Патент USA US2134067код для вставки
Oct. 25, 1938. D. P. WICKERSHAM ET AL 2,134,067 HYGROMEI‘E R Original Filed Nov. 25, 19s 5 cgnzuaxm . INVENTOR ATTORNEYS 2,134,061 Patented Oct. 25, 1938 UNITED STATES , ‘PATENT OFFICE " 2,134,067 HYGROMETER . Don P. Wickersham and Karl Otto Waldvogel, Urbana, Ohio, assignors to The. Johnson Man ufacturing Company, Urbana, Ohio, a corpo ration of Ohio Application November_25, 1935, Serial‘ No. 51,404" Renewed March 21, 1938 _ ' 8 Claims. (or when)" . This invention relates to improvements in hy 8 constitutes a part of the invention as will be grometers of the type in which the moisture explained. responsive element is formed of wood or similar ?brous material. . An object of the invention is to provide means for compensating for varying degrees of expan sion of the"moisture-responsive element, par ticularly when such element is formed of wood. In the accompanying drawing: 10 Fig. 1 is a front elevation. ' . , ' Fig. 6 is a viewlsimilar to Fig. 5 with the 20 parts in a different working position. _ Fig. 7 is also a view similar to, Fig. 5,_with the parts in a still ‘different working position. , Fig. 8 is a fragmentary enlarged horizontal section on the, line '878 of Fig. 3. _ . > 25 ' Fig. 9 is a diagram ‘illustrating the improved method of obtaining material for the hygro scopic element. ~ Fig. 10 is a perspective view showing a further step in the process of making the hygroscopic W element. , f Fig. 11 is a chart illustrating the e?ect of moisture vapor on the hygroscopic ‘element. Referring toithe drawing, l represents a back plate on which the mechanism is mounted, the mechanism being enclosed by a front cover or casing 2. In‘ the front casing 2 is an opening or window 3, and at 4‘ is shown a small section of glass supported in the casing 2. To the rear‘oi' the window 3 is the scale plate 5, also supported 40 in the casing 2.. The graduations 6 on the scale plate will be explained more fully- at a later point in the description. 7 ' There is provided a needle, 1 which sweeps over the graduations 6 on thescale plate 5. The 45 needle ‘I is ?xed on the outer end of a sleeve'8 which is'revolubly supported on a stud 9 secured to the back plate I, the relation of the circularly disposed graduations 6, and stud _9 being con centric. 50 ~ , element is‘a member formed, in the present in stance, of ‘?ve sections of a wood such as bass- ' wood, it being understood that this number of sections is not essential, since for other linkages or “scale, an element having a ‘larger or smaller The‘ element is built up of small sections in the 10 Fig. 3 is a front elevation of the device with the front casing removed. 15 Fig. 4 is a fragmentary enlarged horizontal section on the line 4-—4 of Fig. 3. Fig. 5 is a fragmentary enlarged section on the line 5—5 of Fig. 2. ‘ . number of sections might be found more suitable. Fig. 2 is a vertical section on the line 2--2 of Fig. 1. ~ Referring to the hygroscopic element I0, this ' The sleeve 8 is given a partial rotation in a clock-wise direction by the actuation of the hy groscopic element l0 through linkages including a double armed lever II, a light chain [2 and a peculiarly formed lever l3 which by its forma tion in conjunction with a portion 0; the Sleeve manner to be described for the two-fold purpose of obtaining an ample movement ‘of the needle over the scale by the absorption of the moisture of the air by the element and of causing the ele ment to expand in as nearly a straight line as possible. _ , ‘ v p This is explained. as follows: 'Woo'd reacts‘to absorbed moisture by expanding in all directions; that is,,a stick ‘of wood will increase in length, breadth and thickness. ‘Its greatest degree of Z O increase, however, is in a direction along, the lines of the originaltree annulations 'or tree growth'rings, and advantage is taken "of‘this property in making the improved element by so selecting ‘the lumber of which the element is formed that the annulationsor: growth-rings are substantially in alignment from end to end of the'element. , _ _ ‘ . This selection of material is made by taking from the lumber sawed from a logonly a few 30 of the boards removed from the outer periphery of the log. Referring to Fig. _9, the‘ log is rep resented at M and the annulations thereof at, [5. As can be seen, the saw-cuts l6 by'which the ?rst boards are taken from the log as shown on the three sides illustrated are tangential to the an nulations l4, and‘ in distinguishing the broader surfaces of a board as the top‘ and bottom sur faces, it will be'seen that. somefew annulations extend from edge to edge andj‘are substantially’ 40 parallel to the top and bottom‘ surfaces, and if the log is comparatively large in diameter there is little noticeablellack of parallelism in these ?rstboards.