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Патент USA US2134021

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Oct. 25, 1938.
L
. ./l4./
Oct. 25, 1938.-
v
LA, T, BARNES
2,134,021
HYDROCARBON VAPOR AND AIR MIXING DEVICE
Filled Maròh 25, 1935
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
»W
' ' 1..“ INVENTOR
_
Patented Oct. 25, 1938
2,134,021
UNiTED STATES PATENT- OFFICE
- 2,134,021
HYDnocAaBoNvAPoR AND AIR MIXING
DEVICE>
Llewellyn T. Barnes, Hempstead,>> N. Y.
Application March 25, 1935, Serial No. 12,920
8 Claims.` (c1. 4s-1so)
The principal object of the invention is to pro~
duce a fuel v,vapor and air mixing device for in
ternal combustion engines whereby the air and
liquid fuel particles comprising therfuel mixture
5 are brought into desired intimate contact after
issuing from` a carburetor whereby better combus
tible mixture is obtainedv for consumption in the
cylinders of the engine.
Another object is to control the flow of the
10 mixture in such a manner that undesirable vor
ment of theVenturi tube with throat sections
bent to yclosed positions.
.
Figure 9 is a vertical sectional View of a modi
iication,
'
j
Figure 10 is ' a horizontal view throughy its
Venturi tube,
,
'
Figure 11 is a diagrammatical View illustrating
principles of Figures 2 and 9, and Figure 12 is a
horizontal cross section of the valve stem of
Figure 9.
«.
.
In the drawings, reference numeral i designates
texes and eddy current are eliminated, thereby
improving the quality, maintaining the improved a-portion of .an internalcombustion engine, I
quality of the vapor mixture in varying quantities ' an intake port thereof, and 2 a standard type of
15
as desired.
carbureter, including-among other usual parts,
Other objects are to improve fuel economy; to
reduce the accumulation of unconsumed deposits
a main discharge nozzle 3, main metering restric
from partial combustion; andto generally im
prove vaporization of the liquid fuel to createa
totally combustible mixture,
12,0
_
This invention contemplates Ythe incorporation
of a simple, eñicient and easily installed Venturi
tube of special design in the low pressure zone oi
and in the intake manifold located between the
carburetor throttle valve and the intake‘valves
of an internal combustion engine.
.
A further object of the invention is to provide
a Yspecially constructed throttle valve operative
in connection with the aforesaid Venturi tube, to
further improve mixture stability and toautomat
k30 ically maintain a substantially constant velocity
of >the mixture in its passage `throughftheexit
zone of said Venturi tube; and to provide means
whereby the desired exit velocity of the mixture Ais
maintained substantially throughout the entire
35 working and speed range of the engine; and to
eliminate condensation >of the mixture >on and
around the throttle valve and in the walls of the
intake manifold.
tion il, valve seat and orifice 5, valve '6, accelerat
ingpump 1, step up passage 8, idling gas dis
charge holes 9 and air bleed opening I0, sub
stantially _as set forth in- Patent 1,909,389.
The carbureter communicates with the intake .
port I-fby meansof an intake pipe I2 attached
to said intake pipe by bolts I4 passing through
flanges I5 of the latter and threading into
flanges I6 of the former. Between these ilanges
are clamped a pair of gaskets I'I and between the 25
latter is clamped a thin metal gasket I8 to the
bore of which is permanently aflixed the base oi
a Venturi tube 20. The conical approach 2| of
the venturi forms an angle of substantially 60°
with its base, and the rounded approach 22 to
the exit portion 23 is formed on a radius of sub
stantially .6 of the throat diameter. The length
of the exit portion 23 is not less than three fourths
of the mean throat diameter. These relative
dimensions go to make up the novel venturi for
preventing the building up of a flow restricting
vortex in the inlet cone by preventing an ex
cessive amount of spinning of the gas vapor at
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional View through a
highvelocity, thus. increasing the flow capacity
40 portion of a carbureter and intake pipe, with one
of the tube. An active vortex would retard
velocity andupset a constant discharge co-ef
formof the invention applied,
.
