Патент USA US2134157код для вставки
Oct. 25, r1938,A M. D; THOMPSON ' PROPELLER Filed Aúg. 9, 1937‘ Patented oct 25, 193s i ` ,l34,l57 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE v2,134,157 raoPnLLnn Milton D. Thompson, Fairhaven, Mass. Application August e, i937, serial No. >158,049 ’i claims. ici. 17o-162) This invention relates to propellers, particular- ler with one half of the two-part casing removed, ly that type commonly known as the "feathering” the blades being disposed in the “ahead” posi blade. In this type the blades are capable of tion; limited rotation on their own axes. Fig. 5 is like Fig. 4 except that the propeller 5 In my-present invention I have in view two principal objects;_ First: To provide means whereby that face oi' the blade which is most eñìclent for propelling purposes is always used-either for going ahead 10 or going astern movements of the vessel. Second: To evolve a propeller in which the blades themselves are utilized in the operation of re-arranging them' when a change in the direc~ tion of movement of the ship is desired. I ac- 15 complish the first object by means which’per' mit the blades to rotate on their axes through an arc of substantially one hundred and eighty degrees, or half a turn, The second object is attained through the 20 agency of the particular form or_ contour of the shaft hub has been rotated, relative to the cas ing, to bring the blades into “astern” positions; Figs. 6 and 7, are respectively, the two grooves in the hub member developed on a plane surface to show their exact contours; Fig. 8 is a transverse section through the parts, lo taken 0n a Central line through the blade flanges; Fig. «9 is a section on line 9-j9, Fig. 4, and Fig. 10 iS an end View. Partly in SeetiOn. 0f One 0f the propeller bladeS. Referring t0 the drawing. l iS a Propeller Shaft, 16 _ñxedly secured vto which. by a key la. is a pro- l seller-shaft hub having Outer end straight por- " tions 2 and an intermediate part 2a conforming t0 the Shape 0f a fri-‘Stuhl 0f a Sphere» _ In the portion 2a are tWO grOOVeS 3 and 4. one 20v blade, there being _anexcess of _water-impacting ‘dlalnetrleally ODDOSite the Other. Both grOOVeS surface on one side of the axial line of the blade, making it out of balance, axially. The preponderance of working face is on the are Spire-lling and grOOVe 3 Somewhat irregular in contour. Should there be more than twoblades in the Propeller aSSembly a COrreSDOnding num 25 water-leaving or trailing portion of the biade, ber 0f grooves would be Supplied. this portion extending transversely a greater distance from its axial line than does the entering or cutting edge on the opposite side of the axle line. Its action is somewhat analogous to a 30 weather vane, the tail of which swings the vane when the wind shifts from one quarter to another. When my propeller is employed on auxiliary powered vessels these trailing portions of the blades cause them to automatically come into 35 longitudinal feathering positions when the power is shut oñ. Immediately the propeller shaft starts In Figs. 6 and 7 the contour of these groove are shown as they would appear were their outlines transferred to a plane surface. Their functions will hereinafter be explained. EnClOSing the Propeller-Shafthnb iS a tWO-Dart 30 Casing 5. the DOI'tlOnS 2. 2 0f the hnb being J'Ollr nailed in the bearings 6. 6, respectively, of the casing and capable of restricted rotation therein. The outside surfaces of these bearings are screw tlrn'eaded. at l. t0 reCeiV , respectively. the Cellars 35 8’ 8 which Serve t0 rigidly Clamp the tWO Similar to revolve, these trailing portions, by impactíon on the water, force the blades' to turn on their axes a certain amoun1;_ the propeller hub mech4o anism cooperating to bring the blades into their full Working pitch positions. « For a clearer understanding of the import of iny invention reference should be had to the descrlption found in the following specification 45 when taken in connection with the accompanying drawing in which like reference characters are employed to identify like parts in alll the different views thereof. In the drawing,Fig. 1 is a side view of the propeller, showing 50 the blades in the "go ahead” positions; Fig. 2 is the same, except that the blades are positioned to drive the ship “astern”; ' Fig. 3 showsithe blades in “feathering” positions, when the propeller shaft is idle; 55 Fig. 4'shows a fragmentary view of the propel- ' ‘ - -25 halves 0f the Casing together. 0n ODDOSite Sides 0f the assembled Casing 5 are circular ilanges 9, the latter being disposed in the circular gI‘OOVeS l0 in the hubs Il 0f the Propeller 40 blades i2 and I2a, respectively. The hubs il of the blades rotate on their axes within the cir cular Ílange. but like -the prepeller-Shaft hub. the extent 0f their I‘OtatiOn iS limited. The faces 0f the narices 9 cvnveree slightly to- 45 Ward the aft end of the propeller. thllS Producing an aftward rake t0 the blades. On the ‘hub i i of each -blade ls a pintle or gudgeon, the pintle i3 on the blade I2 extending into the groove 3 and the pintle il on the blade 50 Wd engaging the grOOVe 4 By observing Fig. 3 it will noted that'the ~ form or contour of the blades is unsymmetrical. 