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Патент USA US2134067

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Oct. 25, 1938.
D. P. WICKERSHAM ET AL
2,134,067
HYGROMEI‘E R
Original Filed Nov. 25, 19s 5
cgnzuaxm
.
INVENTOR
ATTORNEYS
2,134,061
Patented Oct. 25, 1938
UNITED STATES ,
‘PATENT OFFICE "
2,134,067
HYGROMETER
.
Don P. Wickersham and Karl Otto Waldvogel,
Urbana, Ohio, assignors to The. Johnson Man
ufacturing Company, Urbana, Ohio, a corpo
ration of Ohio
Application November_25, 1935, Serial‘ No. 51,404" Renewed March 21, 1938
_
'
8 Claims. (or when)" .
This invention relates to improvements in hy
8 constitutes a part of the invention as will be
grometers of the type in which the moisture
explained.
responsive element is formed of wood or similar
?brous material.
.
An object of the invention is to provide means
for compensating for varying degrees of expan
sion of the"moisture-responsive element, par
ticularly when such element is formed of wood.
In the accompanying drawing:
10
Fig. 1 is a front elevation. '
.
,
'
Fig. 6 is a viewlsimilar to Fig. 5 with the
20 parts in a different working position.
_
Fig. 7 is also a view similar to, Fig. 5,_with the
parts in a still ‘different working position. ,
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary enlarged horizontal
section on the, line '878 of Fig. 3.
_
.
>
25 ' Fig. 9 is a diagram ‘illustrating the improved
method of obtaining material for the hygro
scopic element.
~
Fig. 10 is a perspective view showing a further
step in the process of making the hygroscopic
W element.
,
f
Fig. 11 is a chart illustrating the e?ect of
moisture vapor on the hygroscopic ‘element.
Referring toithe drawing, l represents a back
plate on which the mechanism is mounted, the
mechanism being enclosed by a front cover or
casing 2. In‘ the front casing 2 is an opening or
window 3, and at 4‘ is shown a small section of
glass supported in the casing 2. To the rear‘oi'
the window 3 is the scale plate 5, also supported
40 in the casing 2.. The graduations 6 on the scale
plate will be explained more fully- at a later point
in the description.
7
'
There is provided a needle, 1 which sweeps
over the graduations 6 on thescale plate 5. The
45 needle ‘I is ?xed on the outer end of a sleeve'8
which is'revolubly supported on a stud 9 secured
to the back plate I, the relation of the circularly
disposed graduations 6, and stud _9 being con
centric.
50
~
,
element is‘a member formed, in the present in
stance, of ‘?ve sections of a wood such as bass- '
wood, it being understood that this number of
sections is not essential, since for other linkages
or “scale, an element having a ‘larger or smaller
The‘ element is built up of small sections in the 10
Fig. 3 is a front elevation of the device with
the front casing removed.
15
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary enlarged horizontal
section on the line 4-—4 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary enlarged section on
the line 5—5 of Fig. 2. ‘
.
number of sections might be found more suitable.
Fig. 2 is a vertical section on the line 2--2 of
Fig. 1.
~
Referring to the hygroscopic element I0, this
'
The sleeve 8 is given a partial rotation in a
clock-wise direction by the actuation of the hy
groscopic element l0 through linkages including
a double armed lever II, a light chain [2 and a
peculiarly formed lever l3 which by its forma
tion in conjunction with a portion 0; the Sleeve
manner to be described for the two-fold purpose
of obtaining an ample movement ‘of the needle
over the scale by the absorption of the moisture
of the air by the element and of causing the ele
ment to expand in as nearly a straight line as
possible.
_
,
‘
v
p
This is explained. as follows: 'Woo'd reacts‘to
absorbed moisture by expanding in all directions;
that is,,a stick ‘of wood will increase in length,
breadth and thickness. ‘Its greatest degree of Z O
increase, however, is in a direction along, the
lines of the originaltree annulations 'or tree
growth'rings, and advantage is taken "of‘this
property in making the improved element by so
selecting ‘the lumber of which the element is
formed that the annulationsor: growth-rings
are substantially in alignment from end to end
of
the'element.
,
_
_
‘
.