‘ v} f _' , .7 As was stated, the greatest degree of expan sion or_increase in‘the dimensions of the board is in the direction of the annulations," therefore, in such boards as are mentioned it is the width that shows the greatest increase. Accordingly, these are the preferred boards, ‘those which would 50 be out later toward the center having annula tions of .too shortgradius. I In expanding,v the preferred boards, even of comparatively large radius, tend tolbo'w to an arcuate form‘due to the‘annulations, and to cause 55 2,134,067 2'. tioned double armed lever H, chain I2 and lever the element to expand in a straighter line, these preferred boards are ripped into strips of sub stantially square cross-section, the small squares I‘! in Fig. 9 representing the ends of strips as produced by the ripping saw cuts I8. To gain a still further average, strips from several trees l3. In the double armed lever H there is a shorter arm II’ and alonger arm I I". This lever H is pivotally mounted on the stud 28 in such position that the shorter arm ll’ of the lever ll rests on the upper end of the element, there being interposed between the element and the end of are preferred’ from which to assemble, a. plank from which. elements are cut,- as ioruexampl‘ie, in the laminated plank P, Fig. 10, the several strips 10 A, B, C, D and E are ‘taken from lumber prove; cured by the selective process just described _f_1;0_ five different trees of the same species. the; short lever- l k’ a small wear plate. 29 slidably mounted on the guide rods. r. The other longer arm H" of this lever ll con 10 sists of a sheet metal member Ila having a sheave-like groove formed in its outer edge which also be explained that in assemblingtthis It shoul ; is concentrie; to the stud 28 on which the lever nated plank P that it is essential; thatthe apnua , i Male pivoted, At the lower end of the groove 30 15 lations of alternate strips curve inithe direction, as strips A, C and E show annulations axerwlight-chain I2, here shown considerably 15 exaggerated as tosize, is connected, a chain being bowing generally and slightly upward,_,whi_le.' ...».preferred_ because, being of a material not sus ' ceptible to. humidity changes, only the changing ward, and that all the annulations are in a gen- g‘ 'of the element itself is communicated to the ‘ needl'e-.= #The upper end of the chain I2 is con 20 eral alignment from edge to edge of the plank 1A. strips B and D, the curves are generally These. strips. are. cemented to, each. other by a water-proof cement in forming this laminated nested to, the lever l3 secured to, the. previously mentioned sleeve. it to. which the needle 1 is plank. attached, \ ~ . ."F. ' ' The hygroscopic elements. l?garel cutifrom?the 30 endof the laminated plank, thesaw‘cutsby' which they are. removed being indicated atf'la,‘ Flg.,"1_0., and the dimension, that was, the “width’f‘ ofT the plank is. now the “length.” of ‘the; detachedfeleé ment.v Also, the‘ annulationsiare inrslibstaritisily straight aligmnexitfrom end'to end. oi theelenieiit as can be. seen; in the elementiilll, l'g‘igi’z; although it should. be understood‘thot in each instance allv annulations are shown curved to anr‘eiiageer‘ated degree for the. purposes oiexiila'nin hem thod. 35 of manuiacturinej'. theelemehtéé i ' ‘ 'f It is preferable tha't‘th' elements"'s comparatively thin, referring tqthelenglt, . f f ' ' ' As before stated, the lever 13 is peculiarly tonnedin Order to, compensate. for. 2» peculiarity in, the manner in which they wooden element 25 eypandsfon, absorption of moisture, the peculi arity being,‘ that an, increase is: slight up, to. a con-. dition represented. by a ?gure such 65% relative humidity, but thereafter tothehighest ?gure the increase is much. greater-1' peculiarity, is illustrated by the graph shown in Fig. 11. Refer? ring, to. this figure, expansion is plotted against percentages of relative humidity, whereby the rate of. expansion is. shown. Asto- the curve indicated at 3|, this curve has aninde?nite origin near the nointrepresented by 1.0%. relative miinidity v end grain; in absorbing moisturegmuchrof it is 7 taken up. in the end. ‘grain, and nine end‘? 