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Патент USA US2134117

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Oct. 25, 1938.
H. GfFLoYD ET AL
r2,134,l 17
PLANT FOR AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING METAL CASTINGS
File dvDec.
2, 1956
2 ‘Sheets-Sheet l
Oct. 25, 1938.
H. G. lFLOYD ET Al.l
PLANT FOR AND METHOD
`
2,134,117
MANUFACTURING METAL CASTINGS
Filed Dec. 2, 1955
2 Sheets-Sheet i?.`
/
A wx
Patented Oct. 25, 1938
2,134,117
UNITED
N
orifun` -«
V »_Henry
.Pipc‘Co.,
mingham,
l . Floyd
G.
ING
Birmingham,
Ala.,`:mafvvuuan';
METAL
assignors
Ala.
GAs'rnvGstoMcWaneCast
Lee mucche,
’
._ _ Iron
ma
_
Y' _ _
_ f _4Y
Application December amas', serial No. 113,911.
»somma
This invention relates to plants for and methods
of manufacturing metal castings.. Although the
invention relates vmore especiallyto plants for
and methods of manufacturing ironpipes cast
horizontally,: it _isnot necessarily limited in its
application to the production ofsuch castings.
_Many _varieties .of metal castings-for example,
cast iron pipes-_are produced >in ¿large numbers
of standard sizes. This requires the use of rather
expensive sand-handling, mold-forming and
-_handl_ing, and hot-metal-handiing equipment.
15
(cm2-¿zoi-
_
«
’
_`
,
,y
_.
ina straight lline and inlwhich empty `flasks travel
in- a parallel opposite `directiorLv-the travel of _cope
flasks ineach direction being less thanï the travel
of the drag flasks. j
¿
,
A further obje(_:_t_„i_s_,y to_„.«provide. a plant and
method. o_f the general character referred to and
in which sand. is conditioned `and handled or ’_
transported in a novel ,manner with,A respect to
the molding, pouring, and shake-out equipment.`
A still further objecty is to provide an improved 10
Because oi thehigh cost of such equipment it is
arrangement of >equipment .« for and method of
conditioning and l.handling _ or transporting mold
necessary to arrange and operate it in such a way
ingsand,
asîto obtain by its use the, maximum production
possible within limitstdetermined by> practical
considerations. `Thus»the equipment should be
arranged Withdue regard to the amount of floor
space it occupies. Equipment'arranged for opti
mum operating capacity. and efficiency, might
necessitate an uneconomical use of floor space.
'I_‘hese two considerations, namely, arrangement
` of equipment for operating capacity and eiiìciency
and economical utilization of door-space, there
fore must be balanced with each other.
There _also must be considered ythe flexibility
of _the _system for operation under.l conditions
which may be varied voluntarily or which may
change because of an accidental temporary slow
ing up or a shutting- down of one part of the
-,
_-
.
~
-
-
_.
_
y
Other objects will _become apparent Afrom a
reading of the following detaileddescription, the
accompanying drawings, ,and the appended
15
claims,` the invention defined in each of whichy
constitutes the attainment of at least one object
of the invention.
.
.
~
In the drawings'
'
_,
»
'
.
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic plan view o_f a part
of a plant embodying the invention; and
_
20
.
Figure la is a view similar to Figure 1 but show
ing` the part of the plant .not shown in Figure 1.
v Figures 1 and 1a are intendedtor be read to
gether as a single iigure joined-along vthe lines
_i"-llI of eachof said Figures 1 and l?.
-
25 `
Those skilled in the art of founding are familiar , Y
with the essential basic operations performed in
therefore should be such that the several opera
the production of metal casting'spbut in order 30
that the basic operations may moreeasily bekept
in mind during reading of the detailed description
tions Will best be coordinated and synchronized
and claims they are set» forth briefly below;
. equipment. yThe plant lay-out--i. e., the relative
arrangementof the various equipment units
so as to provide for efilciency andlarge produc
tion, but at/the same time the equipment units
'
»1. Fill drag flask with sand and ram;
. Make core and place in drag; Y '
for performing successive operations should not
. Fill cope .flask with sand and ram;
be coupled so closely that a slight temporary de-`
lay in the operation of one unit Will'retard opera
. Complete mold by placing _cope on drag; »5 «
tion of the entire system.
