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Патент USA US2134157

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Oct. 25, r1938,A
M. D; THOMPSON
' PROPELLER
Filed Aúg. 9, 1937‘
Patented oct 25, 193s
i
`
,l34,l57
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
v2,134,157
raoPnLLnn
Milton D. Thompson, Fairhaven, Mass.
Application August e, i937, serial No. >158,049
’i claims. ici. 17o-162)
This invention relates to propellers, particular- ler with one half of the two-part casing removed,
ly that type commonly known as the "feathering” the blades being disposed in the “ahead” posi
blade. In this type the blades are capable of tion;
limited rotation on their own axes.
Fig. 5 is like Fig. 4 except that the propeller
5
In my-present invention I have in view two
principal objects;_
First: To provide means whereby that face oi'
the blade which is most eñìclent for propelling
purposes is always used-either for going ahead
10 or going astern movements of the vessel.
Second: To evolve a propeller in which the
blades themselves are utilized in the operation of
re-arranging them' when a change in the direc~
tion of movement of the ship is desired. I ac-
15 complish the first object by means which’per'
mit the blades to rotate on their axes through an
arc of substantially one hundred and eighty degrees, or half a turn,
The second object is attained through the
20 agency of the particular form or_ contour of the
shaft hub has been rotated, relative to the cas
ing, to bring the blades into “astern” positions;
Figs. 6 and 7, are respectively, the two grooves
in the hub member developed on a plane surface
to show their exact contours;
Fig. 8 is a transverse section through the parts, lo
taken 0n a Central line through the blade flanges;
Fig. «9 is a section on line 9-j9, Fig. 4, and
Fig. 10 iS an end View. Partly in SeetiOn. 0f One
0f the propeller bladeS.
Referring t0 the drawing. l iS a Propeller Shaft, 16
_ñxedly secured vto which. by a key la. is a pro- l
seller-shaft hub having Outer end straight por- "
tions 2 and an intermediate part 2a conforming
t0 the Shape 0f a fri-‘Stuhl 0f a Sphere» _
In the portion 2a are tWO grOOVeS 3 and 4. one 20v
blade, there being _anexcess of _water-impacting
‘dlalnetrleally ODDOSite the Other. Both grOOVeS
surface on one side of the axial line of the blade,
making it out of balance, axially.
The preponderance of working face is on the
are Spire-lling and grOOVe 3 Somewhat irregular in
contour. Should there be more than twoblades
in the Propeller aSSembly a COrreSDOnding num
25 water-leaving or trailing portion of the biade,
ber 0f grooves would be Supplied.
this portion extending transversely a greater distance from its axial line than does the entering
or cutting edge on the opposite side of the axle
line. Its action is somewhat analogous to a
30 weather vane, the tail of which swings the vane
when the wind shifts from one quarter to another.
When my propeller is employed on auxiliary
powered vessels these trailing portions of the
blades cause them to automatically come into
35 longitudinal feathering positions when the power
is shut oñ. Immediately the propeller shaft starts
In Figs. 6 and 7 the contour of these groove
are shown as they would appear were their
outlines transferred to a plane surface. Their
functions will hereinafter be explained.
EnClOSing the Propeller-Shafthnb iS a tWO-Dart 30
Casing 5. the DOI'tlOnS 2. 2 0f the hnb being J'Ollr
nailed in the bearings 6. 6, respectively, of the
casing and capable of restricted rotation therein.
The outside surfaces of these bearings are screw
tlrn'eaded. at l. t0 reCeiV , respectively. the Cellars 35
8’ 8 which Serve t0 rigidly Clamp the tWO Similar
to revolve, these trailing portions, by impactíon
on the water, force the blades' to turn on their
axes a certain amoun1;_ the propeller hub mech4o anism cooperating to bring the blades into their
full Working pitch positions.
«
For a clearer understanding of the import of
iny invention reference should be had to the descrlption found in the following specification
45 when taken in connection with the accompanying
drawing in which like reference characters are
employed to identify like parts in alll the different
views thereof. In the drawing,Fig. 1 is a side view of the propeller, showing
50 the blades in the "go ahead” positions;
Fig. 2 is the same, except that the blades are
positioned to drive the ship “astern”;
'
Fig. 3 showsithe blades in “feathering” positions, when the propeller shaft is idle;
55
Fig. 4'shows a fragmentary view of the propel-
'
‘
- -25
halves 0f the Casing together.