40 is. short, as is. shown'fin the present. case in‘Filgs, since little ‘is known of. conditions below- this percentage and has an iadeiiniteending near the 100% relative humidity portion, as this con-. 40 and a for theelement in; theimnereqeireem dition seldomoccurs, but it will be noticed that shortened, stateoi: viceeither versa.vfrompadryer ' '1to a'rnore ' rise.‘ 'Fr0m"‘65'%f to, approximately 95%. relative humidity, the. riseiis much more.v abrupt, and the lies'ponding ma change" in, thefatinospheref'is' from the ‘.origin‘to. approximately 65% relative f. In manufacturing a. wooden element‘ afterfthe manner described, warping or buckling i‘sh'elimie peculiarity hated tioned.and andaofthe at a. later timelag; wooden portion element is provided of th. ' ' _ ’_. 50 55 60 a. description is given- oi'the means .or- com? pensating for thispeculiarity. f f1 f If: f The. mounting of the. element It on .theffback plate rivets 22|consists to the 'backplatefle of a metallic-strip?“ _ At the upper?and riveted Pro... .vtioool' rise duo to-ehaneesin humidity cam diti'ons is'shown by the dimensions E and E.’ on the expansion. side of the chart, thereby showing thatfthejris'e E’ for. a change oi from 65% to 95% relative‘ humidity (30% only)‘ is nearly twice the rise .E__,fro!_n, 10%, to 65%, which represents an increase? 0i; 55%, nearly twice theincreeso 0!. 39%. just. mentioned. ' - fflfl‘his. means'that if. compensating devices were lower ends. of the strip. 20 the .end'port'ions are outwardly turned (Figs. 2, and'3lto5'for'm parallel notv employed the. eraduotions, 6 on. the scale. plate 5 ‘could not be equally spaced as is, preferred for arms 22 and 23].‘ Through aligned openings in. the arms 22 and 23 two parallel Yrods 24ers tions '5 of. ‘the present. invention extend over- a easy reading. it being noticed that the gradual and are divided into. ten equal. spaces, passed... 'I'hese rods are.‘ guides’ for‘ the element hali'circlje' 10., as in the edge‘s'of; the'elem‘entjil?fare lengthi the indicia 0, to, ‘100. being read in percentages ' wise. grooves 25 slightly- larger-thanjthe'rods 24. of relative. humidity- These grooves are.’ clearlyindicatedihthe sn 65 hiunidityi thetur've 3.! is‘ fairly unitorm in its ' ‘ The‘lever I3 is secured to the rear end of the sleeveand. the chain. 12 is hooked to its outer or larged sectional view Fig; hand-are also'shown free end, thechain’trossihg' over to the right in the end element in Fig; 10 ‘in broken: ines. Incidentally, thegrooves 2.5 serve toprovide very (Fig. 3,7)v irom'its connection on the left to the 05 short end grain. atthese. portions of theelemeht The. wooden element rests on, arr-adjustably ?xed plate 26 (Figs. 2 andh) .lsIidahlywiisposQ inv relation to the-guide. rods-and supported on 70 a small set screw. *1 threaded. hi- their-‘£11113. The purpose of this,adjustmentqwilllalso appear lat-en . . _,_ H I, .2 v -. Any expansion or» contraction. of. the element duets-atmospheric humidity changes is com municotedto the 1 by the Previously men: lever H and passing to the right of the pivotal center ‘of, the» .neeclle '1 as represented by the it. Therefore, byes expansion of the elee ment ID the increase in length results in an up: Ward movement of the. shorter‘arm' I l‘’, a down wardmovement oi the longenarm II" and a. downward pull on the chain I2 which causes a. partial rotation; of‘ the, needle to the right transmittihsan expansion in‘ length of the 2,134,067 element from a low ?gure to approximately 60% on the scale, which represents, as stated. before, a small'increase- in the length of the element for a considerable change in atmospheric-conditions it is necessary to provide, in effect, that the radius that the elements are of the same approximate length at the'same'épproximatepercentage of _ relative humidity. Accordingly, the plank P (Fig. 10) is slightly wider, and thereby provides» slightly longer elements than are needed for any 5 at which the upper end of the chain is 'con condition of humidity.v The elements are then nected to the sleeve 8 should be proportionately small as compared to the longer lever arm I l’g'. This is accomplished in the'present invention by subjected to acontrolled humidity condition for‘ causing the run of the chain to bear against a portion of the sleeve 8 which is machined at this point to provide the suitable radius. This portion of the sleeve 8 is the groove 32 (Figs. 2 and 4) and the depth of the groove is such that, 15 the chain makes contact with sides of the groove at the proper radius. This feature is partially shown