'I'his makes them out of axial balance, the por tion X extending much further from .the axial 55 2,134,157 2 line S-.-S of each blade than does the cutting edge portion C. E. The trailing portion X on the water-leaving side of the axial line of each blade is also greatly in excess of the portion on the opposite side of the axial line when the propeller is viewed normal 2-2a and casing 5, and this movement advances the pintles into positions I3d and IlId, the water at this time assisting, infact acting as the pri mary agent to continue the axial movement of the blades until they come into positions I3e and Ile, at which places they are disposed at the op to, or at a right angle with, the propeller shaft I. Thus when brought to their full or working pitch positions, (as shown in Figs. 1 and 2), the path 10 cut in the water by the revolving blades lies largely on the trailing (X) side of their respec tive pivotal center lines. posite ends of the grooves 3 and l in full work irtig pitch positions for “ahead” movement of the s p. ~ When changing the positions of the blades, 10 from that in which they drive the ship “astern” to that in which they propel it “ahead”, the ilrst part of this operation is accomplished mechani cally, or through the agency of the pintles and With the parts arranged as shown in Figs. 2 and 5, and the shaft revolving in the direction 15 indicated by the arrow A, the ship orv boat will grooves. The reason for this requirement will be appar be >propelled “astern”, the nut Z indicating that _ent when it is borne in mind that during this this is the aft end of the propeller shaft. The period (the first portion of the axial turning pintle I3 will be disposed at the rearward end movement of the blades) the water impacts of the 4groove 3 and the pintle I4 located in a strongly against the trailing portions X, thereby 20 corresponding part of the groove 4. hindering rather than assisting, by water means, The positions, relatively, of the pintles in their the rotation of the blades on their axes, while respective grooves are more comprehensively the propeller as a whole is revolving. shown in Figs. 6 and '7, in vwhich the periphery This condition exists untilV the blades have 2a of the propeller shaft hub is developed into a axially rotated slightly beyond their- transverse 25 25 plane surface and the grooves outlined thereon. feathering positions, at which time the water Starting with the pintles I3 and I4 in the does assist, in fact almost exclusively provides grooves in which they respectively operate when the means for their axial rotation. driving the ship “astern”, their positions as rep Furthermore, it is obvious that it takes less resented in the Figs. 6 and 7 are at I3a and I 4a, power, and the parts are subjected to a less 30 30 and rotation of the propeller shaft I in the di' amount of strain and wear if, during this me rection indicated by the arrow B will drive the chanically actuated portion of the full axial ro ship in the direction just mentioned,-“astern”. tation of the blades, they are acted upon sep At this point, with the parts arranged as shown arately. And for this reason and to attain the in Figs. 2 and 5, let it be assumed that a change objects inferred from the foregoing statement, 35 the direction of movement of the ship to one of the blades is made to rotate on its axis 3.6 in “ahead” is desired, to accomplish which it is in advance of the other, through the instru necessary to re-position the blades so that they mentality of the pintle I3, which _is integral with will appear as illustrated in Fig. 1. the advancing blade I2, riding the projection 3a, Now at the start of the change in direction of which operation suddenly brings the trailing por 40 rotation of the propeller shaft from what is des tion X of the blade I2 out of the circular path ignated as “astern”, as indicated by arrow A, to of the trailing portion X of blade I2a, and into “ahead" which is indicated by the arrow B, the substantially transverse feathering position blades lag, or do not immediately and simulta where resistance Ato rotation by and with the neously respond to the rotary movement of the propeller shaft is greatly lessened. 45 ` shaft, and there develops a rotary movement, After the pintle I3 passes the projection 3a relatively, between the propeller shaft hub 2-2a and enters the portion of the groove 3 which is' and the casing 5. 