This selection of material is made by taking
from the lumber sawed from a logonly a few 30
of the boards removed from the outer periphery
of the log. Referring to Fig. _9, the‘ log is rep
resented at M and the annulations thereof at, [5.
As can be seen, the saw-cuts l6 by'which the ?rst
boards are taken from the log as shown on the
three sides illustrated are tangential to the an
nulations l4, and‘ in distinguishing the broader
surfaces of a board as the top‘ and bottom sur
faces, it will be'seen that. somefew annulations
extend from edge to edge andj‘are substantially’
40
parallel to the top and bottom‘ surfaces, and if
the log is comparatively large in diameter there
is little noticeablellack of parallelism in these
?rstboards.‘
v}
f
_'
,
.7
As was stated, the greatest degree of expan
sion or_increase in‘the dimensions of the board
is in the direction of the annulations," therefore,
in such boards as are mentioned it is the width
that shows the greatest increase. Accordingly,
these are the preferred boards, ‘those which would 50
be out later toward the center having annula
tions of .too shortgradius.
I
In expanding,v the preferred boards, even of
comparatively large radius, tend tolbo'w to an
arcuate form‘due to the‘annulations, and to cause 55
2,134,067
2'.
tioned double armed lever H, chain I2 and lever
the element to expand in a straighter line, these
preferred boards are ripped into strips of sub
stantially square cross-section, the small squares
I‘! in Fig. 9 representing the ends of strips as
produced by the ripping saw cuts I8. To gain
a still further average, strips from several trees
l3. In the double armed lever H there is a
shorter arm II’ and alonger arm I I". This lever
H is pivotally mounted on the stud 28 in such
position that the shorter arm ll’ of the lever ll
rests on the upper end of the element, there being
interposed between the element and the end of
are preferred’ from which to assemble, a. plank
from which. elements are cut,- as ioruexampl‘ie, in
the laminated plank P, Fig. 10, the several strips
10 A, B, C, D and E are ‘taken from lumber prove;
cured by the selective process just described _f_1;0_
five different trees of the same species.
the; short lever- l k’ a small wear plate. 29 slidably
mounted on the guide rods.
r. The other longer arm H" of this lever ll con
10
sists of a sheet metal member Ila having a
sheave-like groove formed in its outer edge which
also be explained that in assemblingtthis
It shoul ; is concentrie; to the stud 28 on which the lever
nated plank P that it is essential; thatthe apnua , i Male pivoted, At the lower end of the groove 30
15 lations of alternate strips curve inithe
direction, as strips A, C and E show annulations
axerwlight-chain I2, here shown considerably 15
exaggerated as tosize, is connected, a chain being
bowing generally and slightly upward,_,whi_le.' ...».preferred_ because, being of a material not sus
' ceptible to. humidity changes, only the changing
ward, and that all the annulations are in a gen- g‘ 'of the element itself is communicated to the
‘ needl'e-.= #The upper end of the chain I2 is con
20 eral alignment from edge to edge of the plank 1A. strips B and D, the curves are generally
These. strips. are. cemented to, each. other by a
water-proof cement in forming this laminated
nested to, the lever l3 secured to, the. previously
mentioned sleeve. it to. which the needle 1 is
plank.
attached,
\
~
.
."F.
'
'
The hygroscopic elements. l?garel cutifrom?the
30
endof the laminated plank, thesaw‘cutsby' which
they are. removed being indicated atf'la,‘ Flg.,"1_0.,
and the dimension, that was, the “width’f‘ ofT the
plank is. now the “length.” of ‘the; detachedfeleé
ment.v Also, the‘ annulationsiare inrslibstaritisily
straight aligmnexitfrom end'to end. oi theelenieiit
as can be. seen; in the elementiilll, l'g‘igi’z; although
it should. be understood‘thot in each instance allv
annulations are shown curved to anr‘eiiageer‘ated
degree for the. purposes oiexiila'nin hem thod.