in Fig. 5, where in it can be seen that if the lever l3 were to be moved from-the left to its present vertical posi 20 tion that, regardless of the point or radius at which the chain i2 is actually connected to the lever 13, the effect is similar to a chain and sprocket system, the movement of the needle be ing uniformly proportional to the ‘increase in‘ 25 length of the element l0 so long as the run of the chain bears against the bottom of the groove 32. A further increase in atmospheric humidity causes the element to increase in length at a more rapid rate and to slow down the needle 30 movement it is necessary to provide an effect similar to placing the chain on a sprocket of larger diameter. This is provided for by so placing a ?nger 33 extending outwardly from the right edge of the lever l3 that the run of the 35 chain in bearing against the ?nger is the same as described in connection with the groove 32; that is, when the chain leaves the groove 32 or the radius represented thereby, and so long as the chain bears against the ?nger, up to the point 40 where it leaves the ?nger (Fig. 6), the needle movement is over a shorter range. This range on the scale extends from approximately 60% to ‘75% relative humidity. For percentages above the latter ?gure, the 45 needle must be still further slowed down which a suitable time to insure that they are station ary at that condition, and are then trimmed to a de?nite length. This means that each time that 1O length isreached, the conditions are the same as the controlled condition. To compensate for any small error ‘in controlling the humidity con dition or in trimming the element to length, the small set screw 2? previously mentioned is ru up or down, as the case may be. ' ~ Having thus described our invention, we claim: 1. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsiveiele- . ment, a lever operated thereby, ‘an oscillatory sleeve, a pointer carried by said sleeve, a second 20 lever connected with said sleeve, a chain con necting said levers, said chain bearing on said sleeve during a predetermined movement of said pointer from zero to impart a uniform movement‘ to said pointer, said chain thereafter being free from said sleeve, and means on said second lever to cause a slower movement to be imparted to said pointer. ‘ 2. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele ment, a lever operated thereby, an oscillatory member, a pointer carried by saidmember, a second lever connected with said member, a chainv connecting said levers, said chain during a given initial movement of said moisture responsive ele ment passing over a surface on said oscillatory member of given radius with relation to the axis of oscillation of said oscillatory member and dur ing subsequent movement of said moisture-re sponsive element passing over surfaces on said second lever of increasing effective radii with 40 respect to the axis of oscillation of said member. 3. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele ment, a lever operatedthereby, and an oscilla tory member, a second lever connected to said member, a chain connecting said levers, said 45 chain during a given initial movement of said is done by passing the chain over the bent over extreme outer free end I 3' of the lever 13. moisture-responsive element passing over a sur It should also be explained that no error is in face on said oscillatory member of given effective troduced by- an unsuitable method of connect radius with relation to the axis of oscillation of ing the lower end of the chain to the lever I I. 50 As before stated, there is provided a plate Ila said oscillatory member, and a projection on attached to the lever II, forming the longer said second lever of greater radius with relation lever arm H”. The partial periphery of the ' to the axis of oscillation of said oscillatory mem ber over which said chain passes after leaving plate Ila is grooved, the groove being concen trically disposed with reference to the stud 28. said surface during the subsequent movement of 55 In this groove the run of the chain lies, the said moisture-responsive element to decrease the 55' chain being connected to the plate at the lower speed of movement of said pointer. 4. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele end of the groove. Thus, the chain is tangent to the axis of rotation of the lever H and the ment, a lever operated thereby, and an oscilla tory member, a second lever connected to said effective radius does not change, and the propor tions of this radius with the effective radii as member, a chain connecting said levers, said represented by the contact of the chain with the chain during a given initial movement of said groove 32, the ?nger 33 or the free end iii’ of the moisture-responsive element passing over a sur face on said oscillatory member of given radius lever l3 do not change. When the degree of humidity decreases, the with relation to the axis of oscillation of said 65 element If! gives up its moisture and contracts oscillatory member, and a projection on said sec ond lever of greater effective radius with rela— and becomes shorter. The lever H follows this tion to the axis of oscillation of said oscillatory decrease in length due to the effect of the return member over which said chain passes after leav spring 34 which is hooked at one end to any suit ing said surface during the subsequent move 70 able point on the back plate 2 and also by chain ment of said moisture-responsive element to de 70 35 to any suitable point on the lever l3, the crease the speed of movement of said pointer, chain passing to the left of the center of the said second lever having a surface of greater needle. Consequently, as the element shrinks, eifective radius with respect to the axis of oscil the needle moves to the left. lation of said oscillatory member than that of 75 In assembling the hygrometers, it is preferable said projection over which said chain passes after 4 2) ' leaving said projection to further decrease the speed of movementof said pointer. . member, a pointer carried by said member, a. second lever connected to said member, a chain - 5. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele connecting said levers, means on said oscilla ment, a lever operated thereby, an oscillatory member, a pointer carried by said member, a second lever connected to, said member, a chain connecting said levers, means on said oscilla tory member and cooperating with said chain for causing said pointer to move at a substan tially constant speed during a predetermined ini tial expansion of said moisture-responsive ele tory member and cooperating with said chain ment, means on said second lever and cooper for causing said pointer to move at a‘ substan tially constant speed during» a predetermined ini tial expansion of said moisture-responsive ele ment, and means on said second lever and coop erating with said chain and acting during the subsequent expansion of said moisture-respon sive element to decrease the rate of movement of said pointer. I - 6. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele ment, a lever having a short arm operatively as sociated with said element and a long arm hav ing a sheave-like groove concentric with the axis of rotation of said lever, an oscillatory member, a second lever connected with said member, a chain connecting said levers and located in said concentric groove, a pointer carried by said os \, cillatory member and .means on said oscillatory member acting upon said chain to cause said pointer to move at a substantially constant speed during a predetermined initial expansion of said moisture-responsive element, and means on said second lever during a subsequent expansion of said moisture-responsive element to decrease the rate of movement of said pointer. '7. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele ment, a lever operated thereby, an oscillatory ating with said chain and acting during the ‘subsequent expansion of said moisture-respon sive element to decrease the rate of movement of said pointer, and a spring to return the parts when the moisture-responsive element contracts. 8. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele ment, a lever having a short arm operatively 16 associated with said element and a long arm having a sheave-like groove concentric with the axis of rotation of said lever, an oscillatory mem ber, a second lever connected with said member, a chain connecting said levers and located in said 20 concentric groove, a pointer carried by said oscil latory member, means on said oscillatory mem ber acting upon said chain to cause said pointer to move at a substantially constant speed during a predetermined initial expansion of said mois 25 ture-responsive element, means on said lever acting during a subsequent expansion or said moisture-responsive element to decrease the rate of movement of said pointer, and a spring to return the parts when the moisture-responsive 30 element contracts. DON P. WICKERSHAM. KARL OTTO WALDVOGEL.