_A further _ and quite general consideration is
' that there must be a proper balance between the
cost of equipment units and the cost of operation
thereof, including power cost and maintenance
cost.
'Arry object of the present invention is to provide
..
c_o«nazomoonja; Remove cope and shake out sand; y
Pour molten metal ,in mold;
, «
-
.
~
. Remove castings and core bars from drag;
Shake out sand from‘drag; .
’_
_,
. Break gates from pipe and remove core bars;
10. Return flasks and core bars to respective
make-up
stations;
.
_
n
'
11. Remove gates and scrap from sand, recon
castings in which the several factors referred to
dition, and return to sand storage bins.
A plant fcr performing these basic operations
above aresobalanced that', giving due considera
is shown in Figures 1 and la considered together,
a _plant for and- methodof manufacturing metal
" tion to the proper weight of each, castings may be
50 produced at a minimum final cost and in large
numbers.
`
'
"
_
the various parts being designated by legends ap
plied directly to the drawings. Reading from the 50
right-hand end of Figure 1a to the left, the mold
A further'object is -to provide a plant for the
continuous production of metal castings in which
means are positioned in a substantially or gen
the flow, of molds, iiasks, sand, and other material
erally straight line.
55 is mainly in two parallel directions whereby the
plant will occupy an area relatively narrow as
compared to its length.
.
,
.f
A further object is to provide a plant and a
forming', core-supplying, pouringj and shake-out
^
Ac’ the right-hand end ofy Figure i2', there is shown a pair of drag-forming machines which
are positioned under overhead drag service bins.
The drag-forming machines may be of _any de
method of _the general character _referredto inr sired type, are adapted to receive empty flasks
00 which molds travel in one direction substantially from flask-transporting means to be described 60
9,184,117
later, and are adapted to receive sand~ directly
from the overheadservice bins, the service bins
being kept full of sand in a manner also to be sct
forth later. To the left of the drag-forming ma
order to facilitate manual movement of the carl,
this track is arranged to slope down gradually
cores to be set in the drags after the- drags havebeen completed and moved to the left tothey
vicinity of the feeding rack. Furtheron `to the
10 left of the core-feeding rack' is- a pair of` .cope
forming machines which are positioned respec-`
tively under cope service bins. Empty cope ñasks
are supplied to the cope-forming machines, and
from left tov right; In order to save space, the
advance track and the return track are positioned
closely together, so closely together, in fact, as to
' prohibit their being connected by means of car
ynegotiable curved portions. In order that there
may be maintained a continuous flow of cars and
«mold andy ñask partsÄfrom right to left on the
advance track and from left to right on the re
turn track, a car-transfer device is located at the
right-hand end of the two tracks. This car
~transfer may bey of any desired construction
sand is supplied to the cope service bins as will be ~
such as a transfer rack working on rollers set on
chines and substantially in line therewith is a
core-feeding rack on which- is kept a supply of
` described
later.` The
copes
are
formed
or ~ the floor operated by means of a hydraulic cyl
inder. Since the transfer device does not per se
placed on-the cored drags after the latter have - constitute the present invention, it is illustrated
been movedto the left from'4 the drag> machines . only diagrammatically. If desired, the transfer
and the core-feeding rack. The mold thus closed device may be- dispensed with‘and the cars may
20 or completed by‘the `positioning of the cope on be transferred from the return track to the ad
vance track by means of the overhead drag make
the drag is moved further to lthe left to the pour
>ing area indicated in‘dotted nnesin Figure 1. up'crane. Cars and' flask parts are transferred
"rammed up” by the cope machines, and then
After the molds have been poured or filled with
molten metal, they are moved further to the left
25 until they are over a shake-out pit shown at the
extreme left ‘in‘ Figure 1. It will be observed
that the operations of making the drag molds, set
ting the cores, making the cope molds and clos
85
from the advance track to the return tracks 'at
the left-hand ends thereof by means of a shake
out crane.