35
of manuiacturinej'. theelemehtéé
i
' ‘
'f
It is preferable tha't‘th' elements"'s
comparatively thin, referring tqthelenglt,
.
f
f
'
'
' As before stated, the lever 13 is peculiarly
tonnedin Order to, compensate. for. 2» peculiarity
in, the manner in which they wooden element
25
eypandsfon, absorption of moisture, the peculi
arity being,‘ that an, increase is: slight up, to. a con-.
dition represented. by a ?gure such 65% relative
humidity, but thereafter tothehighest ?gure the
increase is much. greater-1'
peculiarity, is
illustrated by the graph shown in Fig. 11. Refer?
ring, to. this figure, expansion is plotted against
percentages of relative humidity, whereby the rate
of. expansion is. shown. Asto- the curve indicated
at 3|, this curve has aninde?nite origin near
the nointrepresented by 1.0%. relative miinidity
v
end grain; in absorbing moisturegmuchrof it is
7 taken up. in the end. ‘grain, and nine end‘?
40 is. short, as is. shown'fin the present. case in‘Filgs,
since little ‘is known of. conditions below- this
percentage and has an iadeiiniteending near
the 100% relative humidity portion, as this con-. 40
and a for theelement in; theimnereqeireem
dition seldomoccurs, but it will be noticed that
shortened,
stateoi: viceeither
versa.vfrompadryer
'
'1to a'rnore '
rise.‘ 'Fr0m"‘65'%f to, approximately 95%. relative
humidity, the. riseiis much more.v abrupt, and the
lies'ponding ma change" in, thefatinospheref'is' from the ‘.origin‘to. approximately 65% relative
f.
In manufacturing a. wooden element‘ afterfthe
manner described, warping or buckling i‘sh'elimie
peculiarity
hated
tioned.and
andaofthe
at a. later
timelag;
wooden
portion
element
is provided
of th. '
' _ ’_.
50
55
60
a. description is given- oi'the means .or- com?
pensating for thispeculiarity. f f1 f If: f
The. mounting of the. element It on .theffback
plate
rivets 22|consists
to the 'backplatefle
of a metallic-strip?“
_ At the upper?and
riveted
Pro... .vtioool' rise duo to-ehaneesin humidity cam
diti'ons is'shown by the dimensions E and E.’ on
the expansion. side of the chart, thereby showing
thatfthejris'e E’ for. a change oi from 65% to 95%
relative‘ humidity (30% only)‘ is nearly twice the
rise .E__,fro!_n, 10%, to 65%, which represents an
increase? 0i; 55%, nearly twice theincreeso 0!.
39%. just. mentioned.
'
-
fflfl‘his. means'that if. compensating devices were
lower ends. of the strip. 20 the .end'port'ions are
outwardly turned (Figs. 2, and'3lto5'for'm parallel
notv employed the. eraduotions, 6 on. the scale. plate
5 ‘could not be equally spaced as is, preferred for
arms 22 and 23].‘ Through aligned openings in.
the arms 22 and 23 two parallel Yrods 24ers
tions '5 of. ‘the present. invention extend over- a
easy reading. it being noticed that the gradual
and are divided into. ten equal. spaces,
passed... 'I'hese rods are.‘ guides’ for‘ the element hali'circlje'
10., as in the edge‘s'of; the'elem‘entjil?fare lengthi the indicia 0, to, ‘100. being read in percentages
'
wise. grooves 25 slightly- larger-thanjthe'rods 24. of relative. humidity-
These grooves are.’ clearlyindicatedihthe sn
65
hiunidityi thetur've 3.! is‘ fairly unitorm in its
' ‘ The‘lever I3 is secured to the rear end of the
sleeveand. the chain. 12 is hooked to its outer or
larged sectional view Fig; hand-are also'shown free end, thechain’trossihg' over to the right
in the end element in Fig; 10 ‘in broken: ines.
Incidentally, thegrooves 2.5 serve toprovide very (Fig. 3,7)v irom'its connection on the left to the 05
short end grain. atthese. portions of theelemeht
The. wooden element rests on, arr-adjustably
?xed plate 26 (Figs. 2 andh) .lsIidahlywiisposQ
inv relation to the-guide. rods-and supported on
70 a small set screw. *1 threaded. hi- their-‘£11113.
The purpose of this,adjustmentqwilllalso appear
lat-en
.
.
_,_
H
I,
.2
v
-.
