Патент USA US2134117код для вставки
Oct. 25, 1938. H. GfFLoYD ET AL r2,134,l 17 PLANT FOR AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING METAL CASTINGS File dvDec. 2, 1956 2 ‘Sheets-Sheet l Oct. 25, 1938. H. G. lFLOYD ET Al.l PLANT FOR AND METHOD ` 2,134,117 MANUFACTURING METAL CASTINGS Filed Dec. 2, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet i?.` / A wx Patented Oct. 25, 1938 2,134,117 UNITED N orifun` -« V »_Henry .Pipc‘Co., mingham, l . Floyd G. ING Birmingham, Ala.,`:mafvvuuan'; METAL assignors Ala. GAs'rnvGstoMcWaneCast Lee mucche, ’ ._ _ Iron ma _ Y' _ _ _ f _4Y Application December amas', serial No. 113,911. »somma This invention relates to plants for and methods of manufacturing metal castings.. Although the invention relates vmore especiallyto plants for and methods of manufacturing ironpipes cast horizontally,: it _isnot necessarily limited in its application to the production ofsuch castings. _Many _varieties .of metal castings-for example, cast iron pipes-_are produced >in ¿large numbers of standard sizes. This requires the use of rather expensive sand-handling, mold-forming and -_handl_ing, and hot-metal-handiing equipment. 15 (cm2-¿zoi- _ « ’ _` , ,y _. ina straight lline and inlwhich empty `flasks travel in- a parallel opposite `directiorLv-the travel of _cope flasks ineach direction being less thanï the travel of the drag flasks. j ¿ , A further obje(_:_t_„i_s_,y to_„.«provide. a plant and method. o_f the general character referred to and in which sand. is conditioned `and handled or ’_ transported in a novel ,manner with,A respect to the molding, pouring, and shake-out equipment.` A still further objecty is to provide an improved 10 Because oi thehigh cost of such equipment it is arrangement of >equipment .« for and method of conditioning and l.handling _ or transporting mold necessary to arrange and operate it in such a way ingsand, asîto obtain by its use the, maximum production possible within limitstdetermined by> practical considerations. `Thus»the equipment should be arranged Withdue regard to the amount of floor space it occupies. Equipment'arranged for opti mum operating capacity. and efficiency, might necessitate an uneconomical use of floor space. 'I_‘hese two considerations, namely, arrangement ` of equipment for operating capacity and eiiìciency and economical utilization of door-space, there fore must be balanced with each other. There _also must be considered ythe flexibility of _the _system for operation under.l conditions which may be varied voluntarily or which may change because of an accidental temporary slow ing up or a shutting- down of one part of the -, _- . ~ - - _. _ y Other objects will _become apparent Afrom a reading of the following detaileddescription, the accompanying drawings, ,and the appended 15 claims,` the invention defined in each of whichy constitutes the attainment of at least one object of the invention. . . ~ In the drawings' ' _, » ' . Figure 1 is a diagrammatic plan view o_f a part of a plant embodying the invention; and _ 20 . Figure la is a view similar to Figure 1 but show ing` the part of the plant .not shown in Figure 1. v Figures 1 and 1a are intendedtor be read to gether as a single iigure joined-along vthe lines _i"-llI of eachof said Figures 1 and l?. - 25 ` Those skilled in the art of founding are familiar , Y with the essential basic operations performed in therefore should be such that the several opera the production of metal casting'spbut in order 30 that the basic operations may moreeasily bekept in mind during reading of the detailed description tions Will best be coordinated and synchronized and claims they are set» forth briefly below; . equipment. yThe plant lay-out--i. e., the relative arrangementof the various equipment units so as to provide for efilciency andlarge produc tion, but at/the same time the equipment units ' »1. Fill drag flask with sand and ram; . Make core and place in drag; Y ' for performing successive operations should not . Fill cope .flask with sand and ram; be coupled so closely that a slight temporary de-` lay in the operation of one unit Will'retard opera . Complete mold by placing _cope on drag; »5 « tion of the entire system. _A further _ and quite general consideration is ' that there must be a proper balance between the cost of equipment units and the cost of operation thereof, including power cost and maintenance cost. 'Arry object of the present invention is to provide .. c_o«nazomoonja; Remove cope and shake out sand; y Pour molten metal ,in mold; , « - . ~ . Remove castings and core bars from drag; Shake out sand from‘drag; . ’_ _, . Break gates from pipe and remove core bars; 10. Return flasks and core bars to respective make-up stations; . _ n ' 11. Remove gates and scrap from sand, recon castings in which the several factors referred to dition, and return to sand storage bins. A plant fcr performing these basic operations above aresobalanced that', giving due considera is shown in Figures 1 and la considered together, a _plant for and- methodof manufacturing metal " tion to the proper weight of each, castings may be 50 produced at a minimum final cost and in large numbers. ` ' " _ the various parts being designated by legends ap plied directly to the drawings. Reading from the 50 right-hand end