,
\
`-
`
ing them uponl >the cored drags, pouring- the
molds, and shaking them out >proceeds alongaV substantially straightv line reading” from right
In order to obtain smooth flow of flask parts
>to the cope and drag machines, there-are pro
vided a drag make-up crane which bridges’the
two tracks and the drag machineaand a cope
make-up crane which bridgesV the two tracks and
the cope' machines, both cranes of course operat
to left as viewed in the'drawings, the equipment
ing transversely ofthe tracks as shown in Figure
for performing these operations being positioned
1*.
substantially in a straight line.
ing furnace> is brought into the plan by means of
. ’
_
In order that the equipment described so far
may be operated substantially continuously,
means are provided‘for’moving‘the molds and
mold parts-_i. e., copes and drags-along the line
referred to above, and for then returning _the
40 empty cope flasksfrom the shake-outpit to the
c'ope machines and for returning` the empty drag
ñasks from vthe shake-out pit to the drag ma
chines. In the plant shown, this transportation
of the moldparts and ilasks is accomplished byl
Molten metal from the‘cupola or other melt
a mono-rail adapted to register at an interlock
ing point with thebridge on a pour-off crane
positioned to ‘span the- pouring area, the ar
rangement being such that, after the mono-rail
carriage and molten metal and ladle have been
run from themono-rail onto the bridge of the
pour-od crane located in the position shown in
Figure 1, the bridge is moved transversely to a
position over the pouring area.
i
During continuous operation of the plant, a
plurality of cars is employed. The drawings
45 means of a novel arrangement of cars and tracks. ' show only a suillcient number (nine) of cars to
A mold car advance track or track-way is posi
illustrate and support a description of the plant
and its method of operation. It will be under
stood, however, that' additional cars preferably
should be employed, such additional cars being
interspersed between the cars shown in the draw
ings. Theuse of these `additional cars permits
lgreater ?exibility of operation, since it dispenses
down from right to left so as'to facilitate‘move
with the necessity of slowing down the whole
ment of the cars in‘ that direction. 'This ar
plant when one equipment unit is shut down tem
rangement permits the cars to be pushed manu
55
ally with a minimum effort, and dispenses with porarily. The'nine cars shown are inthe posi
the necessity fora positive mechanical car drive, tions listed below, reference being had to the
thereby eliminating expensive drivel equipment position numbers marked on the drawings.
and increasing the flexibility of the plant.l The
tioned to extendy in a substantially straight line in
front of the cope and drag machines andthe
core-feeding rack so as topermit movement of
50 transfer cars from right to leftbas viewed in the
drawings. Preferably, in accordance with the
invention, the' mold> car advance track slopes
60 mold car advance track provides for the move- .
Car position number
Functional position
ment of cars directly in front of the drag and
cope machines so as to transport the mold parts
and then the completed molds in a straight line
to the pouring area, and thence to -the shake-out
65
area.
f
i
flask on top
' on the side of the mold car advance track oppo
site the side thereof on which the cope and drag
machines and the core-feeding rack are located.
Cars bearing empty cope and drag-flasks travel
75 from left to right on the return track, and, in
~
'pe
Car carrying empty drag flask andeope
flask on top in position in 'frontal cope
machine and under cope make-up mae.
Car carrying empty drag desk.
_ '5
'
Car carrying rammed-up drag.
‘
In order to return the -empty drag and cope
flasks respectively to the drag-forming> and cope
forming machines, there is provided a mold car
`return track or track-way which is parallel to
the mold car advance track and which is located
60
Car carrying empty drag tlask and on
_
Car carrying cored drag.
-
vels
_ Car carrying completed closed mold-cope
on cored
.
Car carrying mold in pouring‘position.
Car carrying-mold in shskeout position.