`
Fig. 2 is an enlarged vertical sectional view> of
a portion thereof, with modiñed intake passage,
Figure 3 is a horizontal section therethrough,
Figure 4 is an enlarged view showing-the .valve
45
and a fragment of the Venturi tube in side ele '
vation,
~ ,
Figure 5 is a vertical section view of a modiñca~
tion,
50
`
Figure 6 is a View similar to Figure 3'of the
modiiication,
,
z While the walls of lthe Venturi exit portion 23
are normally paralleLprovision is made for bend
ing the walls thereof inwardly or outwardly,_this
being permitted by V-shaped slots 24 providing
intermediate throat sections 23’. Bending the
exit portion sections 23’ inwardly, thereby clos
ing the slots 24, tends to decrease the exit area,
and bending the exit sections outwardly opens the
slots 24 and decreases the vortex and increases the
.
Figure '7 is a vertical sectional view of the
Venturi tube with critical dimensions applied,
and
ficient.
'
,
,Figure 8 is a vertical sectional View of a >frag
exit area.>
,
.
’
The slots 24 provide openings to permit the
gradual expansion of the mixture stream and also
provide means to sever the liquid particles to 55
2
2,134,021
longitudinally up one of the guide stem flutes
from the high pressure to the low pressure side
ly.` The slots also form individual eddy currents of the venturi.
Normally, the floating valve 3|) is held closed
that are helpful to the stream at the discharge
side, by flattening out the ever-present vortex upon the Venturi tube 20 by the spring 4|, but
which is never entirely eliminated, and which suction when the engine is running lifts the
vortex is at a right angle to said eddy currents. valve against the pressure of, the spring to a`
Drill holes 254 in the venturi of the juncture of l height limited by the position of the throttle link
the exit sections 23’ and the rounded throat or stop head 34. When closed, an idling mixture
approach portion tend to prevent fracture of the flows through the flutes of stem 42’ and through
sections during bending thereof, and also assure the bore of the valve 30, the flutes preventing
openings even when the slots 24 are entirely -spinning of the idling mixture, 'and the spider
make moreV homogenous the mixture, diffusing
the fuel particles in the vapor mixture more readi
15
closed, thereby preventing an excessive amount
arms42 likewise preventing spinning of the main
of fuel liquid being pocketed in the well 26.V '
vapor charge, thereby eliminating a vortex.
„
The Venturi tube described may be employed
alone, as illustrated in Figure >5,:in which case
the usual throttle valve 28 is employed, and the
feed of the carbureter, the reference character
“2” is adjusted by changing-the main metering
20 discharge nozzle'3 to a smaller output and other
wise reducing the liquidV fuelsupply according to
the particular type of carbureter; Thus economy
in fuel consumption is obtainedV through the use
of the particular Venturi choke tube 20 and
through readjustment of the carbureter.
Further mixture economy with greater power,
may be obtained by elimination of the conven
tional throttle valve 28, provision of a throttling
valve 30 in cooperation with the venturi 20, and
extension of the step up passage by means of a
tube 8’ from the previous low pressure side to the
new position of low pressure formed by use of
throttling valve 30, together with recalibration of
the carbureter as aforesaidv and by also reducing
35 the stroke of the accelerating pump ‘I and size of
the valve seat orifice 4.
In eliminating the conventional throttle valve,
a lever 3| is substituted therefor and a link 32
extending therefrom through the Venturi tube 20
The link rod 32 is free
40 through a drill hole 33.
to slide within the drill hole but is conñned from
detachment-from the valve 30 by a head 34;- The
drill holes 33 extend parallel with the valve axis
and are formed at theinner -ends of. V-shaped
45 slots 35 formed in the conical skirt of the valve
3U, thereby providing bendable valve sections 30’
which may be bent inwardly or outwardly to close
or open the’slots 35 kas in the case of the Venturi
tube. Y Opposite side edges of each valve section
50 3U’ are similarly beveled as at 35” to produce
mixture
spinning.
