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Патент USA US2134149

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v
Oct. 25, 1938.
E. |_.v SCHELLENS ET AL '
'
2,134,149
REFRIGERATION .
_ Filed Aug. 13, 1935
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INVENTORS
17591.
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‘ Oct. 25, .1938.
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\E. L. SCHELLENS ET AL
2,134,149
REFRIGERATION
Filed Aug. 13',‘ 1935
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6 Sheéts-Sheet 2
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‘57
INVENTOR;
‘ Oct. 25, 1938.
E. L. SCIHEILLENSET AL
‘ 2,134,149
REFRIGERATION
Filed Aug. 13, 1955
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6 Sheets-Sheet 3
I
Oct. 25, 1938.
E. ,|_.' SCHELLENS ET AL
2,134,149
REFRIGERAT ION
Filed Aug. 15, 1935
6 Sheets-Sheet 4
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IN VENTOR5
BY
Oct. 25, 1938.
‘
E. L. SCHELLENS ETYAI.
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2,134,149
REFRIGERATION
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Filed Aug. 13; 19:55
a Sheets-Sheet e"
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BY
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INVENTOR’
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Patented
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2,134,149
UNITED STATES ‘PATENT OFFICE ,
2,134,145‘ I
REFRIGERATION
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Eugene L.‘ Schellens, Bidgewood, NJ J., and Wil
\
liani I. Hamby, Great Neck, N. Y., assignors to
Servel, Inc., New York, N. ‘1., a corporation of
Delaware
_
,
Application Ame 13,1935, Serial'No. 35,924 >
12 Claims.- (or 62-89)
tions l6 and" by means including the analyzer
2|, an air-cooled recti?er 23/, and a liquid cooled
of improved appearance, operation, and utility. recti?er 24. The condenser sections l6. and 11
' grins invention relates to refrigerators and it is
an‘ object of the invention to provide a‘ refrigerator
as will appear upon consideration of the follow
. 5 ing description in conjunction with the accom
panying drawings forming part of this speci? _
tion and- of which:
,
-
I
.
Fig. .1 is a front elevation, partly broken away,
of a refrigerator embodying the invention;
Fig. 2 is a more or less diagrammatic view of an
absorption refrigeration apparatus for the refrig
erator;
-
are provided with heat transfer ?ns for cooling
The absorber | 9 is cooled by heat trans
fer to air through a ?uid heat transfer circuit
including a coil 25 arranged in thermal conductive.
- by air.
relation with the absorber i9 and connected to an ‘
air-cooled condenser 26., The circuit including
the absorber cooling coil 25 and the condenser
26 contains Wsuitable heat transfer ?uid such as
methyl chloride which vaporizes in the coil 25
‘Fig. 3 is a top view of the refrigerator shown r and lique?es in the condenser 26.
in Fig. 1;
ll
erator;
V
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Y
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Fig. 4 isa vertical. sectional view of the refrig
.
‘ tion liquid such as water.
'
' Fig. 5 is a sectional view takenon line 5-5
I in Fig. 4';
.
Fig. 6 is a detail‘ section taken ‘on line .6-8
80 in Figs. 4 and 7;
The refrigeration system contains a solution of
- refrigerant ?uid ‘such as ammonia in an absorp
‘ '
Fig. 'l is a section taken on line 'I—'| in Fig. 6;
Fig.8isasectiontaken online8-8 inFig. 6:
15
The'solution, for ‘in
stance, a thirty per cent solution of ammonia in
water, may be introduced into the system through _ -
a suitable charging plug (not shown) in the lower
part of the absorber IS. A suitable inert pres
sure equalizing gas, such as‘ hydrogen, is then introduced into the system at a pressure corre- .
and Fig.6!) is a detail section ‘taken on line 9—.9 vspending to that in which ammonia condenses at
a fairly high room temperature as, for instance.