'This brings the pintles I3 and disposed normal tothe axis of the propeller shaft, I4 from positions I3a and Ila. to positions I3b and until it arrived at the position I3c, there is and Mb, respectively. ' no axial rotation of the blade I2. In other words, 50 Thus far there will be no appreciable axial ro after the pintle enters this lead-less portion of tation of the blade I2a, but, 'due to the sli'ght the 3 the blade I2 ceases to rotate on its ' lead or advance in this portion of the groove 3, axis groove and is temporarily held in substantially represented by D, the pintle I3 will act to giver transverse feathering position, in which position the blade I2 a comparatively small axial rotation. there is very little power expended in revolving 55 55 _Now from this. point onward (from positions the propeller insofar as blade I2 is concerned. I3b and IIb) the blades have two agencies act Now blade I2a must be brought into the same ing to turn them on'their axes, the pintles and position, relatively, as that in which blade I2 is grooves being one, and the resistance of the wa ter against which the trailing portions of the at this time_disposed,--that is, transverse feath 60 blades impact, being the other. ` After the pintles I3 and I4 have advanced in the grooves 3 and 4, respectively, to positions I 3b and Mb, the pintle I3 engages anabrupt projec tion 3a extending into the groove 3. This gives 65 the blade I2 a sudden and impulsive axial move ment, disaligning temporarily the portions X of the two blades, the pintle I3 moving to position I3c and the pintle Il at the same time advancing in an easy stage to position Mc, at which posi 70 tions the two blades are v1n substantially similar pitch angles with the shaft, and in approximate ly transverse feathering positions. - As the propeller shaft continues to revolve, the resistance of the water on the blades causes still 75 further movement, relatively, between the hub ering position. After the blade I2 ceases to rotate on its axis, the pintle I4, moving along the slot l, causes the blade I2a to'gradually rotate on its axis until upon reaching the location Ilc it is disposed in transverse feathering position, comparable to that of blade> I2. " The twoy blades, I2 and I2a, shortly/after com- ‘l ing to the positions I3c and llc, respectively, are brought into their full pitch positions mainly by their impaction on the water, as the propeller 70 as a whole revolves. A lug 'I5 on each blade engages a stop member I6 on the casing preventing further axial move ment of the blade. A corresponding stop member is provided on the opposite side of the casing 'ß v 2,184,157 movement of the blades on their ax‘es must be Fig. 10 shows'one of the blades, end on. The full line depiction represents it in longitudinal feathering position, and the dotted line counter part of the blade illustrates it in full pitch, “ahead” position. Throughout the text of the foregoing specification a so-called "right-hand” the pintles and grooves which, by the over-riding action of the casing on the propeller shaft hub, develops a movement, relatively, between these screw propeller is contemplated., 10 accomplished through the instrumentality of two elements which force the blades into and slightly beyond their transverse feathering posi ~ ' .The are Y, shown in Figs. 6, 7 and l0, measures the angle through which the blades swing on their axes in moving from positions l3nt and. Md vto positions 13e and Me, respectively. . The casing 5 may be ñlled with grease for lubricating the working parts therein, the screw l1 being removed to gain access to its interior. I have hereinbefore described in detail the steps required to be taken to change the posi tions of the blades from that in which they 20 propel the ship “astern” to that in which the ship is made to move “ahead”. The reverse op eration, or that in which the blades are positioned in'v the “ahead” propelling positions and are to be changed to the “astern” ship-driving duty, is 25 conducted and accomplished in a quite similar manner, except for a certain difference in the order or sequence in- which the two forces, me chanical and water-impact, are applied to the blades to rotate Ithem on their axes. 30 3 e to limit the axial movements of the blades in the opposite direction. With conditions such as are presented in Fig. l, in which is shown a right-hand propeller, ro tating as indicated by the arrow B, calculated to drive the ship ahead, -and it is desired to re position the blades to drive the ship astern, the 35 first move is to change the direction of rotation of the’shaft, so that it will revolve in the direc tion of arrowl A. Immediately upon reversing the direction of rotation of the shaft the out wardly extending trailing portions X of the blades 40 impact the water and cause the blades to turn on ' their axes,- and this turning movements is con tions, at which time the pressure of the water acts on the trailing portions of the blades and quickly brings them into their full pitch posi 10 tions, for driving the vessel ahead. The blade in- this operation turns as indicated by the arrow N, Fig. 5. In contrast Iwith the first operation described wherein the blades were changed from the 15 “ahead” to the “astern” positions, this latter op eration where the blades moved from the “astern” to the “ahead” arrangement thereof, started with mechanical actuation of the blades and finished by the impact of the blades on the water. 