0n ODDOSite Sides 0f the assembled Casing 5 are
circular ilanges 9, the latter being disposed in the
circular gI‘OOVeS l0 in the hubs Il 0f the Propeller 40
blades i2 and I2a, respectively. The hubs il of
the blades rotate on their axes within the cir
cular Ílange. but like -the prepeller-Shaft hub. the
extent 0f their I‘OtatiOn iS limited.
The faces 0f the narices 9 cvnveree slightly to- 45
Ward the aft end of the propeller. thllS Producing
an aftward rake t0 the blades.
On the ‘hub i i of each -blade ls a pintle or
gudgeon, the pintle i3 on the blade I2 extending
into the groove 3 and the pintle il on the blade 50
Wd engaging the grOOVe 4
By observing Fig. 3 it will
noted that'the ~
form or contour of the blades is unsymmetrical.
'I'his makes them out of axial balance, the por
tion X extending much further from .the axial 55
2,134,157
2
line S-.-S of each blade than does the cutting
edge portion C. E.
The trailing portion X on the water-leaving
side of the axial line of each blade is also greatly
in excess of the portion on the opposite side of
the axial line when the propeller is viewed normal
2-2a and casing 5, and this movement advances
the pintles into positions I3d and IlId, the water
at this time assisting, infact acting as the pri
mary agent to continue the axial movement of
the blades until they come into positions I3e and
Ile, at which places they are disposed at the op
to, or at a right angle with, the propeller shaft I.
Thus when brought to their full or working pitch
positions, (as shown in Figs. 1 and 2), the path
10 cut in the water by the revolving blades lies
largely on the trailing (X) side of their respec
tive pivotal center lines.
posite ends of the grooves 3 and l in full work
irtig pitch positions for “ahead” movement of the
s
p.
~
When changing the positions of the blades, 10
from that in which they drive the ship “astern”
to that in which they propel it “ahead”, the ilrst
part of this operation is accomplished mechani
cally, or through the agency of the pintles and
With the parts arranged as shown in Figs. 2
and 5, and the shaft revolving in the direction
15
indicated by the arrow A, the ship orv boat will grooves.
The reason for this requirement will be appar
be >propelled “astern”, the nut Z indicating that _ent when it is borne in mind that during this
this is the aft end of the propeller shaft. The period (the first portion of the axial turning
pintle I3 will be disposed at the rearward end movement of the blades) the water impacts
of the 4groove 3 and the pintle I4 located in a strongly against the trailing portions X, thereby 20
corresponding part of the groove 4.
hindering rather than assisting, by water means,
The positions, relatively, of the pintles in their the rotation of the blades on their axes, while
respective grooves are more comprehensively the propeller as a whole is revolving.
shown in Figs. 6 and '7, in vwhich the periphery
This condition exists untilV the blades have
2a of the propeller shaft hub is developed into a axially rotated slightly beyond their- transverse 25
25 plane surface and the grooves outlined thereon. feathering positions, at which time the water
Starting with the pintles I3 and I4 in the does assist, in fact almost exclusively provides
grooves in which they respectively operate when the means for their axial rotation.
driving the ship “astern”, their positions as rep
Furthermore, it is obvious that it takes less
resented in the Figs. 6 and 7 are at I3a and I 4a, power, and the parts are subjected to a less 30
30 and rotation of the propeller shaft I in the di'
amount of strain and wear if, during this me
rection indicated by the arrow B will drive the chanically actuated portion of the full axial ro
ship in the direction just mentioned,-“astern”. tation of the blades, they are acted upon sep
At this point, with the parts arranged as shown arately. And for this reason and to attain the
in Figs. 2 and 5, let it be assumed that a change objects inferred from the foregoing statement, 35
the direction of movement of the ship to one of the blades is made to rotate on its axis
3.6 in
“ahead” is desired, to accomplish which it is in advance of the other, through the instru
necessary to re-position the blades so that they mentality of the pintle I3, which _is integral with
will appear as illustrated in Fig. 1.
the advancing blade I2, riding the projection 3a,
Now at the start of the change in direction of which operation suddenly brings the trailing por 40
rotation of the propeller shaft from what is des
tion X of the blade I2 out of the circular path
ignated as “astern”, as indicated by arrow A, to of the trailing portion X of blade I2a, and into
“ahead" which is indicated by the arrow B, the substantially transverse feathering position
blades lag, or do not immediately and simulta
where resistance Ato rotation by and with the
neously respond to the rotary movement of the propeller shaft is greatly lessened.