.80 - Referring to Fig. 1, a refrigerator III has ather
mally insulated storage compartment ll accessi
bleby means of adoozr II. “The outer surface of
the door I2 is ?ush with the outer ‘surface of the
front of the cabinet II and is hinged to the cab
IO/inet on one side -by means of concealed hinges.
The door I2 is‘ provided with a concealed latch‘
on the free side opposite the hinges. The latch
is operated by means of mechanism concealed
within the door and including a disc It, or other
14 suitable impact receiving member, which is re
ciprocable in a recess in the outer surface of the
door. A fuller explanation of the door latchsand
operating mechanism may be had by reference to
an application Serial No. 32,741 of Norman
'MBelGeddesL
, In Fig. 2 is shown more or less diagrammat
ically an absorption refrigeration system gener
ally of the type disclosed in Patent 1,809,384 to
von Platen et al. i'lhe particular system shown
jlInH‘g'. 2 comprises a generator H, a ?rst con
denser section IS, a second condenser section
' I‘I, an evaporator 18, and an absorber I9. The
evaporator I8 and the absorber iii are intercon
nected for' circulation of gas therebetween by
means including a gas heat exchanger 20. The
generator l4 and the absorber I 9 are intercon
~ 100° F. The generator | 4 is suitably heated’ as, 25
for instance, by a gas burner 21 arranged so that
the burner ?ame is projected into a ?ue 28.
Operation of the burner may be automatically
controlled by a thermostatically operated valve ii
in the burner supply line. The valve operating
thermostat shown in Fig. 2 is of an expansible
?uid type and the sensitive bulb |5a is located
adjacent the evaporator iii.
In operation of the refrigeration system, am
monia vapor expelled from solution by heat in
the generator I4 ?ows from the upper end of the
generator stand-pipe 29 through a conduit -30
into the -analyzer 2|, where the vapor bubbles
upwardly through enriched absorption liquid.
From the analyzer v2|, ammonia vapor flows in
conduit 3| through the air-cooled or high tem
perature recti?er 23 and the lower temperature or
liquid cooled recti?er 24 to the ?rst condenser .
section | 6. Liquid ammonia formed by condensa
tlon in the condenser section l6 ?ows through
a conduit 32 into the recti?er 24 and thence
over?owsthrough a conduit 33 into the‘upper
end of the coil pipe evaporator l8. Ammonia
vapor which may not have been condensed in
the ?rst condenser section l6 passes through con
means including an analyzer 2| and a liquid heat
duit 32, the upper part of the recti?er 24, anda
conduit 34 into the second condenser section 11.
Liquid ammonia. formed by condensation in the
exchanger 22. The generator I4 is connected for
ll flow of vapor therefromto the condensing sec-
condenser section |‘| ?ows through conduit 35
and conduit 33 into the evaporator i8.
nected for circulation of liquid therebetween by
I,
2,184,149
,
.
In the evaporator IS, the liquid ammonia ?ows - ?ow upwardly through compartments II and I.
downwardly,‘ evaporating and diffusing into hy
drogen which enters the lower part of the evap
‘oratorthrough a conduit 36. The resulting gas
mixture flows from the upper end of the evap
orator i8 through a conduit 31, the inner passage
ll of the gas heat exchanger 20, and conduit 39
into the absorber i8. In the absorber, ammonia
I ‘is absorbed out of the gas mixture into weakened
'10
and the upper part of compartment I‘I, leaving
the top of these compartments through the open
ing 6|. The ?rst condenser section II is located
generally horizontally in the top compartment I.
and arranged therein at an angle so that its heat
transfer fins extend across the path of air flow
upwardly through the compartment is. The con
denser section l1 is'generally L-shaped, having
absorption liquid which enters the upper part of
two portions Ila and Nb generally perpendicular
the absorber through a conduit 40.
to each other. The portion Ila. is located in the
upper end of the‘ rear apparatus compartment
The weak gas '
flows from the absorber through a conduit 4|, the
- outer‘passage 42 of the gas heat exchanger 20,.
