close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Патент USA US2134126

код для вставки
Get. 25, 1938.
F. J, HOOVEN
2,134,126
AIRCRAFT LANDING SYSTEM
Filed July 17, 1936
/_
'
2 Sheets-Sheet l
_
~
INVENTOR.
% fggiyierzkxg‘d?ioa 062a)
ATTO NEY.
Get 25, 1938.
F. J‘ HOOVEN
2,134,126
AIRCRAFT LANDING SYSTEM
Filed July 17, 1956
2 Sheets-Sheet 2
~INVENTOR.
BY
»
5. “~47
ATTO "NEY,
Patented Oct. 25, 1938
2,134,126
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
’
2,134,126
AIRCRAFT LANDING SYSTEM
Frederick J. Hooven, Dayton, Ohio
Application July 17, 1936, Serial No. 91,192
6 Claims.
(Cl. 250—11)
ing systems, and more particularly to an aircraft established by the ultra-high frequency radiation
My invention relates broadly to aircraft land
system of my invention, and illustrating the
landing system adapted for use on vessels, such
as aircraft carriers, or commercial ships on which
manner in which an aircraft, carrying a suitable
indicator thereon, may detect the ultra-high fre
it is desired to land aircraft.
One of the objects of my invention is to pro
vide a radio system for use in the landing of
10
quency ?eld in effecting a safe landing; Fig. 3 is a
side elevational view showing the ultra-high fre
quency radiation system, arranged according to
aircraftwithin a con?ned area, such as is encoun
tered on aircraft carriers and commercial ships. > my invention and showing schematically the con
Another object of my invention is to provide
an arrangement of ultra-high frequency system ,
for establishing a substantially conical ?eld of
radiant energy from a relatively concentrated
radiating source to provide a de?ned path along
which aircraft may safely maneuver to effect a
safe landing in a position adjacent to the ultra
high frequency source of energy.
A further object of my invention is to provide
20
an arrangement of doublet antennae for estab
ical ?eld of force, which is established in space
above the deck of the aircraft carrier; Fig. 4 is
an elevational view showing the mechanical as 10
sembly of the doublet antennae, with respect to
the re?ecting area used in conjunction with the
doublet antennae; Fig. 5, diagrammatically illus
trates the electrical connection of the excitation
means with the several doublet antennae‘; Fig. 6,
schematically illustrates the arrangement of one
form of indicator or responsive apparatus which
lishing an inverted conical ultra-high frequency - may be carried by aircraft ‘for indicating to a
?eld of force over an aircraft landing area for pilot of an aircraft, the limits “of the conical ultra; 20
enabling a pilot to be informed by operation of high frequency ?eld of force over the landing
a responsive indicator with respect to a safe land
ing zone for aircraft.
'
Still another object of my invention resides in
the method and arrangement of a multiplicity of
coating ultra-high frequency doublets, concen
trated within a relatively small area and operat
ing to establish overlapping ultra-high frequency
?eld; Fig. '7, is a schematic view showing the
manner in which aircraft may locate and seek
a safe landing on an aircraft carrier, in accord
ance with the system of .my'invention; and Fig. 2
8, illustrates the manner of» propagating the sub
stantially conical shaped radio frequency ?eld in
space above the aircraft landing ?eld.
,
?elds of force in space above an aircraft landing
The landing system of my invention utilizes
field for providing a relatively sharply de?ned
ultra-high frequency energy. Heretofore, various 30
landing systems have been proposed, but such
systems employ energy radiated at relatively low
conical ?eld of force, along which an aircraft may
be maneuvered for effecting a safe landing.
A still further object of my invention is to pro
35 vide a cluster of ultra-high frequency doublet an
tennae, mutually inclined with respect to a land
ing area for establishing and maintaining in
space, an ultra-high frequency ?eld of force, sub
stantially in the shape of a hollow inverted cone.