of Figure 1a to the left, the mold A further'object is -to provide a plant for the continuous production of metal castings in which means are positioned in a substantially or gen the flow, of molds, iiasks, sand, and other material erally straight line. 55 is mainly in two parallel directions whereby the plant will occupy an area relatively narrow as compared to its length. . , .f A further object is to provide a plant and a forming', core-supplying, pouringj and shake-out ^ Ac’ the right-hand end ofy Figure i2', there is shown a pair of drag-forming machines which are positioned under overhead drag service bins. The drag-forming machines may be of _any de method of _the general character _referredto inr sired type, are adapted to receive empty flasks 00 which molds travel in one direction substantially from flask-transporting means to be described 60 9,184,117 later, and are adapted to receive sand~ directly from the overheadservice bins, the service bins being kept full of sand in a manner also to be sct forth later. To the left of the drag-forming ma order to facilitate manual movement of the carl, this track is arranged to slope down gradually cores to be set in the drags after the- drags havebeen completed and moved to the left tothey vicinity of the feeding rack. Furtheron `to the 10 left of the core-feeding rack' is- a pair of` .cope forming machines which are positioned respec-` tively under cope service bins. Empty cope ñasks are supplied to the cope-forming machines, and from left tov right; In order to save space, the advance track and the return track are positioned closely together, so closely together, in fact, as to ' prohibit their being connected by means of car ynegotiable curved portions. In order that there may be maintained a continuous flow of cars and «mold andy ñask partsÄfrom right to left on the advance track and from left to right on the re turn track, a car-transfer device is located at the right-hand end of the two tracks. This car ~transfer may bey of any desired construction sand is supplied to the cope service bins as will be ~ such as a transfer rack working on rollers set on chines and substantially in line therewith is a core-feeding rack on which- is kept a supply of ` described later.` The copes are formed or ~ the floor operated by means of a hydraulic cyl inder. Since the transfer device does not per se placed on-the cored drags after the latter have - constitute the present invention, it is illustrated been movedto the left from'4 the drag> machines . only diagrammatically. If desired, the transfer and the core-feeding rack. The mold thus closed device may be- dispensed with‘and the cars may 20 or completed by‘the `positioning of the cope on be transferred from the return track to the ad vance track by means of the overhead drag make the drag is moved further to lthe left to the pour >ing area indicated in‘dotted nnesin Figure 1. up'crane. Cars and' flask parts are transferred "rammed up” by the cope machines, and then After the molds have been poured or filled with molten metal, they are moved further to the left 25 until they are over a shake-out pit shown at the extreme left ‘in‘ Figure 1. It will be observed that the operations of making the drag molds, set ting the cores, making the cope molds and clos 85 from the advance track to the return tracks 'at the left-hand ends thereof by means of a shake out crane. , \ `- ` ing them uponl >the cored drags, pouring- the molds, and shaking them out >proceeds alongaV substantially straightv line reading” from right In order to obtain smooth flow of flask parts >to the cope and drag machines, there-are pro vided a drag make-up crane which bridges’the two tracks and the drag machineaand a cope make-up crane which bridgesV the two tracks and the cope' machines, both cranes of course operat to left as viewed in the'drawings, the equipment ing transversely ofthe tracks as shown in Figure for performing these operations being positioned 1*. substantially in a straight line. ing furnace> is brought into the plan by means of . ’ _ In order that the equipment described so far may be operated substantially continuously, means are provided‘for’moving‘the molds and mold parts-_i. e., copes and drags-along the line referred to above, and for then returning _the 40 empty cope flasksfrom the shake-outpit to the c'ope machines and for returning` the empty drag ñasks from vthe shake-out pit to the drag ma chines. In the plant shown, this transportation of the moldparts and ilasks is accomplished byl Molten metal from the‘cupola or other melt a mono-rail adapted to register at an interlock ing point with thebridge on a pour-off crane positioned to ‘span the- pouring area, the ar rangement being such that, after the mono-rail carriage and molten metal and ladle have been run from themono-rail onto the bridge of the pour-od crane located in the position shown in Figure 1, the bridge is moved transversely to a position over the pouring area. i During continuous operation of the plant, a plurality of cars is employed. The drawings 45 means of a novel arrangement of cars and tracks. ' show only a suillcient number (nine) of cars to A mold car advance track or track-way is posi illustrate and support a description of the plant and its method of operation. It will be under stood, however, that' additional cars preferably should be employed, such additional cars being interspersed between the cars shown in the draw ings. Theuse of these `additional cars permits lgreater ?exibility of operation, since it dispenses down from right to left so as'to facilitate‘move with the necessity of slowing down the whole ment of the cars in‘ that direction. 