and conduit 36 to the-evaporator l8;
‘
chamber 51, and the portion "b is arranged sim
ilarly to the ?rst condenser section I6, but in the
Enriched absorption liquid flows from the low 4 top compartment 58 on the opposite side of the 16
er part of the absorber l9 through a conduit 43, ‘refrigerator from the condenser section It in the -
15
the outer passage 44 of the liquid heat exchanger
22, a conduit 45, the analyzer 2|, and a conduit 46
top compartment ‘59. It will now be understood
that air entering the side opening 80 flows up
wardly in thermal contact with the condenser sec
to a chamber 41 in the-generator l4. The en
riched absorption liquid is raised by thermosyphon tions l6 and I1 and then out through the top air
action from the chamber 41 through a conduit 48' ' outlet opening 6|. It will be vseen that the con
into the upper part of the generator stand-pipe 29. denser, comprising sections IB and I1, is generally.
'
The lower end of the generator stand-pipe ‘29 is U-shaped or horseshoe shaped.
, connected to_a chamber 49 of the generator from '
25 which weakened absorption liquid flows through
a conduit 50, the inner passage SI of the liquid
heat exchanger 22, and the conduit 40 into the
upper part of the absorber Ill.
The lower end of the condenser section I‘! is_
30 connected by means of a conduit 52 to a vessel 53,_
commonly referred to as a pressure vessel, which
is connected by means of a conduit 54 to the ab
sorber l9. By means of this path of flow from the
Referring now moreparticularly to Figs. 4 and 6
to 9, the refrigerator storage compartment II is
outlined by what is usually referred. to as a liner
62, enclosed by thermal insulation- material 02.
The liner 62 is generally rectangular, andmay
. be formed of sheet metal which is porcelained on
the interior to provide sanitary walls for the
storage compartment. The upper parts of the
side walls formed by the liner 82 are inclined
slightly inwardly. This angular structure of the
storage compartment at the top of the refrigerator ._
condenser'to the absorber, non-condensible hy
drogen is conducted to the gas circuit ‘instead of permits of the previously described condenser
becdmingtrapped after passage through the con compartments I8 and 59 in the outer side edges.
denser. ' The vessel‘ 53‘ provides storage space for,‘ at the top of the refrigerator and within the gen
erally rectangular contour of the refrigerator.
hydrogen which is displaced by uncondensed am
monia vapor and forced into the gas circuit, thus The top of the storage compartment II is closed ,
40 raising the'total pressure in thesystem on in - at thefront by what may be termed a shield plate
crease in air temperature beyond that for which v64, which is provided with two rectangular open
the system was initially charged.
‘
The manner in which the above described re
ings 66 and 66. The shield plate 84 is preferably '
porcelained on its outer surface and presents the
frigeration apparatus’ is arranged and located in same appearance and cleanliness as the interior
46 the refrigerator may be'seen in Figs. 4 ~and 5 and ofthe storage compartment formed by the liner
thev succeeding detail figures. In these ?gures,‘
the same parts of the apparatus are numbered
’ the same as in Fig. 2. The generator I4, analyzer
50
2|, and liquid heat exchanger 22 are encased .in
thermal insulation material 55, indicated in dot
ted outline in Fig. 2 and in solid outline in Figs.
4 and 5. The refrigerator I0, in addition to the
thermally insulated storage compartment H, is
- provided with an- apparatus compartment having
55 a horizontal portion 58 in the lower-part of the
refrigerator, and a-communicating‘ upright por
1 tion 51 in the‘ rear of the refrigerator.
Addi
tionally, the upper part 'of the refrigerator is
formed to provide two horizontal compartments
5! and 59 along the top side edges of the refriger
ator and extending forwardly from the upper end
of the rear compartment 51. The outer casing of‘
therefrigerator is constructed to provide a linear‘
opening 60 extending horizontally aroundthe up
65 per part of the refrigerator on the two sides and
the rear, and at the bottom of the upper compart
ments 58 and 59.