Any expansion or» contraction. of. the element
duets-atmospheric humidity changes is com
municotedto the
1 by the Previously men:
lever H and passing to the right of the pivotal
center ‘of, the» .neeclle '1 as represented by the
it. Therefore, byes expansion of the elee
ment ID the increase in length results in an up:
Ward movement of the. shorter‘arm' I l‘’, a down
wardmovement oi the longenarm II" and a.
downward pull on the chain I2 which causes a.
partial rotation; of‘ the, needle to the right
transmittihsan expansion in‘ length of the
2,134,067
element from a low ?gure to approximately 60%
on the scale, which represents, as stated. before, a
small'increase- in the length of the element for a
considerable change in atmospheric-conditions it
is necessary to provide, in effect, that the radius
that the elements are of the same approximate
length at the'same'épproximatepercentage of _
relative humidity. Accordingly, the plank P
(Fig. 10) is slightly wider, and thereby provides»
slightly longer elements than are needed for any 5
at which the upper end of the chain is 'con
condition of humidity.v The elements are then
nected to the sleeve 8 should be proportionately
small as compared to the longer lever arm I l’g'.
This is accomplished in the'present invention by
subjected to acontrolled humidity condition for‘
causing the run of the chain to bear against a
portion of the sleeve 8 which is machined at
this point to provide the suitable radius. This
portion of the sleeve 8 is the groove 32 (Figs. 2
and 4) and the depth of the groove is such that,
15 the chain makes contact with sides of the groove
at the proper radius.
This feature is partially shown in Fig. 5, where
in it can be seen that if the lever l3 were to be
moved from-the left to its present vertical posi
20 tion that, regardless of the point or radius at
which the chain i2 is actually connected to the
lever 13, the effect is similar to a chain and
sprocket system, the movement of the needle be
ing uniformly proportional to the ‘increase in‘
25 length of the element l0 so long as the run of the
chain bears against the bottom of the groove 32.
A further increase in atmospheric humidity
causes the element to increase in length at a
more rapid rate and to slow down the needle
30 movement it is necessary to provide an effect
similar to placing the chain on a sprocket of
larger diameter. This is provided for by so
placing a ?nger 33 extending outwardly from
the right edge of the lever l3 that the run of the
35 chain in bearing against the ?nger is the same
as described in connection with the groove 32;
that is, when the chain leaves the groove 32 or
the radius represented thereby, and so long as
the chain bears against the ?nger, up to the point
40 where it leaves the ?nger (Fig. 6), the needle
movement is over a shorter range.
This range
on the scale extends from approximately 60% to
‘75% relative humidity.
For percentages above the latter ?gure, the
45 needle must be still further slowed down which
a suitable time to insure that they are station
ary at that condition, and are then trimmed to a
de?nite length. This means that each time that 1O
length isreached, the conditions are the same
as the controlled condition. To compensate for
any small error ‘in controlling the humidity con
dition or in trimming the element to length, the
small set screw 2? previously mentioned is ru
up or down, as the case may be.
' ~
Having thus described our invention, we claim:
1. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsiveiele- .
ment, a lever operated thereby, ‘an oscillatory
sleeve, a pointer carried by said sleeve, a second 20
lever connected with said sleeve, a chain con
necting said levers, said chain bearing on said
sleeve during a predetermined movement of said
pointer from zero to impart a uniform movement‘
to said pointer, said chain thereafter being free
from said sleeve, and means on said second lever
to cause a slower movement to be imparted to
said pointer.
‘
2. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele
ment, a lever operated thereby, an oscillatory
member, a pointer carried by saidmember, a
second lever connected with said member, a chainv
connecting said levers, said chain during a given
initial movement of said moisture responsive ele
ment passing over a surface on said oscillatory
member of given radius with relation to the axis
of oscillation of said oscillatory member and dur
ing subsequent movement of said moisture-re
sponsive element passing over surfaces on said
second lever of increasing effective radii with 40
respect to the axis of oscillation of said member.
3. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele
ment, a lever operatedthereby, and an oscilla
tory member, a second lever connected to said
member, a chain connecting said levers, said 45
chain during a given initial movement of said
is done by passing the chain over the bent
over extreme outer free end I 3' of the lever 13. moisture-responsive element passing over a sur
It should also be explained that no error is in
face on said oscillatory member of given effective
troduced by- an unsuitable method of connect
radius with relation to the axis of oscillation of
ing the lower end of the chain to the lever I I.