45
`
shaft, and there develops a rotary movement,
After the pintle I3 passes the projection 3a
relatively, between the propeller shaft hub 2-2a and enters the portion of the groove 3 which is'
and the casing 5. 'This brings the pintles I3 and disposed normal tothe axis of the propeller shaft,
I4 from positions I3a and Ila. to positions I3b and until it arrived at the position I3c, there is
and Mb, respectively.
'
no axial rotation of the blade I2. In other words, 50
Thus far there will be no appreciable axial ro
after the pintle enters this lead-less portion of
tation of the blade I2a, but, 'due to the sli'ght
the
3 the blade I2 ceases to rotate on its '
lead or advance in this portion of the groove 3, axis groove
and is temporarily held in substantially
represented by D, the pintle I3 will act to giver transverse feathering position, in which position
the blade I2 a comparatively small axial rotation. there is very little power expended in revolving 55
55 _Now from this. point onward (from positions the propeller insofar as blade I2 is concerned.
I3b and IIb) the blades have two agencies act
Now blade I2a must be brought into the same
ing to turn them on'their axes, the pintles and position, relatively, as that in which blade I2 is
grooves being one, and the resistance of the wa
ter against which the trailing portions of the at this time_disposed,--that is, transverse feath
60 blades impact, being the other.
`
After the pintles I3 and I4 have advanced in
the grooves 3 and 4, respectively, to positions I 3b
and Mb, the pintle I3 engages anabrupt projec
tion 3a extending into the groove 3. This gives
65 the blade I2 a sudden and impulsive axial move
ment, disaligning temporarily the portions X of
the two blades, the pintle I3 moving to position
I3c and the pintle Il at the same time advancing
in an easy stage to position Mc, at which posi
70 tions the two blades are v1n substantially similar
pitch angles with the shaft, and in approximate
ly transverse feathering positions.
-
As the propeller shaft continues to revolve, the
resistance of the water on the blades causes still
75 further movement, relatively, between the hub
ering position.
After the blade I2 ceases to rotate on its axis,
the pintle I4, moving along the slot l, causes the
blade I2a to'gradually rotate on its axis until
upon reaching the location Ilc it is disposed in
transverse feathering position, comparable to
that of blade> I2.
"
The twoy blades, I2 and I2a, shortly/after com- ‘l
ing to the positions I3c and llc, respectively, are
brought into their full pitch positions mainly
by their impaction on the water, as the propeller 70
as a whole revolves.
A lug 'I5 on each blade engages a stop member
I6 on the casing preventing further axial move
ment of the blade. A corresponding stop member
is provided on the opposite side of the casing 'ß
v 2,184,157
movement of the blades on their ax‘es must be
Fig. 10 shows'one of the blades, end on. The
full line depiction represents it in longitudinal
feathering position, and the dotted line counter
part of the blade illustrates it in full pitch,
“ahead” position. Throughout the text of the
foregoing specification a so-called "right-hand”
the pintles and grooves which, by the over-riding
action of the casing on the propeller shaft hub,
develops a movement, relatively, between these
screw propeller is contemplated.,
10
accomplished through the instrumentality of
two elements which force the blades into and
slightly beyond their transverse feathering posi
~ '
.The are Y, shown in Figs. 6, 7 and l0, measures
the angle through which the blades swing on
their axes in moving from positions l3nt and. Md
vto positions 13e and Me, respectively.
. The casing 5 may be ñlled with grease for
lubricating the working parts therein, the screw
l1 being removed to gain access to its interior.
I have hereinbefore described in detail the
steps required to be taken to change the posi
tions of the blades from that in which they
20 propel the ship “astern” to that in which the
ship is made to move “ahead”. The reverse op
eration, or that in which the blades are positioned
in'v the “ahead” propelling positions and are to
be changed to the “astern” ship-driving duty, is
25 conducted and accomplished in a quite similar
manner, except for a certain difference in the
order or sequence in- which the two forces, me
chanical and water-impact, are applied to the
blades to rotate Ithem on their axes.
30
3 e
to limit the axial movements of the blades in the
opposite direction.