_
'o
.
.
As may be seen in Fig. 3, the top of the refriger
ator is provided with a generally‘ U-shaped or
70 horseshoe'shaped linear opening GI. The sides
or legs of the opening- 6| overlie the compart
ments 58 and‘ 59, andthe cross portion of the
top opening 6| overlies the upper end of the rear
apparatus compartment 51. It will now‘ be under
75 stood that air‘ may enter the side opening 60 and
62.
.
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,
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The cooling element or evaporator coil ll is
located in the upper part of the refrigerator stor
age compartment II and behind the shield plate
64, which conceals the cooling element from view.
The lower part of the evaporator coil II is located
horizontally between, and in contact with. two
generally similar receptacles l1 and". The re
ceptacle 6| may be provided with a partition or I
shelf 69. -The receptacles i1 and” are open at ll
their forward ends and-in alignment with the
openings “and 86. in the shield plate 04. It will
now be understood that the~ receptacles C1 and
68 form freezing compartments and are for the
purpose of receiving ice freezing trays or the like.
The front ends of these trays may be seen in Fig.
1. Two ordinary-size trays ‘I. and II may be
placed in the receptacle II which is provided with
the intermediate partition or shelf 0 and a dot:
bl'e size tray 12 for frozen desserts or the like may
be placed in the left hand receptacle .1.
_
Around the outside of each of the receptacles
61 and I8 and in spaced relation thereto are
placed metal vcasings ‘I3 and 14. A larger upper
loop no of the evaporator coil is located within 70
the casings 13 and ‘I4 and in thermal contact
therewith. The top surfaces of the casings ‘I!
and 14 are sloped downwardly toward the open
ing 15 in the middle of the lower part of the
evaporator coil l8. These sloping surfaces are 76
2,134,149
corrugated to form
heat transfer surfaces
receives air for combustion through louvres 8!. _
16 and 11; An annular casing or sleeve 18 'is The other parts of the apparatus are arranged‘
‘ placed inside of the boil it. An annular mem ' in the rear upright :apparatus ‘compartment
ber 19 provides a trough directly beneath the.‘ 51. The gas heat exchanger 20 is_ preferably. ’
evaporator coil l8 and has a drain opening .or
spout 80 in. the rear of the storage compartment
recessed in the, insulation 63 of the storage com- '5
I
partment wall.‘ ‘The rear wall-of the Irefrig‘era-.
ll. The spaces between the receptacles 61 and ' tor I0 is provided with an opening‘or lattice-_ ‘
68 onone hand and the casings ‘I3 andll-and work 85 directly opposite the absorber cooling .
the sleeve 18 on the other hand are ?lled'with condenser 26. Air ?ows through the latticework .
suitableinsulation material.
.10' stood
that the lower part of
It will be under-:' 85,-.‘upwardly' over the condenser-.16, upwardly 10
the cooling coil I8_
through‘the upper part of the apparatus com-.~ ‘
‘is in, thermal contact with the receptacles 61
partment 51, and ‘out. through the‘ opening 61
and 88 forming the freezing compartments and . in the top of the'refrigerator. ‘This upward -'?ow I ‘
also with the annular casing or sleeve 18 on" the
of air in the upper part of‘the- apparatus .com- ‘
inside of the coil 18. The outer casings ‘I3 and
partment 51 aids in cooling .the section. vl‘la. of‘ ‘15.
14, provided with the heat transfer ?ns 16“ and
the condenser by inducing a' greater ?ow .ofair ;
‘H, are in thermal contact with the upper turn
through the opening 60 and upwardly over "the
llb of the cooling coil, which is at a higher tem
perature than the lower part. The reason for
condenser section. Ha. _
this is'that hydrogen ‘?ows upwardly through
ing
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''
It will be understoodthat the cooling elemen‘t
claims.
,
What is claimed is:
ammonia evaporates at a higher temperature in ‘
.
,
,
.