40
Other and further objects of my invention re
side in the construction of ultra-high frequency
radiating system for aircraft landing, as set forth
more fully in the speci?cation, hereinafter fol
lowing by reference to the accompanying draw
" ings in which:
Figure 1 diagrammatically illustrates my in
vention as applied to aircraft carriers, and show
ing the manner in which an ultra-high frequency
conical ?eld of force may be established above the
50 landing deck of the aircraft carriers for enabling
frequency, with resulting complications in the
structure of indicator apparatus on the aircraft,
or the necessity of employing a complicated mov
ing structure. The landing system of my inven- ~ 35
tion is highly simpli?ed by reason of the use of
the radiation characteristics of the doublet an
tennae.
.
I make use of the principles of combining open 40
antennae effect with the doublet antennae effect
for producing a fan shaped ?eld pattern accord
ing to the invention of Constantin D. Barbulesco,
set forth in application Serial No. 4,921, ?led Feb
ruary 4, 1935, for Ultra-high frequency marker 45
beacon system.
'
In any plane of the doublet antenna the ?eld
from the center in different directions varies with
the angle in accordance with the formula:
the pilot of an aircraft to accurately judge the
location of the deck, and effect a safe landing,
even under conditions of fog, darkness and low
ceiling; Fig. 2 is an enlarged plan view showing
55 the ultra-high frequency conical ?eld which is
50
Where E is the electric ?eld, M the magnetic
, 55
2,134,120
2
?eld and I0 the current at the center of the an
tenna, it is maximum for
As illustrated in Fig. 2, each aircraft carrier
is equipped with a cluster of ultra-high frequency
doublet antennae which have been indicated at
ll, l2, 13, It, IS, I6, I‘! and I8. These doublet
antennae extend substantially parallel with the
and zero for ¢=o. In other words, the maximum
radiation is in a direction perpendicular to the
re?ecting surface of the structure which I have
shown generally at 20. The re?ecting surface
structure 20 is formed from a metallic sheet
which in the form of my invention illustrated
direction of the antenna proper. In the equato
rial plane the ?eld intensity remains the same . is conical. However the re?ecting surface 20 may 10
10 at the same distances from the center.
When the doublet is disposed at a distance of
a quarter wave above the surface of the ground
or any re?ecting surface, re?ection takes place
and a ?eld pattern is produced of a character
15 as shown in the accompanying drawings. In the
zenithal direction of the center of the antenna
the ?eld is reinforced because the re?ected en
ergy is‘in phase with the energy radiated direct~
1y by the antenna. The ?eld pattern discloses
20 a fan-shaped beam with the plane of the fan
perpendicular to the direction of the antenna.
I provide are?ecting surface which is sub
be polygonal in shape, the important considera
tion being that the re?ecting surface be inclined
to effect a directive propagation of ultra-high
frequency energy from the doublet antennae
along the inclined path or course forming the 15
inverted inclined wall of ultra-high frequency
energy over the landing area.
stantially conical in shape. Along the inclined
wall of the conical re?ecting surface in insulated
25 relation, a multiplicity of doublets are arranged
in radial planes all intersecting in a central lon
gitudinal axis, extending through the conical re
?ecting surface structure. In lieu of a conical
re?ecting surface member, I may provide a. po
lygonal shaped structure, having inclined re
?ecting surfaces located immediately behind the
doublet antennae. The doublet antennae are
connected with a source of ultra-high frequency
energy. The fan-shaped ultra-high frequency
35 ?elds of force, radiated by each of the doublets,
overlap in space, establishing a substantially in»
verted cone of ultra-high frequency energy. The
ultra-high frequency ?eld is thus established by
the multiplicity of coacting doublet antennae.
40 Theindicating apparatus on the aircraft com
prises simply a doublet antenna disposed in
alignment with the axis of the aircraft and con
nected through a suitable rectifying, and if nec
essary an amplifying system with a suitable in
45 dicator which is activated only so long as the
doublet on the aircraft is within the effective
?eld emitted by the doublets adjacent the land
ing area. A cone of silence is located within
the annular active zone of ultra-high frequency
50
The doublets are
insulated from the re?ecting surface 20 on suit
able supports such as indicated generally at 2|.
energy. The pilot under conditions of fog, dark
ness and low ceiling, may ?y through the oppo
site walls of the ultra-high frequency zones of
force, until the pilot is able to judge the limits
of the landing ?eld, and after determining the
55 fore and. aft axis of the ?eld in the case of an
aircraft carrier, is able to ?y down the inclined
wall of high frequency energy to effect a safe
landing below.
