrupting unit is sealed
?uid-tight. The guard I82 may act not only to
protect the metallic bellows 91 from external in
jury, but also may limit the outward travel of the 15
rod 94 to protect the bellows from overextension.
Thus the temperature responsive element T,
which is directly responsive to the oil temperature
in the transformer tank, in turn releases the ten
sion link of the power element P, and the power 20
element, after ?rst insuring breaking of the bond
of the thermally responsive element, then proceeds
to operate the thrust rod 88 and it, in turn, op
erates the corresponding rod 94 which is con
nected to the release fork 43. The remainder of
the operation is as described in connection with
the'operation of the interrupter unit heretofore
recited. It is to be observed that there is a lost
motion between the plunger 54 and the operating
rod 88. Obviously, such lost motion may be inter 30
posed between the rod 88 and the plunger rod 94,
but preferably lost motion is at the former loca
tion, so that the power element may ?rst free
itself from the bond of the thermally responsive
means and then proceed to institute operation 35
of the interrupter.
'
Remote control and yang operation
This modi?cation is illustrated in detail in Fig
ures 9, l0 and 11. In this construction the ther 40
mally sensitive element T releases the power ele
ment P which exerts a pull upon the cable ‘I and
this trips a mechanical relay R for tripping the
interrupters or cutouts I, one of which may be
connected in each phase of a three phase circuit, 45
for example,.which is connected to a-three phase
transformer.
.
with Figures 1 to 6. However, instead of thread
There are three interrupters, one in each phase
ing the power unit stud directly into the opening lead to the transformer windings. If the trans?
in the side walls of the ferrule extension 22, the former windings are disposed upon a common
stud threaded neck is now aligned by a coupling core and in a single bath of oil, then a single ther 50
sleeve 93 with the hollow conductor 86 so that mally sensitive element T and power element F
the plunger 54 of the power element is now control the relay mechanism for tripping the in
aligned and in operative relation to the push terrupters in all three phases. If, however, the
rod 88. The power element and thermally sensi
transformer bank comprises three single phase
tive element are identical with the corresponding transformers, then a thermally sensitive element 55
structures heretofore described. The releasing , is placed in each of the transformer tanks and
fork 43 is, in Figure 7, connected to a thrust rod any one vof the thermally sensitive elements, op
94 guided in the bore of a tubular member 95 erating through the relay mechanism, is capable
which has a threaded neck 96 like the corre
‘of opening the interrupters in all three phases.
sponding part of the barrel 45. This threaded
One of the insulators 8 which supports the in 60
neck 96 is threaded into the opening in the side terrupters I is shown in elevation inrFlgure 9.
wall of the ferrule extension 22 and the outer end They are connected to a supporting, plate l5
of the rod 94 is registered with the push rod 88. which, in turn, is securedito the side wall of the
tank 8. , The insulator 8 has a pair of angularly'
The outer end- of the rod 94 is sealed‘ to the tubu
65
lar member 95 by a corrugated bellows 91, of shaped brackets, more clearly shown in Figure 9,
the horizontally extending portions of which
metal, one end of which is beaded and, if de
sired, soldered to the ?tting 95 and the other end clamp the conductor bar “5 between them for
of which is secured to the end of the thrust rod connection with the cable lugs of the cable leads.
94. The thrust rod 94 preferably has a head or The bracket ll 8 is an L-shaped bracket, one part 70
enlargement 98, with a spring 99 of su?icient of which, namely, the vertical part, is clamped
strength only to hold the rod 94 and the release to the insulator 8 and the horizontal part to the
fork 43 in normal position. A plate I88 may cover bottom of the bar “5. The bracket Il'l like
the end of the push rod 94 for engagement by wise has a vertical portion clamped to the 'in
the end of the thrust rod 88. A suitable guard or sulator 8 and a horizontal portion clamped to 75
6,186,011
the bar III, and a further substantially vertical
portion H3 the upper end of which is. connected
electrically and mechanically to the split clamp
contact I2.. The horizontal portion of the brack
et II1 forms a perch or seat for an angular bear‘
ing bracket H6, this bracket being formed of L
shaped plate of sheet stock having a base porticn
and a vertical portion. The base portion is
clamped to the bracket Ill and is thereby sup
ported upon the insulator. The vertical part of
the bracket II! is substantially rectangular, and
it has a central opening providing a bearing for
the bakelized shaft I22. This shaft is common
to the three phases. Similar brackets IISA and
15 H63 also provide bearing support for the shaft'
I 22. Between the brackets II! and H63, an op
erating or reset handle I23 is provided. A
?anged metal bearing collar I24 is fastened upon
the shaft I22. The ?anged bearing sleeve I24 is
held upon the Bakelite shaft I22 by a pair of
screws I26-I25 which screws also hold the ratch
et collar I26 upon the said bearing sleeve I24.