'This ar plant when one equipment unit is shut down tem rangement permits the cars to be pushed manu 55 ally with a minimum effort, and dispenses with porarily. The'nine cars shown are inthe posi the necessity fora positive mechanical car drive, tions listed below, reference being had to the thereby eliminating expensive drivel equipment position numbers marked on the drawings. and increasing the flexibility of the plant.l The tioned to extendy in a substantially straight line in front of the cope and drag machines andthe core-feeding rack so as topermit movement of 50 transfer cars from right to leftbas viewed in the drawings. Preferably, in accordance with the invention, the' mold> car advance track slopes 60 mold car advance track provides for the move- . Car position number Functional position ment of cars directly in front of the drag and cope machines so as to transport the mold parts and then the completed molds in a straight line to the pouring area, and thence to -the shake-out 65 area. f i flask on top ' on the side of the mold car advance track oppo site the side thereof on which the cope and drag machines and the core-feeding rack are located. Cars bearing empty cope and drag-flasks travel 75 from left to right on the return track, and, in ~ 'pe Car carrying empty drag flask andeope flask on top in position in 'frontal cope machine and under cope make-up mae. Car carrying empty drag desk. _ '5 ' Car carrying rammed-up drag. ‘ In order to return the -empty drag and cope flasks respectively to the drag-forming> and cope forming machines, there is provided a mold car `return track or track-way which is parallel to the mold car advance track and which is located 60 Car carrying empty drag tlask and on _ Car carrying cored drag. - vels _ Car carrying completed closed mold-cope on cored . Car carrying mold in pouring‘position. Car carrying-mold in shskeout position. Car carrying empty drag flask. y - , The method of producing castings and the op eration of the plant as described so far is as follows. ‘ Beginning at car position I, the car 70 carrying the empty drag flask and the empty cope' flask on top thereof is moved to the right on the 75 2,184,117 3 'return track until it is in car position II under- ~empty drag flasks move continuously in one path I rneath the cope make-up crane. When,l the car or circuit, and’th'at; the copelinolds andvempty has arrived at this point, the cope make-up' crane 'cope flasks’m‘o've continuously in a lcircuit com picks up the empty cope flask and positions it'on one of the cope-'forming machines, >vvhere it is prising` only a portion of `'theci'rcuit over which the dragv molds and empty drag 'flasks' move. ñlled with sand, rammed, and the pattern drawn. ¿msn made possible by _the positioning or the `The car, carrying the empty drag Aflask only, is cope make-up'crane at a point intermediate the then moved to the right‘on the return track until >endsoi’ 'the two tracks and by its being'adapted it reaches car position III. The drag make-up to move empty cope flasks from the return track crane then picks up the empty drag flask and directly across'~ the advance track to thecopey moves it across the. tracksfto one‘iof the drag machines without its being necessary for the cope machines, `where it is filled with sand from the ñasks to move all _the way tothe right-hand end of the returnvtrack and then back ‘on theadvance overhead service bin and is rammed and the pat tern drawn. The completeddrag is then lifted track to the cope machines. This results `in 15 by the drag make-up crane and deposited upon the car, which, in the meantime, has been moved to position IV on the advance track by means of the car transfer rack. The car, with the com pleted drag thereon, is then pushed to the left to faster operation, greater production, and a sav ing in floor space.A 15 In accordance with the invention, the equip ment for handling and conditioning the sand is positioned in back _of the molding equipment (the advance and return tracks being in frontof the 20 20 position V in front of the core-feeding> rack, and the core or cores are removed from' the rack and . molding equipment as pointed out above). The set in the drag. Then the car is moved to posi tion VI ln front of the cope machines, and a completed scope is removed from a copeämachine 25 by means of the cope make-upcrane and closed upon the drag. The mold thus completed and sand vhandling and conditioning equipment is so arranged that the ysand travels mainly in a di rection parallel to the line along- which the vari ous molding, pouring, and shake-out units are 25 positioned. In the Aform shown,` sand removed the car are then moved to the left to the pouring Afrom thelilasks at the shake-out position is car area under the pour-off crane, and the mold is ried'transversely for `a. short distance by means then poured with molten metal. After the mold Aoi! a vibrating screen conveyor which removes 30 has been poured,'the car and mold are moved to the left until they are'over the shake-out pit. They shake-out crane then removes the cope,which is then shaken out, and the empty> cope flask is deposited upon an emptydrag flask previously 35 positioned on a car in carposition IX. This car is then moved to the* right on the return track gates from thesand and delivers4 the gates to 30 the gatev chute and hopper; ‘andf vdeposits the sand upon elevatingconveyor No. I. Gates thus delivered- to the gate chute and hopper pass> along to a'gatewell froi'n'whichl they are removed by means of a'g'ate ‘removal monorail (see Figure 1). 