Car carrying empty drag flask. y
-
, The method of producing castings and the op
eration of the plant as described so far is as
follows. ‘ Beginning at car position I, the car
70
carrying the empty drag flask and the empty cope'
flask on top thereof is moved to the right on the 75
2,184,117
3
'return track until it is in car position II under- ~empty drag flasks move continuously in one path I
rneath the cope make-up crane. When,l the car or circuit, and’th'at; the copelinolds andvempty
has arrived at this point, the cope make-up' crane 'cope flasks’m‘o've continuously in a lcircuit com
picks up the empty cope flask and positions it'on
one of the cope-'forming machines, >vvhere it is
prising` only a portion of `'theci'rcuit over which
the dragv molds and empty drag 'flasks' move.
ñlled with sand, rammed, and the pattern drawn. ¿msn made possible by _the positioning or the
`The car, carrying the empty drag Aflask only, is cope make-up'crane at a point intermediate the
then moved to the right‘on the return track until >endsoi’ 'the two tracks and by its being'adapted
it reaches car position III. The drag make-up to move empty cope flasks from the return track
crane then picks up the empty drag flask and directly across'~ the advance track to thecopey
moves it across the. tracksfto one‘iof the drag machines without its being necessary for the cope
machines, `where it is filled with sand from the ñasks to move all _the way tothe right-hand end
of the returnvtrack and then back ‘on theadvance
overhead service bin and is rammed and the pat
tern drawn. The completeddrag is then lifted track to the cope machines. This results `in
15 by the drag make-up crane and deposited upon
the car, which, in the meantime, has been moved
to position IV on the advance track by means of
the car transfer rack. The car, with the com
pleted drag thereon, is then pushed to the left to
faster operation, greater production, and a sav
ing in floor space.A
15
In accordance with the invention, the equip
ment for handling and conditioning the sand is
positioned in back _of the molding equipment (the
advance and return tracks being in frontof the 20
20 position V in front of the core-feeding> rack, and
the core or cores are removed from' the rack and . molding equipment as pointed out above). The
set in the drag. Then the car is moved to posi
tion VI ln front of the cope machines, and a
completed scope is removed from a copeämachine
25 by means of the cope make-upcrane and closed
upon the drag. The mold thus completed and
sand vhandling and conditioning equipment is so
arranged that the ysand travels mainly in a di
rection parallel to the line along- which the vari
ous molding, pouring, and shake-out units are 25
positioned. In the Aform shown,` sand removed
the car are then moved to the left to the pouring Afrom thelilasks at the shake-out position is car
area under the pour-off crane, and the mold is ried'transversely for `a. short distance by means
then poured with molten metal. After the mold Aoi! a vibrating screen conveyor which removes
30 has been poured,'the car and mold are moved to
the left until they are'over the shake-out pit.
They shake-out crane then removes the cope,which
is then shaken out, and the empty> cope flask is
deposited upon an emptydrag flask previously
35 positioned on a car in carposition IX. This car
is then moved to the* right on the return track
gates from thesand and delivers4 the gates to 30
the gatev chute and hopper; ‘andf vdeposits the
sand upon elevatingconveyor No. I. Gates thus
delivered- to the gate chute and hopper pass> along
to a'gatewell froi'n'whichl they are removed by
means of a'g'ate ‘removal monorail (see Figure 1). 35
Elevating'conveyor No. I carries the sand up
until it reaches car position I bearing an empty i wardlyV and to the right vover a magnetic separa
drag flask and an empty cope flask thereon. tor which removes small bits Aof gates, sprues,
Reverting now to the car in position VIII, which fins, and other extraneous metal. The_sand is
discharged 'by the elevating conveyor Noll into
40 carries at this timeonly a drag mold and the
a pug' millwhich mixes and tempers-i. e., mois
casing therein„this mold is shaken out, the cast
ing is set aside, the mold shaken out, and the car, tens-.the sand. The sand discharged byV the
together with the empty drag‘flask is picked' up `pug mill is elevated by elevating conveyor No._ 2
by the empty shake-out crane and moved to posi
tion IX. _It'will be observed that all cars i'n posi
and ismoved to the right by the overhead con- '
veyor which extends above a storage bin arranged I
tiony IX will bear Aonlyan empty'drag' flask. "ina _plurality of sections. Deflector gates posi
Thus, as each mold isshaken out, the empty cope tioned on top lof the overhead conveyor are
flask is deposited`V upon the empty drag ñask adapted to be operated so as to effect `discharge
of the sand carried by the overhead> conveyor into
previously taken from the preceding car.