The collar I24 has a tooth I21 which is adapted to
be engaged by the latch or detent I26 to hold the
shaft I22 against rotation in a counter-clockwise
direction as viewed in Figure 9. The latch or
detent I26 is in the form of a bell crank pivoted
at I26 upon the vertical part of the bracket H6.
The free arm of the bell crank is pivoted on a
pin I30 which is connected to the Bakelite link
or rod I32. A retrieving spring I33 is connected
between the actuating arm of the bell crank I26
and the base of the bracket H6. This spring
thereby tends to hold the latch of the bell crank
in position to be engaged by the tooth I21. When
the rod or link I32 is pulled upwardly against the
tension of the spring I33, the latch I26 is released
from the detent I21, thereby releasing the shaft
I22 for rotation in a counter-clockwise direction
as viewed in Figure 9. A trip hammer I34, shown
in detail in Figure ‘11, having a head or striker
I35 and a hub I36, is mounted upon the bearing
.sleeve I24. The hub I36 ?ts loosely upon the
bearing sleeve I24 but is compelled to turn with
the shaft I22 and bearing sleeve I24 by virtue of
the screw pin I31 which extends through a slot
I 36 in the hub member I36 and is secured to the
bearing sleeve I26 on the shaft I22. Thus a
small amount of angular play, as provided by the
slot, is permissible between the trip hammer I34
and the operating shaft I22. The trip hammer
I34 has a stop shoulder I39 which is adapted to
engage a pin I20 secured in one corner of the
vertical plate of the bracket H6. The head or
striker I36 is aligned with the opening I04 of
the casing I02 of the sealed release rod 94 which
trips the interrupters I.
'
A coil spring I40, having one end engaging the
bracket H9 and the other end engaging the trip
hammer I34, is normally under stress tending to
turn the shaft I22 in a counter-clockwise direc
tion as viewed in Figure 9.
It can now be seen that by an upward pull on
the rod or link I32 the bell crank latch I26 is
swung out of engagement with the tooth I21, re
leasing the shaft I22 which, under the action of
the spring, rotates the shaft counter-clockwise.
as viewed in Fig. 9, to cause the head or striker
I35 of the trip hammer I 34 to engage the head
70 of the rod 64 and this, in turn, pushes the re
lease fork 43 to the left as viewed in Figure 4,
thereby allowing the clutch balls 42 to drop into
the recesses 44’ and release the movable plunger
rod of the interrupter to open the circuit. The
75 spring may be reset by bringing the handle I23
7
in a clockwise direction as viewed in Figure 9 to
bring the detent tooth I21 under. the latch I26.
The shaft I22 bears three similar trip hammer
mechanisms, as will be apparent from Figure 10.
so that when the latch I26 releases the dog or
tooth I21, the rotation of the shaft I22 permits
each of the trip hammers to strike its correspond
ing clutch release mechanism and cause opera
tion of all three interrupters. Each of the trip
hammers I34 is provided with its individual
spring and each trip hammer has a lost ‘motion
connection through a slot and pin I33-I31,
shown and described particularly in connection
with Figure 11. This permits the device to be
assembled without requiring too great accuracy
in angular alignment of the parts.
_
The link or rod I32 is pin Jointed at its upper
end to an arm I46 through the pin or pintle I42.
The inner end of the arm I40 is pinned or keyed
'to the horizontal shaft I43, which shaft is com 20
mon to three control cables 1. The shaft I43 is
supported in a pair of bearings I44—I45 mount
ed at the ends of a bearing plate I46 which is,
in turn, mounted upon the upper end of an angle
bar I41, the upper end of which, as indicated 25
at I43, may be ?attened out into a common plane
for providing a rigid frame or backbone between
the frame I46 which supports the shaft I43 and
the plate I6 (see Figure 9) which supports the
insulators and, in turn, supports the shaft I22 30
and its mechanism. The angle bar I41 thus
spaces the two operating shafts to maintain them
in proper alignment and spacing, and it, in turn,
is secured to the inside of the housing or casing
6. There are three operating arms I43—I46-I49 35
for the three thermal control elements indicated
in this construction, each of which is provided
with a suitable clamp I60 for connecting to a
corresponding cable 1. The clamps I50 com
prise'a body portion I6I pivotaily connected to
the end of the corresponding lever arm, a corre
40
sponding channel-shaped clamping member, and
a pair of bolts provided with wing nuts for draw~
ingthe parts I6I and I62 together. This clamp
is provided in order to permit of suitable ad
justment of tension of the cables 1. The cables 45
1 extend through conduits such as I53 to the
individual transformer tanks, the conduits being
bent to any desired configuration and being pro
vided at their ends with clamping ?anges I64
for attachment to corresponding bosses I56 on 50
the tank 6. At their opposite ends the conduits
or pipes I63 are cut off to the desired length and
fastened as by means of a compression coupling
I66 to the corresponding clamping ?ange I61 on
the corresponding transformer housing I.
The 55
clamping ?ange I61 has a hollow stud I56 ex
tending through a hole in the top of the trans
former tank, that is, through the cover I69, a
spool shaped button I60 being secured upon the
end of the cable and, when the adjustment there 60
of with the extension of the cable is proper, the
button I60 is drawn against the end of the boss
I66. The thermally sensitive element T and the
power element P are mounted upon the boss
I66 and suitably connected to the button I60. 65
The thermally sensitive element is constructed
as shown in Figures'5 and 6. The stem 4615 ex
tended through a ?anged collar I62, a compres
sion spring I63 bearing at its lower endagainst
the ?ange of the collar I62, tending to throw the
?anged collar and connected parts downwardly
by the expansive force of the spring. A tubular
sleeve I64 is secured to the collar I62 and ex
tends upwardly through a ?xed collar I 65 which
2,184,011‘
' a
collar is secured on the inside of a tubular frame
member I66.
The tubular frame member I66
is threaded at its upper end on the boss I56 for
suitable mechanical support.
7
The side- plates 65 of the mechanical advan
tage device carry the compound lever system as
described in connection with. Figures 5 and 6,
held normally in place by the wire 14 and the
,} alloy button 86, and these parts retain the ten
10
it will be observed at once that the organization
of parts, from the switch contacts back‘ through
the control mechanism to the thermally. sensitive
button, is suitable for operation under the con
trol of any other phenomenon. From beyond the
sensitive button 86 to the circuit contacts, the
entire organization of parts is useful of itself,
and may be controlled by other control means,
or even be under hand control. We do not there
fore intend to limit the claims herein to thermal
control, nor in fact to any speci?c control unless
the same is speci?cally recited.
‘sion link 59, the upper end of said tension link
being anchored to the tubular support I66 by
a cross pin I61 extending through the side walls
of said tubular support I66. The upper end of
the sleeve I64 is connected to a U-shaped ten
shown and described, except as the same are
sion member I66, the arms of which are con
nected to the upper end of the tube or sleeve
cover all modi?cations which would occur to those
We do not intend to be limited to the details
speci?ed in the appended claims. We intend to 15
I64 and the bottom of the U is apertured and
has the stem I69 of the button member I60 ex
skilled in the art,_within the spirit and scope of
tending loosely therethrough. An adjustable col
We claim:1. In a device of the class described, the com
20 ‘lar I16‘ is fastened on the lower end of the stem
our invention.
‘
20
I69 to provide the lost motion desired for per ' bination of a switch having a movable switch
mitting the mechanical advantage device and the member, latching means for holding said mov
power spring to become. released by rupture of able member in predetermined position, means
the bond in the fusible alloy before the load of tending to move said movable member, a normal
ly stressed spring for disabling said latching 25
25 tripping the’ mechanical relay device, which ac
means, means comprising a lever for holding said
tuates the three interrupters, occurs. ' A suit
able cushion or buffer I12 on the upper end of
the collar I65 serves to stop the downward mo
tion of the sleeve I64 and to take up the impact
spring in stressed condition, and thermally sensi
tive means controlling said holding means com
prising a tension strand connected at one end
to said lever and a body of fusible alloy holding 30
the other end of the tension strand.
2. As an article of manufacture, a completely
enclosed switch unit, said unit comprising a main
tubular housing, a pair of arcing terminals there
in, one of the terminals being movable, a spring 85
the power spring I63, releases the lever system , for moving said terminal longitudinally of the
and hence the ?anged collar I62, carrying the housing, a holding member having transversely
collar, the thermally sensitive device, and the movable release means extending laterally
side frames 65 with the lever system, downwardly, through a wall of said housing, and a supple
as viewed in Fig. 9. This pulls the sleeve I64 mental housing joining the main housing and
downwardly and it,'in turn, carries the U-shaped providing a ?uid-tight closure for said release
tension link I68 down on the stem I69 until the means.