20 It will be noted that in whichever direction the blades are to be moved for re-positioning, "ahead” to “astern” ror vice versa, a greater pro portion of the axial movement is brought about through the direct action of the water on the 25 trailing portions of the blades. It is further to be observed that, Whether driv ing the ship “ahead” or “astern”, the most eñi cient and identical Working face of the bladev does the driving. 30 My propeller has proven very satisfactory in practical use, particularly with respect to its efficiency when the vessel or boat is being driven astern. - . , , ' In auxiliary yacht service the longitudinal feathering feature is of great advantage, as the blades automatically come into positions as shown in Fig. 3 when the shaft stops revolving. . Another feature resides in the construction of the blades, which are similar, and one “spare” would ñt in place of either of the regular blades should one of them become injured. What I claim is: 1. A propeller mechanism vcomprising in com tinued until the blades arrive at substantially transverse feathering positions and the water no longer has any axially turning effect on the 45 blades. During this portion of their axial-rotat ' bination with a propeller shaft, a propeller-shaft ing movement thel blades have turned in the hub ñxedly secured to said shaft and having two 45. direction of the arrow M. But as the shaft and blades continue to revolve together, the resistance of the Water on the blades 50 is sufficient to cause a movement, relatively, be tween the casing and the propeller shaft hub, .resulting in the pintles and grooves functioning to complete the axial turning movement of the blades and bring them to their full pitch posi 55 tions to drive the ship astern. So it is evident that the first part of the axial turning movement of the blades is, in this oper-' ation, accomplished by water impaction, and the last portion by mechanical me 60 . 'ß Now with respect to the change from "astern” to “ahead” movement of the vessel, and the se quence of operations necessary to re-arrange the blades to accomplish> this object, We will de scribe it by starting with the blades arranged 65 as shown in Fig. 2, with the shaft rotating in the direction indicated by the arrow A. The vessel peripheral, spiralling grooves therein extending partially therearound, one of said grooves having, ' for a predetermined distance from one end, a slight lead, a two-part casing enclosing said propeller-shaft hub, two bearings on opposite ends, respectively, of said casing in which said propeller shaft hub is journalled and capable of restricted Y rotation therein, two circular flanges disposed on opposite sides, respectively, of said casing, a pro 55 peller blade, having a circumferential groove in its hub portion, rotatively mounted in ea‘ch of said ñanges, and a pintle on the hub of each of the propeller blades, the two pintles adapted to pellerfshaft hub. 2. A propeller comprising in combination with a propeller shaft, a propeller-shaft hub/element engage, respectively, the two grooves in said pro ñxed on said shaft, the central portion, length wise of said hub being frusto-spherical in shape and having a. plurality of irregularly contoured grooves in, and advancing along the periphery is nowmoving “astern”. But it is desiredto ar range the blades so that the vessel will-be pro thereof, a casing, formedof two similar half-por pelled “ahead”. As was the case inthe previous tions, having a bearing at each end in which the change of positions of the blades, the shaft I is , two end portions of said propeller-shaft hub are first made to revolve in the opposite direction, respectively journalled. a plurality of propeller 70 that is, according to arrow B. -But in this in ' blade bearings disposed on the sides' of said cas stance the blades are `set so that advantage can ing, equally spaced therearound, a propeller blade, not be taken of the water to start them rotating on their axes, so the first Vportion of the turning >having a collared hub portion on its inner end, rotatively mounted in each of said-bearings on 75 4 _ the sides of the casing, a pintle on and extend ing inwardly froml the collared portion of each blade, adapted to engage one of the grooves in the propeller-shaft hub,- and cause the blade to which it is attached to rotate on its axis when there is rotational movement, relatively, between said hub and said casing.' 