With conditions such as are presented in Fig.
l, in which is shown a right-hand propeller, ro
tating as indicated by the arrow B, calculated to
drive the ship ahead, -and it is desired to re
position the blades to drive the ship astern, the
35 first move is to change the direction of rotation
of the’shaft, so that it will revolve in the direc
tion of arrowl A. Immediately upon reversing
the direction of rotation of the shaft the out
wardly extending trailing portions X of the blades
40 impact the water and cause the blades to turn on
' their axes,- and this turning movements is con
tions, at which time the pressure of the water
acts on the trailing portions of the blades and
quickly brings them into their full pitch posi 10
tions, for driving the vessel ahead. The blade
in- this operation turns as indicated by the arrow
N, Fig. 5.
In contrast Iwith the first operation described
wherein the blades were changed from the 15
“ahead” to the “astern” positions, this latter op
eration where the blades moved from the “astern”
to the “ahead” arrangement thereof, started with
mechanical actuation of the blades and finished
by the impact of the blades on the water.
20
It will be noted that in whichever direction
the blades are to be moved for re-positioning,
"ahead” to “astern” ror vice versa, a greater pro
portion of the axial movement is brought about
through the direct action of the water on the 25
trailing portions of the blades.
It is further to be observed that, Whether driv
ing the ship “ahead” or “astern”, the most eñi
cient and identical Working face of the bladev
does the driving.
30
My propeller has proven very satisfactory in
practical use, particularly with respect to its
efficiency when the vessel or boat is being driven
astern.
-
.
,
,
'
In auxiliary yacht service the longitudinal
feathering feature is of great advantage, as the
blades automatically come into positions as shown
in Fig. 3 when the shaft stops revolving.
. Another feature resides in the construction of
the blades, which are similar, and one “spare”
would ñt in place of either of the regular blades
should one of them become injured.
What I claim is:
1. A propeller mechanism vcomprising in com
tinued until the blades arrive at substantially
transverse feathering positions and the water no
longer has any axially turning effect on the
45 blades. During this portion of their axial-rotat ' bination with a propeller shaft, a propeller-shaft
ing movement thel blades have turned in the hub ñxedly secured to said shaft and having two 45.
direction of the arrow M.
But as the shaft and blades continue to revolve
together, the resistance of the Water on the blades
50 is sufficient to cause a movement, relatively, be
tween the casing and the propeller shaft hub,
.resulting in the pintles and grooves functioning
to complete the axial turning movement of the
blades and bring them to their full pitch posi
55 tions to drive the ship astern.
So it is evident that the first part of the axial
turning movement of the blades is, in this oper-'
ation, accomplished by water impaction, and the
last portion by mechanical me
60
.
'ß
Now with respect to the change from "astern”
to “ahead” movement of the vessel, and the se
quence of operations necessary to re-arrange the
blades to accomplish> this object, We will de
scribe it by starting with the blades arranged
65 as shown in Fig. 2, with the shaft rotating in the
direction indicated by the arrow A. The vessel
peripheral, spiralling grooves therein extending
partially therearound, one of said grooves having, '
for a predetermined distance from one end, a
slight lead, a two-part casing enclosing said
propeller-shaft hub, two bearings on opposite ends,
respectively, of said casing in which said propeller
shaft hub is journalled and capable of restricted Y
rotation therein, two circular flanges disposed on
opposite sides, respectively, of said casing, a pro 55
peller blade, having a circumferential groove in
its hub portion, rotatively mounted in ea‘ch of
said ñanges, and a pintle on the hub of each of
the propeller blades, the two pintles adapted to
pellerfshaft hub.
2. A propeller comprising in combination with
a propeller shaft, a propeller-shaft hub/element
engage, respectively, the two grooves in said pro
ñxed on said shaft, the central portion, length
wise of said hub being frusto-spherical in shape
and having a. plurality of irregularly contoured
grooves in, and advancing along the periphery
is nowmoving “astern”. But it is desiredto ar
range the blades so that the vessel will-be pro
thereof, a casing, formedof two similar half-por
pelled “ahead”. As was the case inthe previous tions, having a bearing at each end in which the
change of positions of the blades, the shaft I is , two end portions of said propeller-shaft hub are
first made to revolve in the opposite direction, respectively journalled. a plurality of propeller 70
that is, according to arrow B. -But in this in ' blade bearings disposed on the sides' of said cas
stance the blades are `set so that advantage can
ing, equally spaced therearound, a propeller blade,
not be taken of the water to start them rotating
on their axes, so the first Vportion of the turning
>having a collared hub portion on its inner end,
rotatively mounted in each of said-bearings on 75
4
_
the sides of the casing, a pintle on and extend
ing inwardly froml the collared portion of each
blade, adapted to engage one of the grooves in
the propeller-shaft hub,- and cause the blade to
which it is attached to rotate on its axis when
there is rotational movement, relatively, between
said hub and said casing.'