3. In a device of the class described, the com
collar I10 is engaged, whereupon the power spring
I63 exerts a pull upon the cable 1. The cable ‘I, bination of a tubular housing open at one end,
acting on the crank arm I49, turns the shaft a recombining chamber communicating with said 45
one end thereof, a stationary arcing terminal ad
I43 is a clockwise direction, as viewed in Fig
ure 9, swinging with it the arm I46 and raising jacent said one end, a movable rodlike arcing
the rod or link I32.v It is to be observed'that the terminal normally in conductive relation to said
30 of the blow.
,7
When the temperature of the oil 5 into which
the thermally responsive device T dips, reaches
a temperature which melts the alloy bond, the
wire 14 which holds the lever system is released
35 and the tension link 59, under the in?uence of
40
pull on any one of the three cables is not in?u
enced by the pull on any one of the other cables
for the reason that when one cable 1 is ,pulled
to the left, as viewed in Figure 9, the other cables
merely slack their tension, and no interference
results.
55
~
When the link I32 is'pulled upwardly the de
tent I28 is swung-out of the path‘ of the dog or
tooth I21 on the shaft I22 and the shaft I22,
under the in?uence of the helical ‘springs, is
rotated in a counter-clockwise direction as viewed
60 in Figure 9, throwing the hammers into engage
ment with the shafts or plungers 94 of the three
interrupting units, thereby producing a simulta
neous release of the movable plunger contact in
each, with resultant interruption of the circuit
and disconnection of the three phases from the
transformer.
'
The power element shown in Figure 9 has the
same two stages of motion described in connec
tion with Figures 1 to 6, inclusive, so that the
70 power element may free itself from the linkage
and restraining effect of the levers and the-wire
14 before taking on the tripping function, in
this case of the relay mechanism.
While 'we have shown the circuit interrupter
75 as controlled by a thermally sensitive element,
stationary terminal, a transverse partition ad-v
jacent said one end, said partition having an 50
opening through which said movable terminal
projects, means to move the movable terminal,
holding means for said movable terminal rest
ing upon said partition, a release member mov
able transversely'of said movable terminal, and 55
are extinguishing material in the housing in po
sition to be acted upon by the arc formed upon
separation of the terminals.
'4.‘ In a device of the class described, the com
bination of a tubular closed housing, a stationary 60
arcing terminal, a movable rodlike arcing ter
minal normally in conductive relation with said
stationaryterminal, means to move the movable
terminal away from the stationary terminal, a
transverse partition having a tubular bore
through which said rodlike terminal projectsand
through which it is drawn upon separation of the
arcing terminals, detent means for holding the
movable terminal against movement,“ release
means for said detent means, and are extinguish 70
ing material adapted to act upon the arc in said
tubular bore.
‘
5. In combination for use with a transformer
having a casing,'a body of oil in the casing, and
a winding in the oil, of an enclosed circuit breaker 75
9
adapted to be connected in series with the trans
former winding, a mass of fusible metal of low
melting point adapted to be disposed in said
body of oil, and mechanical trip means for the
circuit breaker controlled by said mass of fusible
metal.
‘
6. In combination for use with a transformer
having a casing, a body of oil in the casing, and
a winding in the oil, of an enclosed circuit break
er adapted to be connected in series with the
transformer winding, a mass of fusible metal of
low melting point adapted to be disposed in said
body of oil, mechanical trip means for the ‘circuit
breaker controlled by said mass of fusible metal,
15 said circuit breaker comprising a tubular hous
ing having external ferrules, and means adapted
to be disposed outside the transformer for sup
porting the circuit breaker upon said ferrules.
7. In combination, a closed housing, a pair of
20 separable contacts, a spring for separating the
contacts, means for restraining said spring com
prising a clutch within the housing, a rod for re
leasing said clutch extending through a wall of
said housing, and metallic means for sealing said
25 rod in fluid tight relation to said housing.
8. In combination, a tubular housing having a
ferrule at each end, a stationary contact within
one ferrule, a movable contact engaging the first
contact, a spring between said movable contact
30 and the other ferrule, a clutch for holding the
movable contact, said one ferrule having an open
ing through the wall'thereof, and a clutch re
leasing member extending through said opening.