'
50
" 'I‘he Ñforegoing description of the ` operation
rtraces the movement of a single car and its cope
and drag flasks from positlcnI on the return
any selected storage' bin. Each storage bin is 50
rprovided with a discharge gate (not shown) in its n'
bottom, each of which gates is adapted> to dis-
track under the pour-ofi' crane successively to and ` charge'sand onto a conveyor extending longitudi
from the rvvarious Vequipment ,units Considered _nally'under the storage bins. This‘conveyor yis
another way, however, all of the operations are operated in a direction to transport sand to the
taking place simultaneously; that'is, when one
'car is in position VII, the mold thereon will be
poured, while, at the same time, the mold on a
left as viewed in the drawingsVdischarging the
sand upon an elevator conveyor No. 3 which
delivers the sand to an aerator. After being con
car in position VIII will be in the process of ditioned in ther aerator, sand is carried to the
being
shaken out. Likewise a carin position IV >`righi; by an overhead conveyor leading-to the 60
60
will be receivinga completed ‘drag mold, and a. « cope and drag service bins. 'I'he sand thuscar
carin position VI will be receiving a completed ried over the cope and drag service bins is de
cope. >F‘or‘the sake of clarity, the j'description
has been based upon thepositioning of only one
65 mold on each car. Actually, however, it is pos
sible, and, in fact, desirable ythat the cars be large
enough to carry a plurality of molds; for example,
four. The sequence of operations of course will
be the same as described above with reference to
only one mold on each car, since the operations
for a plurality of copes on each car maybe per
formed substantially simultaneously before that
car is moved to the next position, the same being
true for operations on the drags and the pouring.
75 It will be observed that the drag molds and
flected laterally 'oiI theconveyor by means of
the deilector gates located above'the service'bins,
the sand 'then-falling onto the service bins. Sand
dropped or spilled around or in the vicinity-of
'the cope‘machines and the drag machines is re-v
turned to the storage bins by means of an under
ground spilled sand conveyor shown in dotted
lines which moves the sand to the left and de
livers it to elevating conveyor No. l, the latter
discharging the sand to elevating conveyor No. 2,
from whence the sand is carried back to the
storage bin. In order that the sand >may be
maintained in suitable condition during a. shut
4
among
down of a plant, a by-pass or sand chute is dis „w mom-mmm; muon. cnn-»unna m um
' posed between elevating conveyor No. I and ele~ each'drag flask after being shaken _out is placed
vating conveyor No.1 for receiving sand which `towreceive on top thereof the empty cope flask of
is on its way to the service bin and for retm'n the' next following mold. and each cope flask af
ing it to the storage bins. 'Thefby-Dasa chute " ter being shaken'outis placed on the empty drag
may be rendered operative or inoperative _at will
so as to either by-pass the sand or to permit it to
continue on its way to the service bins, whichever
is desired. This makes it possible to extract sand
10 fromunderneath one of the storage bins and
transfer it to. aselected other storage bin, the
flask of the immediately preceding mold.
2. In a method for the manufacture of` metal
castings, continuously moving a plurality of drag
flasks and a plurality of cop'e flasks less in num
ber than the number oi'A dragnasks from mold
preparing position 'to mold-pouring position and
path of travel for suchinter-change beiagon >mold shake out position and thence moving-mold
the conveyor under the storage bins, the elevat
ilasks‘back to mold-forming position, character
ing conveyor No. I,Íthe by-pass chute, the ele- » ized in that each drag flask after beingshaken
ll
vating conveyor No.1, the elevating conveyor
No. 2, and the overhead'conveyor over the vstor
age bins. Sand being elevated by the conveyor
No. I may be diverted tol the by-pass chute by a
suitable defiector device, Vthe construction of
which per se does notY constitute the present in
vention. Deilector devices for diverting sand
'from travelling conveyors are well known, one
form being shown at lll in Figures 1b, 3 and 7
cope
out isflask
placed
of to
thereceive
next`following
on top thereof
mold, and each
cope iia'sk after being shaken out is placed on the
empty drag flask of the immediately preceding
mold.