3. A propeller apparatus, adapted to be mount
ed on the end of a propeller shaft, comprising a
10 propeller-shaft hub,'a plurality of outstanding,
irregularly contoured walls arranged on the outer
surface of said hub, one of said walls lying in a~
plane substantially at a right angle to the axis
of said shaft for a predetermined distance from
15 one end of the wall, and merging into a spiral
form as it advances to the opposite end, a two
part casing enclosing said propeller-shaft hub,
bearings in the ends of said casing in which the
outer end portions of the propeller-shaft hub are
20 mounted for restricted rotation, a collar on each
end of said casing securing the two parts to
gether, a propeller blade rotatively mounted on
the side of said casing in two or more circumfer
entially spaced positions thereon, and means
interconnecting said propeller blades with the
irregularly contoured walls so constructed and ar
ranged that upon 'rotating said propeller-shaft
tion of spherical zone shape, two grooves, against
the walls oi' which said pintles abut, cut on op
posite sides, respectively, of the spherical zone
portion of said hub member, one groove starting
at the aft end of said portion and continuing
therearound for a predetermined distance with
slight lead, then spiralling gradually to the for
ward end of said portion, the other of the said
grooves starting at its after end with a slight
lead and interrupted by an abrupt projection 10
which causes the‘ engaging pintle to be swung
on its orbit quickly to expedite the axial rotation
of the blade to which it is attached, and bring
this blade into transverse feathering position in
advance of the movement of the other pintle 15
which later causes the oppositely disposed blade
to be rotated into a relatively similar angular
position, both blades from these positions on
wardly and until they arrive at their full pitch
positions being axially rotated by impaction of 20
their trailing portions on the water.
6. A propeller mechanism for ship propulsion
comprising in combination with a propeller shaft
a propeller-blade-carrying member, means for f
mounting, for axial rotation, a plurality of pro
peller blades on said propeller-blade-carrying
member, a grooved hub fixed on said shaft, said
hub in and with respect to said casing, said pro- ' hub being disposed within, and having restricted
rotary movement relative to, said propeller-blade
peller blades are made to rotate on their axes.
4. A propeller apparatus for ship propulsion
carrying member, and means associated with said
' propeller blades, co-acting with said grooved hub
balanced propeller blades, a pintle on each blade, member, to rotate said blades on their axes, to the
a'two-part casing on the periphery of which a extent that the same cutting edges and driving
plurality of said blades are mounted for rotation faces are used in driving the ship either “ahead”
purposes comprising a plurality of axially un
on' their axes, a propeller-shaft hub member
journalled in said casing and having a plurality of
dìssimilarly contoured grooves, said grooves being
so formed that in changing the direction of rota
tion of the propeller from driving the ship
“astern” 'to propelling it “ahead”, one of said
blades starts rotating on its axis in advance of
~ the remaining blades, a lug on each-blade, and
abutments on said casing, engaged by said lugs
to limit axial rotation movements of the blades in
each direction.
or “astern".
'
7. Al duplex, reversible-blade propeller com
prising inl combination with a propeller shaft
adapted to revolve in both directions, a shaft hub
ñxed on said shaft, pintle-engaging means on the
periphery of said shaft hub, a two-part casing in
which said shaft hub is disposed and its ends
journalled, two propeller-blade bearings posi
tioned, respectively, on opposite sides of said cas
ing, the faces of said bearings converging aftward,
an axially unbalanced propeller blade, rotatable
on its axis and having a hub' portion, mounted in 45
end of a shaft for ship propulsion purposes, com- ' each of the propeller-blade bearings, a pintle ec
prising a two-part casing, a bearing in each end centrically positioned on the hub portion of each
of said casing, two propeller-blade bearings on blade adapted, in co-action with said pintle
opposite sides, respectively, of said casing, an cngaging means on the shaft hub, to rotate the
5. A. propeller adapted to be mounted on the
blade when movement, relatively, between the
axial rotation in each of the side bearings in. shaft hub and the casing occurs, and means to
said casing, a-.pintle> on each of said propeller limitthe rotary, axial movement of each blade
`
blades, a shaft hub member having two straight in both directions.
axially unbalanced propeller blade mounted for
end portions iournalled, respectively, in the end
bearings of said casing and an intermediate por
MILTON D. THOMPSON.
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