9. In combination, a tubular housing having a
ferrule at each end, a stationary contact with
in one ferrule, a movable contact engaging the
?rst contact, a spring between said movable con
tact and the other ferrule, a clutch for holding
the movable contact, said one ferrule having an
40 opening through the wall thereof, a clutch re
leasing member extending through said opening,
arc extinguishing material in said housing, and
- a recombining chamber connected to the upper
45
end of said ferrule.
10. In combination, a tubular sleeve having a
metal ferrule at each end, an annular stationary
contact in one ferrule, a transverse partition
supported in said ferrule below said stationary
contact, said partition having a passageway
50 therethrough forming an arc confining bore, a
clutch sleeve resting upon said partition, clutch
ing means mounted in said sleeve, a rodlike ter
minal extending through said passageway and
sleeve and being engageable by said clutching
55 means to hold the rodlike terminal in engagement
with the stationary terminal, a spring for said
rodlike terminal, transversely movable release
means cooperating with said clutching means,
and means extending through the wall of the
60 said one ferrule for operating said release means.
11. In a device of the class described, a sleeve
of insulation, a ferrule on the upper end of the
sleeve, a bushing of insulation secured in the
ferrule adjacent said sleeve, a movable rodlike
05
terminal projecting up through said bushing,
said terminal having a groove, a stationary ter
minal, said movable terminal engaging said sta
tionary terminal, a sleeve surrounding said rod
like terminal and resting on said bushing and
70 guided thereby, said sleeve having openings there
through, clutch bodies lying in said openings and
extending into said groove, a yoke embracing said
sleeve and holding said clutch bodies in said
groove, means extending through a wall of the
75 ferrule formoving said yoke to release said bodies,
and a spring for moving the movable terminal
away from the stationary terminal.
12. In combination, a stationary contact, a
movable contact, a spring for moving the movable
contact, a detent for holding the movable con
tact against movement by the spring, a release
member for releasing the detent, said release
member having a 10st motion, a spring for mov
ing said release member, a thermally releasable
restraining element for restraining movement of 10
said release member, the lost motion of said re—
lease element ensuring complete release of said
release member from said restraining member
before said release element releases the detent.
13. ‘In combination, a movable member biased 15
to move when released, a releasable detent means
therefor for restraining the member against
movement, a thermally responsive element com
prising a thermally sensitive body which changes
its consistency upon rise of temperature, a plung 20
er biased for motion, a lost motion transmission
operated by said plunger to release said detent
and holding means for said plunger controlled
by the condition of said thermally sensitive body.
14. In combination, a movable member biased 25
to move when released, a releasable detent
means therefor for restraining the member
against movement, a thermally responsive ele
ment comprising a thermally sensitive body
which changes its consistencyupon an elevation of 30
temperature in response to externally applied
heat and which is free from current flow there
through, a plunger biased for motion, a mechani
cal relay means for releasing said detent, a lost
motion transmission operated by said plunger for 35
controlling said mechanical relay means, and
holding means for said plunger controlled by the
consistency of said thermally sensitive body.
15. In combination, a plurality of automatic
circuit breakers, a corresponding plurality of 40
releasable means for controlling the actuation of
said circuit breakers, mechanical relay means for
actuating said plurality of releasable means
simultaneously, a thermally responsive element
comprising a thermally sensitive body which 45
changes its consistency upon elevation of temper
ature, said thermally responsive element being
disposed in non-conducting relation with respect
to current ?ow through said circuit breakers, a
plunger biased for motion, said plunger by its 50
movement controlling said mechanical relay
means, and holding means for said plunger con
trolled by the consistency of said thermally sensi
tive body.
16. In combination, a thermally sensitive body 55
of material the mechanical strength of which de
creases upon the attainment of) an elevated tem
perature in response to externally applied heat,
means having relatively high thermal conductiv
ity for sealing said thermally sensitive body from 60
and rendering it quickly responsive to the am
bient atmosphere, a lever restrained in control
ling position by the body in its normal condition
and adapted to be moved to non-controlling posi
tion, a tension link controlled by the lever, a 65
power device restrained from action by the ten
sion link, and a releasing member adapted to be
actuated by the power device.
-
1'7. In combination, a thermally sensitive bodyv
of material of relatively light mass the mechani 70
cal strength of which decreases upon the attain
ment of an elevated temperature in response to
externally applied heat, a lever restrained in con
trolling position by the body in its normal condi
tion and adapted to be moved to non-controlling "
10
2,134,011
position, a tension link controlled by the lever, a
power device restrained from action by the ten
sion link, and a releasing member adapted to be
‘ actuated by the power device, said power device
having two successive stages of action, the ?rst
stage of; action tending to move the lever to non
controlling' position and the second stage of 'ac
tion tending to actuate the releasing member.