'
3. In a plant for the manufacture of metal 20
castings, the combination of drag-molding
means. core-supplying means, cope-molding
means, pouring means, and shake-out means
of the patent to Douglas, 1,941,434, of December
serially. ldisposed substantially in line in the order
26, i933.
specified; mold-advance transporting means ex 25
tending sulltantially in a straight line in `front
of said Lmolding means; flask-return transporting
means extending substantially parallel to said
mold-advance transporting means and on the
`
t
.
In the manufacture of cast iron pipe by the
horizontal method-i. e., with Athe, pipes molded
and cast with the axes horizontal-»it is usual to
employ- metal core bars or arbors which are used
repeatedly, it being necessary. of course, to'face
each core bar with sand to form a core suitable
side thereof opposite said molding means; sand 30
handling means located in back of said molding
for use in the mold. Ina plant in >accordance `means for receiving sand at the shake-out means
with Athe present invention, core bars removed Vand conveying it to the molding means mainly in
from the castings at the shake~-out pit are placed a direction parallel to the line of extent ot said
on a core bar turntable No. I and are then rolled molding, core-supplying, pouring, and shake-out 35
along a core bar track extending parallel to the ,means,V said` sand handling means `including
mold car advance and return‘tracks and posi~ means for conditioning' the sand `en route to the
tioned behind the sand handling and conditioning molding means; and conveying means for trans
equipment. A core barçcooler and a core ,bar porting core bars from the shake-out means to
40 straightening machinev are positioned as shown a point adjacent said corefsupplying means, said
in the path of movement of core bars along the conveying means extending substantially parallel
track. A turntable No. 2 is adapted to receive _ tofthe mold~advance transporting means and be
cooled and. straightened core> bars and` to dis
ing located in back of said molding means.
~
charge them uponva transverse core bar track
Y 4. Sand handling and conditioning equipment
45 from which'the cores are moved to a transfer comprising mixing and -„tempering means: a 45
carriage adapted to shift the core bars to a lcor‘e
storage bin; a service bin; meansoperable ina
machine where the core bars are faced. with-sand
predetermined path for conveying sand to the
mixing and tempering means; thence to the
storage bin; and thence to the service bin;` and
by-pass means for receiving sand on its way from
said storage bin. and conveying it back to th
to form completed cores which are then placed
upon the core-feeding rack.
,
It is apparent from the foregoing that we have
provided a plant for and method of manufactur
ing metal castings b'oth of which, either -as dis
closed herein or with modifications within the
scope of the invention Aas defined in the claims,
provide for the'economical continuous production
of castings bymeans of equipment umts which
occupy’small floor space and which are so dis
posed asv to provide flexibility of operation and
storage bln. "
y
so
4
5. Sand handling and conditioning equipment
comprising mixing and tempering means; a stor
age bin; a service bin; means operable in a pre
determined path for conveying sand to the mix
55
ing and tempering means; thence to the storage
bin; and thence to the service bin, said means
assurance against substantial interruption in pro `including a conveyor for delivering to said stor
duction due to localized temporary disabling of age bin and a conveyor for kvdelivering from said
one part or unit of the equipment.
Weclaim:
„
.
'
1. In a method for the manufactureof metal
castings, continuouslymoving a‘plurality of drag
`iiaslrs and cope flasks from mold-preparing posi
tion to mold-pouring position /and mold shake
out position and thence movhíg mold flasks back
storage bin to said service bin: and by-pass
means extending between said two conveyors and
adapted `to receive sand from the second-named
conveyor yand to deliver the sand to said first
named conveyor for return to the storage bin.`
65
`
'
HENRY G. FLOYD.
WILLIAM LEE ROUECHE.
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