.
be made within the scope of the-invention which 20
is‘ not‘limited except as indicated in'the follow-v
the cooling coil l8, and the partial‘ pressure of
ammonia is greater in the upper part 'of'the coil
than in the lower part of the coil, wherefore the
the upper part of the coil.
g
' It will be understood that other‘ changes-may
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.1. A refrigerator ‘including
a cabinet having
.. thermally insulated top, bottom, ‘and-side walls 25 _
forming a food storage compartment and adoor
structure ‘just described may be mounted ‘on a affording access ‘ to said compartment, .- upper
removable‘ insulated wall section or closure mem
parts of said side walls‘being sloped inward on
ber 8| which fits into a window or opening in the several sides of the cabinet forming a reduced '
rear wall of the thermally insulated storage come upper portion vof ‘the folodfcompartment, and 39.
partment II, as may be seen in Figs-4 and 9. refrigeration apparatus including a cooling ele
. Thus, ‘the cooling element may be removably as
ment in said compartment and condenser parts
vsembled and disassembled as a unit with the located laterally on several/ sides with respect
refrigeration apparatus, the cooling element be, to said cooling element and in the spaces outside
ing inserted and withdrawn through the wall of’ said‘ inward sloping wall parts substantially
opening into which the‘ closure‘ member 8| ?ts within the upward projected ‘areas of the lower .
when the apparatus is- ‘assembled in the refriger .parts 'of said side ‘walls.
ator.
'
Referring now to Fig. 6, the direction of air.
.01 ?ow in the storage compartment II is indicated
by arrows. Air flows upwardly at each side of the
refrigerator compartment, up behind the shield
plate 64. across the upper part of the casings‘
J3 and 14 in contact with the ?nsv 16 and 11,.
2.‘A refrigerator including a gc‘abiynet having
thermally insulated top'; bottom and side .walls
‘forming .a food storage compartment which is‘
substantially rectangular in. horizontal section
and a door affording access tosaid compartment.
the upper parts of said side walls adjoining the
wall which includes said door being slopedin- '
and thence downwardly through the opening ‘I5 ' ward to form a narrowed upper portion of‘the'
in the center of the lower part of the cooling coil food compartment, and a' refrigeration apparatus -_ ’
ll.’ Air is caused to ?ow in this direction for including a cooling element in said compartment ‘
the reason ‘that the sleeve 18 on the inside of and condenser ‘parts located laterally with respect
the cooling coil I8 is at a lower temperature than - to said cooling element and in the spaces outside
_ the other cooling surfaces of the cooling element of said inward sloping wall parts substantially
contacted by the air, wherefore air moves down
within the upward projected area of the lower
wardly'within the sleeve 18.
parts of said side walls.
.
When frost is melted from the cooling ele
_ ment, the drip is collected in the trough ‘l9 and
‘
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_
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3. A refrigerator including a‘ cabinet having
thermally ‘insulated top, bottom and vside walls
discharged in the rear of the storage compart
forming ‘a food storage compartment which is
ment II by way of’ the spout 80, into any suit- _' substantially , rectangular in ‘- horizontal ‘section
able vessel placed beneath the spout.
_
and open on one side and a door for closing said
Referring‘ to Fig. 9, a suitable lamp 8!, such as open side, the. upper parts of said side walls ad
' an electric light bulb connected, as known, to joining the open side of said compartment being
be lighted when the door i2 is open, is located sloped inward to. provide a reduced upper portion
in thej'top of the storage compartment ll, be
of the food compartment, said door being sub-' ‘
hind the shield plate ‘64, and above the central - stantiaily rectangular and overlapping said re
opening ‘I! in the center of the cooling coil la. duced upper portion of the food compartment.
.The light is directed downwardly through the and refrigeration apparatus including a cooling
central opening 15 into the refrigerator storage
inthe reduced portion of said compart
compartment therebelo’w, vwhereby light is avail-‘ element
ment and condenser parts located laterally with
able while its source is concealed.