18. ‘In combination, a thermally sensitive body
10 of material the mechanical strength of which
decreases upon the attainment of an elevated
- temperature, said body being diposed to be melted
when the ambient temperature reaches approx
imately 100,0 0., a strand held by said body in
15 the normal conditionrof said body and adapted
to be released byvdecreased strength of said body,
stress of the spring, a strand, a mass of mate
rial the strength of which is decreased upon at
taining an elevated temperature for holding said
strand, said mass of material being disposed to
be melted when the ambient temperature reaches
that at which destruction of the insulation of
transformer windings begins, a mechanical ad
vantage device providing a high ratio of me
chanical advantage for said strand over said
member, said ratio being rapidly reduced as said 10
member moves when said strand is released by
said material, and means operated by said plunger
only after predetermined motion of said member
whereby the spring actuated plunger is substan
tially freed from the holding member before 15
operating said last named means.
23. In combination, a rod having a recess
therein, a stationary annular member embracing
the rod and :having an aperture registering with
the recess, a holding body lying in the aperture 20
a link, a device restraining the link under the
control of said strand, said device giving said
strand a relatively large mechanical advantage
20 over said link, .a spring actuated plunger re
strained by said link, a spring for said plunger, ‘ and extending into the recess, a member for
a circuit controlling member biased to move from holding said body in said recess, said member
a ?rst position to a second position, and a re
being movable to a position to permit the body
straining member for holding said circuit con
25 trolling member in one position and-being con
to move out of the recess to release the rod, a
trolled by said plunger.
.
19. In combination, a spring barrel having a
head, a spring actuated plunger extending out of
the barrel, a spring between the head of the bar
30 rel and the plunger, a tension member connected
- to the plunger, a self-releasing detent connect
85
40
45
50
55
ing said member to said head, a tension strand
controlling the ‘self-releasing detent, and a' but
ton of thermally controlled material disposed on
the outside of said head and normally holding
the tension strand against movement,vsaid ma
terial being ‘softened upon reaching an elevated
temperature to release said strand.
20. In combination, a spring barrel havinga
head, a spring actuated plunger extending out of
the barrel, a spring between the head of the bar
rel and the plunger, a tension member connected
to the plunger, a self-releasing detent connect
ing said member to said head, a tension strand,
controlling the self-releasing detent, a button of
thermally controlled material disposed on the
outside of said head and normally holding the
tension strand against movement, said material
being softened upon reaching an elevated tem
perature to release said strand, a shiftable mem
ber and a lost motion connection between said
plunger and said shiftable member, said lost
motion connection permitting said plunger to re
lease itself from the control of the strand before
encountering the resistance of the shiftable
member.
21. In combination, a stressed coil spring, a
plunger adapted to be- actuated by the spring, a
member for holding the plunger against the
plunger for shifting said member to free the rod
from the holding body, a spring for shifting the
plunger, a link for holdingthe plunger against
movement by the spring, and a body of fusible
alloy for restraining the link.
24. In combination, a tubular sleeve of insula
tion having ferrule means at each end, the upper
ferrule means having 'an extension of enlarged
diameter at its upper end comprising a closed
cooling chamber, switch contactsv enclosed by
the sleeve and ferrules, a laterally extending hous
ing opening through the aforesaid ferrule exten
sion of the upper ferrule, thermally sensitive
means carried by said latter housing, and means
subject to said thermally. sensitive means for
controlling the operation of said switch contacts.
25. In combination, a tank adapted to_con
tain a body of liquid, a non-conducting bushing
40
extending through one wall of the tank, a hollow
conductor extending through said bushing, a
thrust rod extending through said hollow conduc 45
tor, a thermally sensitive element supported on
said hollow conductor within the liquid in- said
tank, a plunger for operating said thrust rod con
trolled by said thermally sensitive element, a
circuit interrupter having a closed housing com
prising an insulating sleeve bearing external ter
minals in the shape of ferrules, means connecting
the upper ferrule to said hollow conductor, ter
minal means connected to the lower ferrule,
switch means withinsaid interrupter housing, a 55
the strength of which is decreased upon attain
ing an elevated temperature for holding said
strand, said mass of material being disposed to
be melted when the ambient temperature reaches
65 that at which destruction of the insulation of
transformer windings begins and a mechanical
advantage device providing a high ratio of me
chanical advantage for said strand over said
member, said ratio being rapidly reduced as said
70 member moves when said strand is released by
said material said device being disposed within
said coil spring.