3. A propeller apparatus, adapted to be mount ed on the end of a propeller shaft, comprising a 10 propeller-shaft hub,'a plurality of outstanding, irregularly contoured walls arranged on the outer surface of said hub, one of said walls lying in a~ plane substantially at a right angle to the axis of said shaft for a predetermined distance from 15 one end of the wall, and merging into a spiral form as it advances to the opposite end, a two part casing enclosing said propeller-shaft hub, bearings in the ends of said casing in which the outer end portions of the propeller-shaft hub are 20 mounted for restricted rotation, a collar on each end of said casing securing the two parts to gether, a propeller blade rotatively mounted on the side of said casing in two or more circumfer entially spaced positions thereon, and means interconnecting said propeller blades with the irregularly contoured walls so constructed and ar ranged that upon 'rotating said propeller-shaft tion of spherical zone shape, two grooves, against the walls oi' which said pintles abut, cut on op posite sides, respectively, of the spherical zone portion of said hub member, one groove starting at the aft end of said portion and continuing therearound for a predetermined distance with slight lead, then spiralling gradually to the for ward end of said portion, the other of the said grooves starting at its after end with a slight lead and interrupted by an abrupt projection 10 which causes the‘ engaging pintle to be swung on its orbit quickly to expedite the axial rotation of the blade to which it is attached, and bring this blade into transverse feathering position in advance of the movement of the other pintle 15 which later causes the oppositely disposed blade to be rotated into a relatively similar angular position, both blades from these positions on wardly and until they arrive at their full pitch positions being axially rotated by impaction of 20 their trailing portions on the water. 6. A propeller mechanism for ship propulsion comprising in combination with a propeller shaft a propeller-blade-carrying member, means for f mounting, for axial rotation, a plurality of pro peller blades on said propeller-blade-carrying member, a grooved hub fixed on said shaft, said hub in and with respect to said casing, said pro- ' hub being disposed within, and having restricted rotary movement relative to, said propeller-blade peller blades are made to rotate on their axes. 4. A propeller apparatus for ship propulsion carrying member, and means associated with said ' propeller blades, co-acting with said grooved hub balanced propeller blades, a pintle on each blade, member, to rotate said blades on their axes, to the a'two-part casing on the periphery of which a extent that the same cutting edges and driving plurality of said blades are mounted for rotation faces are used in driving the ship either “ahead” purposes comprising a plurality of axially un on' their axes, a propeller-shaft hub member journalled in said casing and having a plurality of dìssimilarly contoured grooves, said grooves being so formed that in changing the direction of rota tion of the propeller from driving the ship “astern” 'to propelling it “ahead”, one of said blades starts rotating on its axis in advance of ~ the remaining blades, a lug on each-blade, and abutments on said casing, engaged by said lugs to limit axial rotation movements of the blades in each direction. or “astern". ' 7. Al duplex, reversible-blade propeller com prising inl combination with a propeller shaft adapted to revolve in both directions, a shaft hub ñxed on said shaft, pintle-engaging means on the periphery of said shaft hub, a two-part casing in which said shaft hub is disposed and its ends journalled, two propeller-blade bearings posi tioned, respectively, on opposite sides of said cas ing, the faces of said bearings converging aftward, an axially unbalanced propeller blade, rotatable on its axis and having a hub' portion, mounted in 45 end of a shaft for ship propulsion purposes, com- ' each of the propeller-blade bearings, a pintle ec prising a two-part casing, a bearing in each end centrically positioned on the hub portion of each of said casing, two propeller-blade bearings on blade adapted, in co-action with said pintle opposite sides, respectively, of said casing, an cngaging means on the shaft hub, to rotate the 5. A. propeller adapted to be mounted on the blade when movement, relatively, between the axial rotation in each of the side bearings in. shaft hub and the casing occurs, and means to said casing, a-.pintle> on each of said propeller limitthe rotary, axial movement of each blade ` blades, a shaft hub member having two straight in both directions. axially unbalanced propeller blade mounted for end portions iournalled, respectively, in the end bearings of said casing and an intermediate por MILTON D. THOMPSON.