35 Elevating'conveyor No. I carries the sand up until it reaches car position I bearing an empty i wardlyV and to the right vover a magnetic separa drag flask and an empty cope flask thereon. tor which removes small bits Aof gates, sprues, Reverting now to the car in position VIII, which fins, and other extraneous metal. The_sand is discharged 'by the elevating conveyor Noll into 40 carries at this timeonly a drag mold and the a pug' millwhich mixes and tempers-i. e., mois casing therein„this mold is shaken out, the cast ing is set aside, the mold shaken out, and the car, tens-.the sand. The sand discharged byV the together with the empty drag‘flask is picked' up `pug mill is elevated by elevating conveyor No._ 2 by the empty shake-out crane and moved to posi tion IX. _It'will be observed that all cars i'n posi and ismoved to the right by the overhead con- ' veyor which extends above a storage bin arranged I tiony IX will bear Aonlyan empty'drag' flask. "ina _plurality of sections. Deflector gates posi Thus, as each mold isshaken out, the empty cope tioned on top lof the overhead conveyor are flask is deposited`V upon the empty drag ñask adapted to be operated so as to effect `discharge of the sand carried by the overhead> conveyor into previously taken from the preceding car. ' 50 " 'I‘he Ñforegoing description of the ` operation rtraces the movement of a single car and its cope and drag flasks from positlcnI on the return any selected storage' bin. Each storage bin is 50 rprovided with a discharge gate (not shown) in its n' bottom, each of which gates is adapted> to dis- track under the pour-ofi' crane successively to and ` charge'sand onto a conveyor extending longitudi from the rvvarious Vequipment ,units Considered _nally'under the storage bins. This‘conveyor yis another way, however, all of the operations are operated in a direction to transport sand to the taking place simultaneously; that'is, when one 'car is in position VII, the mold thereon will be poured, while, at the same time, the mold on a left as viewed in the drawingsVdischarging the sand upon an elevator conveyor No. 3 which delivers the sand to an aerator. After being con car in position VIII will be in the process of ditioned in ther aerator, sand is carried to the being shaken out. Likewise a carin position IV >`righi; by an overhead conveyor leading-to the 60 60 will be receivinga completed ‘drag mold, and a. « cope and drag service bins. 'I'he sand thuscar carin position VI will be receiving a completed ried over the cope and drag service bins is de cope. >F‘or‘the sake of clarity, the j'description has been based upon thepositioning of only one 65 mold on each car. Actually, however, it is pos sible, and, in fact, desirable ythat the cars be large enough to carry a plurality of molds; for example, four. The sequence of operations of course will be the same as described above with reference to only one mold on each car, since the operations for a plurality of copes on each car maybe per formed substantially simultaneously before that car is moved to the next position, the same being true for operations on the drags and the pouring. 75 It will be observed that the drag molds and flected laterally 'oiI theconveyor by means of the deilector gates located above'the service'bins, the sand 'then-falling onto the service bins. Sand dropped or spilled around or in the vicinity-of 'the cope‘machines and the drag machines is re-v turned to the storage bins by means of an under ground spilled sand conveyor shown in dotted lines which moves the sand to the left and de livers it to elevating conveyor No. l, the latter discharging the sand to elevating conveyor No. 2, from whence the sand is carried back to the storage bin. In order that the sand >may be maintained in suitable condition during a. shut 4 among down of a plant, a by-pass or sand chute is dis „w mom-mmm; muon. cnn-»unna m um ' posed between elevating conveyor No. I and ele~ each'drag flask after being shaken _out is placed vating conveyor No.1 for receiving sand which `towreceive on top thereof the empty cope flask of is on its way to the service bin and for retm'n the' next following mold. and each cope flask af ing it to the storage bins. 