22. In combination, a stressed spring, a
detent for the switch means, and releasing means
for the detent means extending through the hous—
ing and registering with said thrust rod.
26. In combination, a tank adapted to contain
a body of liquid, a non-conducting bushing ex 60
tending through one wall of the tank, a hollow
conductor extending through said bushing, a
thrust rod extending through said hollow con
ductor, a thermally sensitive element supported
on said hollow conductor within the liquid in 65
said tank, a plunger for operating said thrust
rod controlled by said thermally sensitive ele
ment, a circuit interrupter having a closed hous
ing comprising an insulating sleeve bearing ex
ternal terminals in the shape of ferrules, means 70
connecting the upper ferrule to said hollow con
ductor, terminal means connected to the lower
ferrule, switch means within said interrupter
plunger adapted to be actuated by the spring,
75 a member for holding the plunger against the
leasing means for the detent means extending 75
60 stress of the spring, a strand, a mass of material
housing, a detent for the switch means, and re
2,184,011
through the housing and registering with said
‘11
release said actuating means “to cause release of
thrust rod, and a metallic bellows for sealing said _ the detent and operation of the circuit breaker.
'
33. In combination, a normally closed circuit
27. In combination with a tank adapted to con
breaker having a ?rst spring biased to operate the
tain a body of insulating liquid, a chamber formed circuit breaker, a detent for holding the spring, a
on the outside wall of the tank, an insulating mechanical trip for the detent, a second spring
bushing extending between the chamber and biased to actuate the trip, and restraining means
the inside of the tank, a hollow conductor extend
for the second spring comprising a body of fusible
ing through the bushing, a circuit interrupter dis
‘metal which when melted releases the spring re
release means.
posed in the chamber, said circuit interrupter
comprising a closed tubular housing having con
tacts biased to'open, detent means for holding
said contacts in conducting relation, trip means
for releasing said detent, thermally controlled
means, and a member controlled by said ther
mally sensitive means extending through said
straining means, allowing the second spring to 10
actuate the trip which holds the ?rst spring, and '
the first spring, in turn, operates the circuit
breaker.
34. In combination a closed tubular housing, a
stationary contact disposed therein adjacent one 16
end thereof, means within said housing providing
hollow conductor for operating said trip means.
28. In combination with a plurality of tanks.
circuit conductors extending to each of said.
an arcing bore adjacent said stationary ter
mine], a plunger having a contact at one end
. tanks, thermally sensitive means in each of said
lying within said arcing bore and disposed wholly
within said housing, a stressed spring connected
to said plunger for retracting the same endwise of
said bore, detent means within the housing for
holding said plunger against the stress of said
tanks, a plurality of circuit breakers for con
trolling said circuit conductors, a common trip
means for each of said circuit breakers, and
transmision means between each of said ther
mally sensitive elements and said trip means.
29. In combination with a plurality of appa
ratus tanks, thermally sensitive elements in said
tanks, a circuit interrupter tank containing a
plurality of interrupters, one for each apparatus
tank, each of said circuit interrupters having in
iividual release means, a common actuating mem
ber for each of said release means, a trip mem
ber for said common actuating means, and means
under control of each of said thermally sensitive
elements for controlling said trip means.
30. In combination with a plurality of elec
trical circuit conductors, a corresponding plurality
engaging said stationary contact, said plunger
spring, release means for said detent means ex
tending through a lateral wall of the housing, and
are extinguishing material within the housing
acting upon the are drawn in said bore to ex
tinguish the same.
35. In combination a tubular sleeve of insula
tion having ferrules forming external terminals,
a stationary switch terminal within and con
nected to one ferrule, a spring anchored to the
other ferrule, a plunger disposed wholly within
the housing having one end connected to the
spring and the other end in engagement with said
stationary contact, a releasable holding device
of circuit interrupters having individual trip‘ for holding the plunger, said device being sup
means, thermally sensitive elements responsive to ported by said one ferrule, and a release member
heat given oil’ by said conductors, a common ac
for said device extending through a lateral open
tuating member for said trip means, a single de
ing in the said one ferrule.
tent for said common actuating'means, and a
36. In combination for use with a transformer
transmission from each of said thermally sensi
having a casing, a body of oil in the casing, and
tive elements to said trip means including a plu
a winding in the oil, a circuit breaker having con
rality of ?exible cables.