-
.
.
,
-
The hub 36 of the valve is centrally bored, the
bore expanding Venturi-like at its bottom and
upper ends 31, 38 respectively, lugs 39 being dis
55 posed at intervals in theVenturi-face 38 Vto en
gage the bottom face of the adjusting nut. 40 to
prevent closing of the Venturi passage between
the surface 38 andthe nut 40. ' A coil spring 4|
encircles the nut 40 and the hub of the valve, and
60 is held by its upper end 4|’ passing through the
nut and engaging a flute of> the .stem 42’- upon
which the nut is threaded. The lower end of
the spring bears against the valve 3D in the crotch
between its conical skirt and its hub. '
65
i
The nut 40 is adjustably threaded upon the
upper end of a fluted stem 42’ which is cruciform
in cross section and which is formed on its lower
end with radial spider arms 42, having their outer
ends extended through and clinched into slots 43
When the valve Vis open, sufficient vapor passes 15
through the flutes and valve bore to compensate
for the area displaced by the valve mechanism.
The slots in the Venturi tube 20 function the
same whether the valve is employed or not, and
the slots in the valve may be opened or closed
to a greater or less extent by bending the sec
tions 30’; thereby varying the slots. The valve
itself, being conical, spreads the fuel vapor quick
ly after it leaves the Venturi tube 20, and main
tains al constant velocity and a continued spread
ing of the mixture over the complete working
range of the engine, regardless of, throttle posi
tion of the valve. The fuel vapor jets finding
their way through the slots 35 issue from the
upper'side of thevalve in a spinning condition, 30
due to the beveled edges 35” of the slots. These
slots` 35 maintain spinning of the vapor as it
issues therefrom even. when almost completely
closed.
YWhile the invention has been described and 35
illustrated in connection with an up-draft
carbureter, it will be understood that the same
conditions exist relatively with a downdraft car
bureter.
'
In the modified form shown in Figure 9, in 40
stead of a straight parallel walled intake pas~
sage, against which the fuel vapor is deflected by
the valve, one having an outward bulge“ I 2’ is
employed, the bulge being surrounded by a heat
ing jacket I3 for exhaust, auxiliary heat or other 45
fluid. Interiorly,- this bulged wall 'I2' is provided
with spiral fins I2" which are notched to pro
vide an operating guide for the valve 3|)a the
latter‘being substantially the same structurally
and functionally as the valve 30 of the first form. 50
This vvalve has a stem 36a cruciform in cross sec
tionV and is formed with a longitudinal slot 36’
which has a lateral branch slot 36” in which
latter a crank pin 3|’ on a crank 3|” operates,
the crank being attached to a shaft 3|>< substi
tuted for the conventional throttle valve shaft.
In assembling, when the heater section. and
carbureter sections are moved together, the'pin
3|’ enters the slot'36’ and then the branch'slot
36" and thereafter the shaft 3|X enters the slot 60
36’ and reposes at the end thereof. An operating
arm 3|EL is provided for the shaft 3|x and is nor
mally urged»> downwardly by a tension spring 4|n
to normally urge the valve toward closed position.
Anyvform of external spring means may be sub 65
stituted for this purpose. The shoulders I2n
prevent the valve lifting to a point where crank
pin 3|’ will leave the branch slot 36".