'Thefby-Dasa chute " ter being shaken'outis placed on the empty drag may be rendered operative or inoperative _at will so as to either by-pass the sand or to permit it to continue on its way to the service bins, whichever is desired. This makes it possible to extract sand 10 fromunderneath one of the storage bins and transfer it to. aselected other storage bin, the flask of the immediately preceding mold. 2. In a method for the manufacture of` metal castings, continuously moving a plurality of drag flasks and a plurality of cop'e flasks less in num ber than the number oi'A dragnasks from mold preparing position 'to mold-pouring position and path of travel for suchinter-change beiagon >mold shake out position and thence moving-mold the conveyor under the storage bins, the elevat ilasks‘back to mold-forming position, character ing conveyor No. I,Íthe by-pass chute, the ele- » ized in that each drag flask after beingshaken ll vating conveyor No.1, the elevating conveyor No. 2, and the overhead'conveyor over the vstor age bins. Sand being elevated by the conveyor No. I may be diverted tol the by-pass chute by a suitable defiector device, Vthe construction of which per se does notY constitute the present in vention. Deilector devices for diverting sand 'from travelling conveyors are well known, one form being shown at lll in Figures 1b, 3 and 7 cope out isflask placed of to thereceive next`following on top thereof mold, and each cope iia'sk after being shaken out is placed on the empty drag flask of the immediately preceding mold. ' 3. In a plant for the manufacture of metal 20 castings, the combination of drag-molding means. core-supplying means, cope-molding means, pouring means, and shake-out means of the patent to Douglas, 1,941,434, of December serially. ldisposed substantially in line in the order 26, i933. specified; mold-advance transporting means ex 25 tending sulltantially in a straight line in `front of said Lmolding means; flask-return transporting means extending substantially parallel to said mold-advance transporting means and on the ` t . In the manufacture of cast iron pipe by the horizontal method-i. e., with Athe, pipes molded and cast with the axes horizontal-»it is usual to employ- metal core bars or arbors which are used repeatedly, it being necessary. of course, to'face each core bar with sand to form a core suitable side thereof opposite said molding means; sand 30 handling means located in back of said molding for use in the mold. Ina plant in >accordance `means for receiving sand at the shake-out means with Athe present invention, core bars removed Vand conveying it to the molding means mainly in from the castings at the shake~-out pit are placed a direction parallel to the line of extent ot said on a core bar turntable No. I and are then rolled molding, core-supplying, pouring, and shake-out 35 along a core bar track extending parallel to the ,means,V said` sand handling means `including mold car advance and return‘tracks and posi~ means for conditioning' the sand `en route to the tioned behind the sand handling and conditioning molding means; and conveying means for trans equipment. A core barçcooler and a core ,bar porting core bars from the shake-out means to 40 straightening machinev are positioned as shown a point adjacent said corefsupplying means, said in the path of movement of core bars along the conveying means extending substantially parallel track. A turntable No. 2 is adapted to receive _ tofthe mold~advance transporting means and be cooled and. straightened core> bars and` to dis ing located in back of said molding means. ~ charge them uponva transverse core bar track Y 4. Sand handling and conditioning equipment 45 from which'the cores are moved to a transfer comprising mixing and -„tempering means: a 45 carriage adapted to shift the core bars to a lcor‘e storage bin; a service bin; meansoperable ina machine where the core bars are faced. with-sand predetermined path for conveying sand to the mixing and tempering means; thence to the storage bin; and thence to the service bin;` and by-pass means for receiving sand on its way from said storage bin. and conveying it back to th to form completed cores which are then placed upon the core-feeding rack. , It is apparent from the foregoing that we have provided a plant for and method of manufactur ing metal castings b'oth of which, either -as dis closed herein or with modifications within the scope of the invention Aas defined in the claims, provide for the'economical continuous production of castings bymeans of equipment umts which occupy’small floor space and which are so dis posed asv to provide flexibility of operation and storage bln. " y so 4 5. Sand handling and conditioning equipment comprising mixing and tempering means; a stor age bin; a service bin; means operable in a pre determined path for conveying sand to the mix 55 ing and tempering means; thence to the storage bin; and thence to the service bin, said means assurance against substantial interruption in pro `including a conveyor for delivering to said stor duction due to localized temporary disabling of age bin and a conveyor for kvdelivering from said one part or unit of the equipment. Weclaim: „ . ' 1. In a method for the manufactureof metal castings, continuouslymoving a‘plurality of drag `iiaslrs and cope flasks from mold-preparing posi tion to mold-pouring position /and mold shake out position and thence movhíg mold flasks back storage bin to said service bin: and by-pass means extending between said two conveyors and adapted `to receive sand from the second-named conveyor yand to deliver the sand to said first named conveyor for return to the storage bin.` 65 ` ' HENRY G. FLOYD. WILLIAM LEE ROUECHE.