. tacts adapted to be connected in series with the
31. In combination, a plurality of circuit con
transformer winding, a housing for said circuit
ductors, a corresponding plurality of circuit in
breaker, a mass of fusible metal of low melting
terrupters in series with said conductors, said point adapted to be disposed in said body of oil
circuit interrupters having individual trip means. out of current conducting relation with respect
a shaft provided with means for actuating said to said contacts, mechanical trip means controlled
trip means simultaneously, spring means for ac
by said mass of fusible metal for releasing said
tuating said shaft, a detent for holding said shaft contacts for movement to the open position, and
against movement by said spring means, a ther
liquid arc extinguishing material in said housing
mally sensitive element responsive to heat given adapted to react with the are formed between
oil by said circuit conductors, a power unit for said contacts on separation for assisting in extin
each thermally sensitive element, a second shaft, guishing it.
37. In a device of the class described, the com
a connection between said second shaft and said
detent for releasing said shaft to trip all of the bination of a tubular housing open at the top end.
a recombining chamber communicating with said
circuit interrupters, and transmission means be
tween said power unit and said second shaft com
prising a ?exible tension element.
32. As a means for opening an electrical power
supply circuit upon the occurrence of predeter
mined thermal conditions in a body related to said
circuit, the combination of a compact high duty
circuit breaker comprising a pair of separate con
tacts provided with are extinguishing material
and with operating means tending to separate said
70 contacts, a detent holding said operating means
from acting, actuating means for moving the
detent to releasing position, and means compris
ing a body of fusible material for normally re
straining said actuating means and adapted,
75 upon attaining a predetermined temperature, to
top end, a stationary arcing terminal adjacent
said top end, a movable rodlike arcing terminal 60
normally in contact engagement with said sta
tionary terminal, a transverse partition under
neath said stationary terminal having an open
ing through which said movable terminal projects,
means for biasing said terminals apart, a release
65
member for said movable terminal movable trans
versely relative thereto, a body of arc extinguish
ing liquid in the lower portion of said housing,
and a liquid director slidably mounted on said 70
arcing terminal and movable therewith after a
predetermined movement thereof for directing
said liquid in position to be acted upon by the arc
formed upon separation of the terminals.
38. In a device of the class described, the com
12.
2,184,011
bination of a tubular closed housing, a stationary , rent source, a circuit interrupter of the single
arcing terminal, a movable rodlike arcing ter
minal normally in conductive relation with said
‘stationary terminal, means to move the movable
terminal away from the stationary terminal, a
transverse partition having a tubular bore
through which said rodlike terminal projects ‘and
through whichit is drawn upon separation of the
arcing terminals, detent means for holding the
10 movable terminal against movement, release
means for said detent means, and liquid are ex
I tinguishing material in said housing adapted to
react with the are formed between said terminals
on separation thereof for assisting in extinguish
15 ing it.
39. In combination a ?uid tight tubular hous
ing, a stationary contact member disposed therein
adjacent one end thereof, a movable contact
member disposed wholly within said housing for
20 engaging said stationary contact member, a ten
sion ~spring disposed within said housing for bias
ing said movable contact member away from said
stationary contact member, detent means within
said housing for holding said contact members in
25 engagement, release means for said detent means
extending through a lateral wall of said‘housing,
and bellows means‘ surrounding said release
means and secured in ?uid tight relation to said
housing for maintaining the ?uid tight integrity
30 of said housing and permitting operation of said
release means by an externally applied force.
40. For combination with a plurality of cir
cuits disposed to connect a load device to a cur
shot blast type interposed in each of said cir
cuits, a ?uid tight housing for individually en
closing each of said circuit interrupters, exter
nally operable tripping means, sealed in each of
said housings for tripping the circuit interrupters
enclosed thereby, fault responsive means indi
vidual to each of said conductors, and means re
sponsive to the operation of any one of said fault
responsive means for simultaneously operating all
of said tripping means to completely disconnect
said load device from said current source.
41. For combination with a plurality of cir
cuits disposed to connect a load device to a cur
rent source; a shelf contained circuit interrupter 15
interposed in each of said conductors comprising
a pair of separable contact members disposed on
separation to draw an arc therebetween, are ex
tinguishing material disposed to form a blast for
extinguishing said are, and externally operable 20
tripping means for normally holding said contact
members in engagement, the contact members of
each circuit interrupter being mechanically inde
pendent of the contact members of any other cir
cut interrupter; fault responsive means indi
vidual to each of said conductors, and means re
sponsive to the operation of any one of said fault
responsive means for simultaneously operating
all, of said tripping means to completely discon
nect said load device from said current source.
HUGH A. TRIPLE'I'I‘.
SIGURD I. LINDELL.
25
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