The other parts of the refrigeration apparatus respect to .‘said cooling element and in the spaces
are located in the apparatus compartmentsv 56 outside of said ‘inward sloping wall parts substan
tially within the upward. projected area of the
70 and 51, as illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5. The hor
izontal portion of the generator I‘ and the liquid lower parts of said side walls. ‘
'4. A refrigerator‘ as set forth in claim 3 in
heat exchanger" in theilower-part of the insu-‘
which a plate of substantially the same width ' ‘
lation‘casing 55 are located in the lower appa
ratus compartment“, so‘ that the .burner 21 is as the lower‘ part of. ‘said'storage compartrrientv ,
75 at the front of the ‘refrigerator cabinet Illll and
conceals the reduced upper portion .of said‘ coni- 75.
I
"4
2,184,149
_ partment when viewed horizontally through said
‘open side.
.
ing a substantially rectangular cover plate at the‘ front of the evaporator in part overlapping the
v5. A refrigerator as set forth in'claim 1 in ' oblique insulated wall parts and a door also in
part overlapping the oblique insulated wall parts.
which a casing encloses and fits around said in
'sulated walla-said casing having substantially - ' 10. A refrigerator as set forth in claim 6 hav- a
vertical sides and having openings therein located ' ing the lateral spaces at both sides and‘ having
at the bottom and top of said condenser spaces. ' casing members at both sides and rear providing
6. A refrigerator including a cabinet having ‘nu-shaped elongated lower and upper apertures. ~ _
11. A refrigerator including a food storage
insulated walls enclosing a food compartment, an
evaporator ‘in the upper part of said food com ' compartment formed by thermally insulated top, '10
partment, s'aid cabinet including vertical wall bottom and'side walls, upper parts of said side
parts below said evaporator, a cabinet wall part walls being sloped inward so that there is in the
upper part or said compartment a space having
above said evaporator-being horizontal, and cab
inet wall parts laterally of said evaporator being reduced cross sectional area and spaces outside.
of the insulated walls on several sides of the,"
oblique to and connecting the vertical and hori
zontal wall parts providing-lateral spaces, casing refrigerator to receive condenser parts. and a
cooling element in ‘said food storage compart
elongated apertures at the bottoms and tops of’ ment. said cooling element being formed and'ar
the lateral spaces, members completing with said ranged‘to occupy substantially the entire- space
' parts bounding said lateral spaces and providing
evaporator a freezing system of the type employ
, ing inert gas, said freezing system including con
denserparts in said lateral spaces arranged to
be cooled by air passing through said apertures,
of reduced area in the upper part of the food com- ,a?
partment so that there-is no unuseable ‘storage
space in the food compartment and no storage
space affected in area by the inward sloped parts
refrigerant‘ from the; condenser parts to the
of the side walls.
12. A refrigerator
being at substantially the same elevation.
provided with a substantially rectangular door
‘ and said freezing systemuincluding means to ?ow
set forth in claim 11 in [is
evaporator by~.;,-gravi_ty, 'the upper part of the which the food storage compartment is substan- j
evaporator and the lower part of the condenser v, tially rectangular in horizontal section and is
'7. Apparatusv as set forth in claim 6 in-which , opening in one side which is not sloped'in at the
the casing ‘parts bounding the lateral spaces have.
horizontal and vertical outer surfaces in align
, ment respectively with verticaland horizontal .
suriages'of the insulated cabinet walls.
top, a substantially rectangular door for closing ,89
said opening, said door overlapping the reduced
upper part of said compartment, and a substan
tially rectangular plate ‘adjacent the door open
8. A'refrigerator as set forth in claim 6 having .ing and'concealing said cooling element and the
a substantially rectangular door'ln ‘part over--v reduced upper part of the storage compartment. (es
lapping the oblique insulated wall parts.
Q. A refrigerator as set forth in claim 6 h'av-?
EUGENE .L. SCHELLENS.
WILLIAM I. HAMBY.
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