In this modification, the Venturi tube 20“, like
provided for this modification in the base of the
the bulged wall I2', is an insert within the heater 70
venturi 20. ` The spider arms 42 also have shoul
section of the intake section and is provided with
ders 44 conforming to’and engaged with the coni-`
cal approach 2| of the venturi to assist in main
taining the guide stemA 42' centralized. The
vortex preventing'grooves -2|)b as well as a “step
up” fuel feeding passage 8l. The ribs and grooves
of the cruciform valve stem 36a assist grooves
step-up passage extension tube 8’ is bent to pass
.201? in preventing spinning of. the vapor.V This 75
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2,134,021
“step-up” passage is provided to supply additional
in the pipe line, said Venturi tube having a coni'- -
liquid fuel under certain conditions such as emer
gency high loads. Under certain other condi
tions with certain carbureters, this additional
cal mouth portion, a rounded throat portion, and .
fuel may be forced through the “step-up” passage
by the operator; and in connection with certain
other carbureters, the additional >fuel is auto
matically passed through this passage in response
to the predetermined demand. The outlet of the
“step-up” passage is in the valve seat of the valve
302“,A
f
`While the advantages of a properly propor
tioned Venturi tube are present inV all forms of
the invention, an added advantage is present in
the bulging of the intake passages or portrayed
in the diagram, the object of a properly propor
tioned bulged intake passage and discharge
throat is to maintain a desired constant velocity
at all engine speeds. By making the throat dis
20 charge passage with a cross-sectional area of X,
the valve or spreader with a cross-sectional area
of. X/2, and with a cross-sectional area of X/Z
between the valve stem and Venturi throat, a
cross-sectional area of X/2 must be maintained
25 for the annulus between the valve and the bulged
intake passage wall for top engine speed when
the valve is fully open.
When the spreader valve is approximately half
closed, because of lower engine speed, a velocity
30
substantially equal to the velocity at higher
speeds should be maintained and this is accom
plished by curving the passage wall inwardly at
that point to give cross-sectional area of X/4
between the half-open valve and the passage
35 wall, the cross-sectional area of the annulus be
tween the bulged wall and the tapered Side of the
valve being reduced also to X/4. The cross
sectional area of the Venturi throat has a con
stant of X/2.
What is claimed:
40
l. In a mixing device of the character de
scribed, a pipe line leading from a source of vapor
supply to the intake of an internal combustion
engine, a Venturi tube in said pipe line, a iiuted
v4:5 stem passing axially through the Venturi tube,
and a valve adapted for cooperation with the exit
portion of said Venturi tube and having a bore
through which the stem passes, a nut threaded
upon the stem, and a spring having one end bear
50 ing against the valve and its other end passing`
through the nut into engagement with the flutes
of the stem.
2. In a mixing device of the character de
scribed having a pipe line leading from a source
55 of vapor supply to the intake of an internal com
bustion engine, the combination of a Venturi tube
member located in the pipe line, said Venturi tube
a substantially cylindrical slotted discharge por
tion; a conical throttle valve mounted to move
.axially of the Venturi tube and When in closed
position having its tip end located within the
Venturi tube and its sides adjacent its base seated
upon theV end of the discharge portion of the
Venturi tube, means working through said Ven
turi tube for operating the valve, and a tube from
the source of vapor supply communicating
through said valve with the low pressure side of
the Venturi tube.
'
4. In a mixing device of the character described
having a pipe line leading from a source of vapor 15
>supply to the intake of an internal combustion
engine, the combination of a Venturi tube lo
cated in the pipe line, said Venturi tube having a
conical mouth portion, a rounded throat por
tion, and a slotted substantially cylindrical dis- '
chargeV portion; a conical throttle valve mounted
to move axially of the Venturi tube into and out
of closing engagement with the end of the dis
charge portion of said Venturi tube, the tip end
of the valve being located within the Venturi 25
tube and the sides of the valve adjacent its base
seating upon said discharge end of the Venturi
tube when the valve is closed, the Valve having
an axial bore, a iiuted valve guide arranged within
said bore axially of the Venturi tube, and a tube 30
leading from the source of vapor supply and lo
cated in one of the ilutes of the valve guide and
in the bore of the valve to discharge vapor into
the latter.
»
5. In a mixing device of the character described 35
having a pipe line leading from a source of vapor
supply to the intake of an internal combustion
engine, the combination of a Venturi tube mem
ber located in the pipe line, said Venturi tube
having a conical mouth portion, a rounded throat 40
portion, and a substantial cylindrical discharge
portion; a conical valve member having its tip
end located within the discharge portion of the
Venturi tube and its sides adjacent its base en
gaged with the end of the discharge portion o1' 45
the Venturi tube when said valve is in its closed
position, and guide means to confine the move
ment of saidvvalve in a direction axially of said
Venturi tube in its opening and closing move
ments, said discharge portion being provided with 50
vortexv disturbing slots extending in the general
loiâgitudinal direction of the axis of the Venturi
tu e.
6. In a mixing device of the character described
having a pipe line leading from a source of vapor 55
vsupply to the intake of an internal combustion
engine, the combination of a Venturi tube mem
having a conical mouth portion, a rounded throat
ber located in the pipe line, said Venturi tube
portion, and a substantial cylindrical discharge
60 portion; a conical valve member having its tip
end located within the discharge portion of the
having a conical mouth portion, a rounded throat
Venturi tube and its sides adjacent its base en
gaged with the end of the discharge portion of
the Venturi tube when said valve is in its closed
65 position, and guide means to coniine the move
ment of said valve in a direction axially of said
Venturi tube in its opening and closing move
ments, one of said members being provided with
vortex disturbing slots extending in the general
70 longitudinal direction of the axis of the Venturi
tube.
3. In a mixing device of the character described
having a pipe line leading from a source of vapor
supply to an intake of an internal combustion
75 engine, the combination of a Venturi tube located
portion, and a substantial cylindrical discharge
portion; a conical valve member having its tip
end located within the discharge portion of the
Venturi tube and its sides adjacent its base en
gaged with the end of the discharge portion 0I '
the Venturi tube when said valve is in its closed 65
position, and guide means to confine the move
ment of said valve in a direction axially of said
Venturi tube in its opening and closing move
ments, said conical valve member being provided
with vortex disturbing slots extending in the gen
eral longitudinal direction of the axis of the Ven
turi tube.
70
,
7. A mixing device of the character described,
including in combination a unidirectional portion
of a pipe line leading from a source of vapor sup
75
4
2,134,021
ply to the intake `of an internalcombustion 'en
gine,v a Venturitube located Within’the pipe line, e
said Venturi tube havingk a converging entrance
portion leading to a throat and having a substan
tially cylindrical discharge lportion beyond the
throat portion, said discharge .portion being
spaced fromÍ said pipe lineandy provided. with
longitudinal , vortex
disturbingY slots
through
which minorpportions of> the vapor'in passing
10 through said slotsis directed substantially'coni-l
cally, said slots providing `substantially cylindri
cally arcuate segments comprising- said discharge
portion,k whereby the major portion of said vapor
is substantially conñned in‘an unswirled column
15 and flowing in a direction coextensive with said
discharge portion substantially throughout said
pipe line portion.
«
»
.
.i
Y
'
8. A mixing device of the character described
including in combination a unidirectional portion
20 of a pipe line leading from a source of vapor sup
ply to an intake of a combustion engine„said por
tion including an enlargedconcentric annular
portion, said annular portion providing a con
cave annular passage, a Venturi tube in said por
tion and- disposed coaxially and concentrically
therein, said Venturi tube having a conical mouth 5
portion, an arcuate throat portion, and a sub
stantially cylindrical discharge portion terminat
ing substantially upstream of Vsaid enlarged an
nular portion and spaced from said pipe line, a
conical throttle valve having its tip end located 10
Within the discharge passage of the Venturi tube,
said valve having its sides adjacent its base en
gageable with the end of theV discharge portion
of the Venturi tube when said valve is in its closed
position, and guide means to direct the movement 15
of said valve axially of said Venturi tube whereby
the vapor passing said Valve is deflected .into said
concave passageway during all open positions of
said valve.
LLEWELLYN T. BARNES. 20
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