Referring to the drawings in more detail, ref
60 erence character I, schematically illustrates a
coast line remote from which the aircraft car
riers 2 and 3 are located. Each of the aircraft
carriers are equipped with the ultra-high fre
quency landing system of my invention. The
65 ultra-high frequency transmitter on vessel 2, es
tablishes an ultra-high frequency ?eld of force,
substantially in the shape of an inverted conical
shaped zone 6 having a silent or unactivated
central zone 5. Aircraft carrier 3 has an ultra
70 high frequency transmitter thereon, operating
to establish the ultra-high frequency inverted
conical shaped ?eld of force 6, having a silent
or unactivated central zone 5. I have indicated
aircraft 8, 9 and ill, maneuvering to accurately
75 locate the landing deck of the aircraft carriers.
Connections are made to a suitable source of 20
ultra-high frequency energy 22, through bus-bar
connectors 23 and ‘24 shown more particularly
in Fig. 5. The connection of the ultra-high fre
quency source 22 with the cluster of doublet an
tennae.is such that the doublet antennae are 25
excited in phase to establish and maintain an
ultra-high frequency ?eld of force substantially
in the shape of an inverted hollow cone and
having a predetermined activated wall thickness
30
and a silent central portion.
The doublets are inclined at a su?icient angle
to a central'longitudinal axis extending through
the re?ecting surface structure to insure the up
ward propagation of the ultra-high frequency
?eld of force in fan-shaped patterns Ha, Ha, 35
Ha, Ma, Ma, i611, H0. and Mia which overlap
one with the other to form a substantially annu
larwconical shaped wall of ultra-high frequency
energy. The conical shaped 'wall of ultra-high
frequency energy inclines upwardly with respect 40
to the deck of the aircraft carrier 2, providing a
well established and de?ned path along which
aircraft may land with a high measure of safety.
The landing indicator for detecting the ultra
high frequency ?eld of force is carried on the 45
aircraft which seeks to land on the designated
area, such as the aircraft at 8, 9, ill, in Fig. 1.
In Fig. 6, the ultra-high frequency indicator
shown schematically comprises a doublet antenna
25, connected through recti?er 28 with indicator 50
2?.
Indicator 2? is activated so long as the
aircraft is within the ultra-‘high frequency ?eld.
As indicated in Fig. 6, the ultra-high frequency
indicator on the aircraft may be associated with
the radio compass coil or loop antenna 28 and 55
antenna 29 grounded at 30, radio compass re
ceiver 3i and right and left hand indicator 32.,
with which is combined the ultra-high frequency
indicator operated from doublet 25.
Where aircraft must be landed aboard ship, 60
such as aircraft carriers and other vessels, the
system of my invention is particularly desirable
because of the compact manner in which the
ultra-high frequency radiators may be assem 65
bled adjacent the deck.
The concentrated ar
rangement of the multiplicity of doublets insures
a high degree of precision in de?ning the landing
area on the. deck of the vessel.
My invention has been described in certain 70
of its preferred embodiments, but I realize that
modi?cations may be readily made and accord
ingly I intend no limitations upon my invention,
except as may be imposed by the scope of the
appended claims.
75
9,184,198
What I claim as new and desire to secure by
Letters Patent of the United States is as follows:
1. In an aircraft landing system, means for
establishing and maintaining an ultra~high fre
quency ?eld of force above an aircraft landing
area, comprising‘ a plurality of ultra-high fre
quency doublet antennae, mutually inclined with
respect to each other and radially assembled '
about a vertically extending central axis, a re
about a vertically extending central axis, a re
?ecting surface spaced from said antennae and
having a vertical axis coincident with said ver
tically extending central axis, and a generator of
ultra-high frequency energy connected with said
doublet antennae for exciting said antennae in
10 ?ecting surface disposed behind all of said doublet
phase for establishing and maintaining, bythe
overlapping relationship of substantially fan
shaped ultra-high frequency ?elds of force,
antennae, and means for exciting said doublet
antennae in phase for radiating an ultra-high
frequency ?eld of force substantially in the shape
an ultra-high frequency ?eld of force substan
tially in the shape of an inverted hollow cone
having a predetermined wall thickness and an 15
inert central portion.
of an inverted hollow cone having a prepatterned
15 wall thickness and an inert central portion.