50 As before stated, there is provided a plate Ila said oscillatory member, and a projection on
attached to the lever II, forming the longer said second lever of greater radius with relation
lever arm H”. The partial periphery of the ' to the axis of oscillation of said oscillatory mem
ber over which said chain passes after leaving
plate Ila is grooved, the groove being concen
trically disposed with reference to the stud 28. said surface during the subsequent movement of
55
In this groove the run of the chain lies, the said moisture-responsive element to decrease the 55'
chain being connected to the plate at the lower speed of movement of said pointer.
4. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele
end of the groove. Thus, the chain is tangent
to the axis of rotation of the lever H and the ment, a lever operated thereby, and an oscilla
tory member, a second lever connected to said
effective radius does not change, and the propor
tions of this radius with the effective radii as member, a chain connecting said levers, said
represented by the contact of the chain with the chain during a given initial movement of said
groove 32, the ?nger 33 or the free end iii’ of the moisture-responsive element passing over a sur
face on said oscillatory member of given radius
lever l3 do not change.
When the degree of humidity decreases, the with relation to the axis of oscillation of said
65
element If! gives up its moisture and contracts oscillatory member, and a projection on said sec
ond lever of greater effective radius with rela—
and becomes shorter. The lever H follows this tion to the axis of oscillation of said oscillatory
decrease in length due to the effect of the return member over which said chain passes after leav
spring 34 which is hooked at one end to any suit
ing said surface during the subsequent move
70 able point on the back plate 2 and also by chain ment of said moisture-responsive element to de 70
35 to any suitable point on the lever l3, the crease the speed of movement of said pointer,
chain passing to the left of the center of the said second lever having a surface of greater
needle. Consequently, as the element shrinks, eifective radius with respect to the axis of oscil
the needle moves to the left.
lation of said oscillatory member than that of
75 In assembling the hygrometers, it is preferable said projection over which said chain passes after
4
2)
' leaving said projection to further decrease the
speed of movementof said pointer.
.
member, a pointer carried by said member, a.
second lever connected to said member, a chain
- 5. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele
connecting said levers, means on said oscilla
ment, a lever operated thereby, an oscillatory
member, a pointer carried by said member, a
second lever connected to, said member, a chain
connecting said levers, means on said oscilla
tory member and cooperating with said chain
for causing said pointer to move at a substan
tially constant speed during a predetermined ini
tial expansion of said moisture-responsive ele
tory member and cooperating with said chain
ment, means on said second lever and cooper
for causing said pointer to move at a‘ substan
tially constant speed during» a predetermined ini
tial expansion of said moisture-responsive ele
ment, and means on said second lever and coop
erating with said chain and acting during the
subsequent expansion of said moisture-respon
sive element to decrease the rate of movement of
said pointer.
I
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6. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele
ment, a lever having a short arm operatively as
sociated with said element and a long arm hav
ing a sheave-like groove concentric with the axis
of rotation of said lever, an oscillatory member,
a second lever connected with said member, a
chain connecting said levers and located in said
concentric groove, a pointer carried by said os
\, cillatory member and .means on said oscillatory
member acting upon said chain to cause said
pointer to move at a substantially constant speed
during a predetermined initial expansion of said
moisture-responsive element, and means on said
second lever during a subsequent expansion of
said moisture-responsive element to decrease the
rate of movement of said pointer.
'7. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele
ment, a lever operated thereby, an oscillatory
ating with said chain and acting during the
‘subsequent expansion of said moisture-respon
sive element to decrease the rate of movement
of said pointer, and a spring to return the parts
when the moisture-responsive element contracts.
8. In a hygrometer, a moisture-responsive ele
ment, a lever having a short arm operatively 16
associated with said element and a long arm
having a sheave-like groove concentric with the
axis of rotation of said lever, an oscillatory mem
ber, a second lever connected with said member,
a chain connecting said levers and located in said 20
concentric groove, a pointer carried by said oscil
latory member, means on said oscillatory mem
ber acting upon said chain to cause said pointer
to move at a substantially constant speed during
a predetermined initial expansion of said mois 25
ture-responsive element, means on said lever
acting during a subsequent expansion or said
moisture-responsive element to decrease the rate
of movement of said pointer, and a spring to
return the parts when the moisture-responsive 30
element contracts.
DON P. WICKERSHAM.
KARL OTTO WALDVOGEL.
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