2. In a system for landing aircraft, means for
establishing and maintaining an ultra-high fre
quency ?eld of force above an aircraft landing
area comprising an electro-magnetic wave re?ect
5. In a system for landing aircraft, a re?ect-l
ing surface structure inclinedv at an angle with
respect to the plane of a landing area, a multi
spect to the plane of the landing area, a multi
mutually inclined with respect to each other and
radially assembled about a vertically extending
central axis, said antennae being positioned in
spaced relation to saidre?ecting surface and sub
stantially parallel thereto, and a generator of 25
ultra-high frequency energy connected with said
doublet antennae for exciting said antennae in
phase for establishing and maintaining, by the
20 ing surface structure substantially in the form of
a cone with the wall thereof inclined with re
plicity of ultra-high frequency doublet antennae 20.
plicity of doublet antennae insulatingly disposed
in spaced relation tosaid re?ecting surface struc
25 ture and having the opposite portions of the
doublet antennae extending in alignment with
each other and substantially parallel to the re
?ecting surface structure, and an ultra-high fre
30
3
area, comprising a plurality of ultra-high fre
quency doublet antennae, mutually inclined with
respect to each other and radially assembled
quency generator connected to said doublet an
overlapping relationship of substantially fan
tennae in phase for establishing and maintaining
by the overlapping relationship of the ?eld pat
terns emanating from said doublet antennae in
space, an ultra-high frequency ?eld of force sub
shaped ultra-high frequency ?elds of force, an
ultra-high frequency ?eld of force substantially
in the shape of an inverted hollow cone having
a predetermined wall thickness and an inert cen
stantially in the shape of a hollow inverted cone
tral portion.
having a predetermined wall thickness and an '
inert central portion.
3. In an aircraft landing system, an electro
magnetic wave re?ecting surface structure, com
prising a metallic re?ector extending in a plu-.
rality of directions and inclined about a central
vertical axis at an angle with respect to the plane
of the aircraft landing area, a plurality of ultra
-
6. In a system for landing aircraft, means for 35
establishing and maintaining an ultra-high fre
quency ?eld of force above an aircraft landing "
area comprising an electro-magnetic wave re
?ecting surface structure inclined at an acute
angle with respect to‘the plane of an aircraft
landing area, a multiplicity of ultra-high fre
quency doublet antennae mutually inclined with
respect to each other and radially assembled
about a vertically extending central axis, said
antennae being insulatingly supported in spaced 45
relation to said re?ecting'surface structure and
having the opposite portions of the doublet an-'
tennae extendng» in alignment with each other
and parallel to the re?ecting surface structure,
antennae for exciting said antennae in phase and . and
an ultra-high frequency generator connected
establishing and maintaining an ultra-high fre
50
quency ?eld of force above said aircraft landing to said doublet antennae in phase for establishing
high frequency doublet antennae insulatinglydis
posed with respect to said re?ecting surface with
arms of said antennae extending substantially
parallel to said re?ecting surface and in radial
alignment with the central vertical axis of said
re?ecting surface structure, and an ultra-high
frequency generator connected with said ‘doublet
\area substantially in the shape or a hollow in
verted cone having a predetermined wall thick
ness.
4. In an aircraft landing system, means for
establishing and maintaining an ultra-high fre
quency ?eld ‘of force above an aircraft landing
and maintaining by the overlapping relationship
of the ?eld patterns emanating from said‘ doublet
antennae in space, an ultra-high frequency ?eld
of force substantially in the shape of a hollow
inverted cone having a predetermined wall thick
ness and an inert central portion,
'
,
FREDERICK J. HOOVEN.
‘
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
542 Кб
Теги
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа