Патент USA US2134236код для вставки
Oct. 25, 1938. A. |_. REEVES _ 2,134,236 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed April 25, 1936 fHi 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Oct'. 25, 1938. A. |_. REEVES v 2 ,134,236 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed April 23, ' 1936 .2 Sheets-Sheet 2 r /NVENTOR AL. Q55 v50 BY ,II 2,134,235 Patented Oct. 25, 1938 UNITED‘ STATES PATENT OFF-lea 2,134,2st ‘INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Arthur “L. Reeves, Caron, Saskatchewan, Canada . Application April 23, 1936, Serial No; 76,053 1' Claim. (01. 123-79) Fig. 7 is a fragmentary vertical section taken My invention relates to internal combustion .engines and an object of the invention is to pro vide a device of the character herein described in which is used a single master valve in each cylinder together with a sliding sleeve surround ing the piston to open and close the exhaust and intake ports of the cylinder. ‘ 'i A further object of my invention is to provide a'device of the character herein described ‘hav ing a single mushroom valve requiring only‘ a very small travel to open sumciently to allow the ‘ free passage of gases and thereby reduces the hammering of valves, cams and rocker arms en countered in the conventional type of engine. A further object of my invention is to provide a device of the character herein described which reduces the amount of power taken from the crank shaft by the valves by using only onevalve instead of two as‘ in the usual type of internal combustion engine. ' ‘ - A further object‘of my invention is to provide a device of the character herein described in which the side ports are isolated during the ?ring stroke. 25 ~ I A further object of my invention‘ is to provide a- device of the character herein described having a single master valve around which pass both the hot exhaust gases and the cool‘ intake gases, the valve thereby warming and aiding vaporiza 30 tion of'the intake gases and cooling to some ex tent the exhaust gases. A still further object of my invention is topro vide a device 'of the character herein described which is simple to construct and will not easily 35 become out of order. ‘ With the above more important objects in View and such other minor objects as may appear as the speci?cation proceeds, my invention con sists essentially in the arrangement and construc 40 tion of parts all as hereinafter more particular ly described, reference being had to the accom panying drawings, in which_ i Fig. 1 illustrates a vertical central sectionvof my invention with the rocker arm. shown in full. 45 Fig. 2 shows 'a vertical section of a furtherem > " Fig. 8 is a detail view of the method used for ' attaching the reciprocating arm for rotating’ the sleeve used with the'embodiment of my invention ,; illustrated in FigureB. 7 ~ 7 In‘the drawings like characters of reference in _dicate corresponding parts in the di?erent ?g¢ ures. ‘ ' My invention consists of a’ housing I composed .10 of a lower outwardly bulging crank case 2 which converges to a vertically disposed cylinder casing 3. The cylinder casing, it will be noted, has dou ble walls, an inner wall 4 and an outer wall 4' with passageways. 5therebetween. ,These pas .15 sageways are for the purpose of providing a water jacket around the central cylinder formed by the inner wall 4. _ I , 7 _ ' Upon the upper annular surface 6 of the cyl-‘ inder casing is placed a gasket 1 and surmount- '1 ed. thereon is the cylinder head 8 having a con- I ?guration as’ shown in the drawings accompany ing this application. This cylinder head is also double walled and passageways 9 are provided 25 therein to receive ‘water for cooling purposes. The cylinder head 8, it will be noted, extends well into the cylinder formed by the inner walls of the cylinder’ casing 4 but has a diameter'some what smaller‘than the internal diameter of the 30 cylinder formed by the walls 4 thus leaving a space H] between the cylinderhead and the'walls 4 for a purpose later to be explained. I i Centrallyv disposed within the lower ‘end of the cylinder head is a valve seating “leading up 3.5 wardly into a chamber I2 thereabove from which ~1 extends a laterally and upwardly extendingdi verging passageway l3 to the side of the cylinder head. ‘ p ' A vertically extending ori?ce I4 is passed 40 through the center of the cylinder head and a bushing l5 having an upper ?ange i6 is inserted therein.v Through the center of the bushing ex tends a valve stem H to the lower end of which is attached a large mushroom’ valve l8 designed bodiment of my invention. taken. on the-line 2-2 to engage with the seating‘ H on‘ the under side ' of Figure 5. of the cylinder head.’ ~ Fig. 3 shows a still further embodiment of my invention taken on the line 3—3 of' Figure 4.. 50 on the line 'l-1~ of Figure 5; _ The upper end of the valve stem I1 is threaded and a nut I9 having an outwardly extending N Fig. 6 illustrates a plan‘view of the embodi ?ange 20 is threadablyattached thereto. Inter 50 posed between the ?anges It on the bushing I5 " and'the ?anges‘ 20 is aic'ompressed helical spring 2i which tends to keep‘ the valve l8 in engage-‘ ment with the seating ll. Adjustment of the ment shown in Figure 1. pressure exerted by thejspringjmay be accom Fig. 4 illustrates a horizontal section taken on the line 4—4 of Figure 3. _ Fig. 5 illustrates. a horizontal section taken on .the line 5-_—5 of Figure._2. _ ' ’ p.15 2 2,184,236 plished by changing the position of the nut l9 upon the threaded portion of the valve stem. surmounted upon the upper surface of the Valve head are standards 22 which carry a hori and exhaust ports, the lower passageway 55 being the exhaust port and the upper passage way 56 the intake port. Passing through the sleeve 40 and in align ment with the passageway 55 when the sleeve zontally disposed shaft 23 upon which is piv 40 is at its lowest position, is an ori?ce 51. This otally mounted a rocker arm 24 obliquely dis posed with relation to the shaft 23. One end of ori?ce, it should be noted, opens into the pas the rocker arm is formed into a head 25, the sageway I3 at all times during the movement lower surface 26 of whichvis designed to bear of the sleeve 40 but the camv 48 is designed to 10 against the upper end of the valve stem II. The move the ori?ce 51 into alignment with the 10 opposite end of the rocker arm is provided with ‘passageway 56 when the sleeve is in its upper a threaded ori?ce 21 therethrough and a threaded . _ shank 28 is passed into the ori?ce. The upper end of this shank is furnished with a diametri 15 cally located groove 29 foruthe reception of a screwdriver and the lower vend thereof is spheri cally formed as at 30 to form 'a ball for a ball 20 and socket joint. In order that the shank 28 may be maintained in any position desired, locking nut 3| is also provided. < ~ g 7. ~ Within the gear casing2 is furnished'a hori zontally disposed cam shaft 32._upon which is located a cam 33having a con?guration as best illustrated in Figure 9. Apush rod 34 extends 25 between the cam 33 and the spherical head 36 of the'shank 26 and is provided at its lower end with a tappet in the form of a roller 35 main tained in position by a pin 36 passing through 30 the bifurcated lower end of the rod. To the top end of the rod is a?ixed a head 31 with an upwardly openingv socket 38 therein hav ing a semispherical lower surface 39 to receive the spherical head 30 on the shank’ 28. This head is ‘maintained in contact with the socket and the 35 roller 35 in engagement with the cam 33 by means of the spring 2| upon the shank l1; It should here be mentioned that the cam shaft 32 is geared to the crank shaft of the en gine in the usual manner, and is designed’ to 40 rotate at one half the speed of the crank shaft. Within the cylinder formed by the walls 4 is inserted- a snugly ?tting cylindricalsleeve .40. position. . “ Diametrically opposed to the ports 55 and 56 is a threaded ori?ce 58 to receive the conven tional type of spark plug 59 therein and an ori; 15 ?ce 60 is provided within the sleeve 40 and is designed to come into alignment with the spark when the spark plug is ?red as will be presently explained: The operation ofthis device is as follows._ ‘In 20 the position shown, the sleeve 40 and the piston 52 are at their lowest points and the enginev is ready to commence the exhaust stroke. ‘ It should here be mentioned that as the cam shaft 32 rotates at only half the speed of the crank 25 shaft, the piston slides within the sleeve 40 and the sleeve within the walls 4. Immediately prior to the piston advancing upwardly, the push rod 34 is raised which opens the valve I8 and thereby allows the gases within the chamber formed by‘ 30 the piston head and sleeve 40 to be expelled through the passageway l3 and through "the exhaust port 55. ‘ During the upward movement of the piston, the sleeve 40 is also rising and when the piston 35 reaches its highest point, the ori?ce 51 moves out of alignment with the port 55 and therefore closes the exhaust port. As the piston now moves downwardly, the sleeve continues to rise and comes into engagement with the intake port 56. The valve I8 is maintained open _by_the caml33 and therefore fuel is sucked in through the pas‘ sageway l3 and into‘ the cylinder. The upper end of this sleeve is received into the When the piston again reaches its lowest point‘, ‘ space l0 between the cylinder head. and the walls the sleeve will be at its highest point and in this position, the valve [8 closes. The piston now rises forrthe compression stroke and the sleeve 45 4 and encircling the spherical portion of the head are furnished piston rings/Hand similar rings Immediately after the compression stroke is completed, the ori ?ce 60 being in alignment with the spark plug 50 at this time, the spark plug ?res and ‘the resulting outer end of which i is formed van internally explosion causes the piston and sleeve‘to move to threaded vertically disposed ori?ce 44. ~ A second. tappet 45-, is threaded into this ori?ce and is 55 maintained in position therein by'a lock nut 46. A roller 41 is provided within'the bifurcated end of the tappet and engages with a cam or eccen tric 48 also mounted upon the cam shaft 32. Within the upper part of the crank case 2 and. ‘so commences to move downwardly. 42 are placed around the outer surface of the cylinder 40 to engage with the walls 4. Integral with the lower end of the cylinder 40 is provided a laterally extending arm 43 in the in alignment with the longitudinal axis of the tappet 45 is a tapped ori?ce “into which is placed a bolt 50 which protrudes slightly past the lower surface of the crank case. Interposed between the crank case and the arm 43 and en 65 circling the protruding ends of the bolt 50 and the tappet 45 is a compressed helical spring 5| which tends to maintain the roller 41 inengage ment at all times with the cam 48. 7 the positions ‘shown and the cycle‘ is again re peated. ‘ In the second embodiment of my invention 11- 55 lustrated in Figures 2, 5 and 7 of the drawings accompanying this application, I provide an out wardly bulging crank casing 6i whichconverges and extends upwardly into a cylinder casing 62 composed of an inner wall 63 and an outer wall 63'. The location of these walls provides pas sageways 64 therebetween which are for the 'pur; pose of providing a water jacket ‘around the cen tral cylindrical walls 63 as in my ?rst embodi- r ment. . _ . Upon the upper horizontal surface 65 of - the cylinder walls is a gasket 66 and surmounted thereupon, I provide my cylinder head 61, This cylinder head is also double walled in order‘to Within the sleeve 40~is inserted the usual type of piston 52 and protruding from the‘lower end allow water to be circulatedvtherein and has a 70 thereof is‘ the conventional connecting rod 53 ' cylindrical portion 68 Whichextends downward pivotally attached to the‘piston by the wrist pin ly into the cylinder formed by the walls__63 which is of smaller diameter than the cylinder to leave Extending through‘ the cylinder walls 4 and 4' a space 68’ between vthe. cylinder and the por- ._.. ‘ 75 are a pair of passageways to be used as intake tion 68. 54. _ ‘ . ' 3 Eccentrically disposed within the cylinderhead and extending vertically therethrough is fur nished a bushing 69 having. a ?ange 69’ adjacent the-upper end thereof, this?ange seating against the upper surface of the head 61-. A valve stem ‘I0 provided with a collar ‘II threadably attached to the upper end thereof and a mushroom valve 1-2 at the lower end thereof is passed through the bushing. 10 A spring ‘I2 identical to the ‘one usedin the ?rst embodiment of my invention is interposed be tween the ?ange 69 upon the bushing and the This- embodiment of my invention Loperates'in thefollowing manner.‘ '7 1 l -~ ‘ v > ' In the position- shown, the piston 94 and; the sleeve 84' are‘ at their ‘lowest points of travel; 'Im-' . medi'ately- prior to upward» movement ' of the piston, the valve ‘I2 opens and‘ asthe piston com mences to rise, the sleeve moves upwardly also. This is the exhaust stroke when gases are forced through the passageway 19, the aperture 92 and the port 8I.' When the piston reaches its highest point, the exhaust port is just'cut off by means of the sleeve and ‘the aperture 93d-commen collar ‘II. The valve actuating mechanism, namely, the rocker arm ‘I3, bush rod ‘I4, follower ces to come into alignment between the passage‘ Way 80‘ and the inlet port 88. - Thus, on the ‘?rst ‘I5 and cam ‘I6 upon the cam shaft '11, are all downward stroke of the piston,‘ fuel is sucked in through the port #2V and passageway 80‘ into- the identical to the valve actuating mechanism used in the ?rst embodiment of my invention. Within the lower portion of the cylinder head 61 is provided a valve seating "I8 to receive the valve ‘I2. This seating extends upwardly and branches into two passageways ‘I9 and 80. These passageways, it should be noted, extend upwardly and outwardly and have an obtuse angle between their center lines so that upon reaching the side Walls of the cylinder head, the outer ori?ces of the passageways are diametrically opposed. In alignment with the outer openings at the pas sageways “I9 and 80 within the cylinder head are provided exhaust and inlet ports 8| and 82 re spectively which pass through the cylinder walls 63 and 63’. Adjacent the valve ‘I2 within the cylinder head, is a socket 83 from thelo-wer end of which extends a downwardly threaded ori?ce 84 designed to receive the usual type of spark plug 85’, the sparking tips 86' of which are adjacent the lower end of the ori?ce 84. Within the cylinder formed by the walls 63 of the cylinder casing, I provide a snugly ?tting cylindrical sleeve 85, the upper end of which is designed to be received within the space 68" be tween the cylinder head and the wall 63. A laterally projecting lug 86 is made integral with the lower portion of the sleeve 85 and is provided with a bifurcated end 81. Immediately below the end 81 of the lug 86 is attached an eccentric 88 upon the cam shaft 11. A split collar 89 encircles the eccentric and an arm 90 attached thereto extends upwardly to 50 be received within the bifurcated end 81 of the lug 86 and is pivotally attached thereto by means of a pin 9| passing through the ends 81 and also through the upper end of the arm 90. It will now be evident that rotation of the crank shaft ‘I’! will cause a vertical reciprocating mo tion of the sleeve to occur. Near the upper end of the sleeve 85 and di ametrically opposed therein are two apertures 92 and 93. In the position of the sleeve shown in Figure 2, the aperture 82 is in alignment with the upper end of the passageway ‘I9 and also with the exhaust port 8| so as to provide a continuous passageway therethrough. When the sleeve moves to its extreme upper position, the aperture 65 93 becomes in alignment with the outer end of the passageway 80 and the inlet port 82 but in this position, the aperture 92 will have moved upwardly to close the exhaust port 8|. A piston 94 of the conventional type is’ inserted 70 within the sleeve 85 and is pivotally attached by the connecting rod 95 to the usual crank shaft. It should here be notedthat in this embodiment also, the cam shaft is geared to the crank shaft and is designed to rotate at one half the speed of 75 the crank shaft. cylinder. ' As the piston again commences to rise, the valve "I2 closes and the gases ‘within the cylin derare compressed therein.‘ Shortly after a sec ond' downward travel of the piston has com menced, the spark plug 85' fires and" the piston is forced to its lowest position where it is again , ready for the exhaust stroke and the cycle is thus repeated. ’ r ' , ' ~ In the third embodiment of my invention illus 25 trated in Figures 3‘, 4 and 7, I utilize the same type of crank case 96- as in the 'former embodi ments upon which is‘ mounted theusual inner cylinder 9'! and outer‘ cylinder‘ilfl’ between which is the water jacket 98. " The usual gasket 99' is 30 placed upon the top‘ of" the cylinders and the cylinder head I 00 is surmounted thereon. ' This cylinder head is also provided-with passageways IOI therein for the circulation’of water for cool ing purposes, A circular recess I02 is eccentri 85 cally located within the upper end ofthe cylinder head from the lower end of whichv extends a ver tical ori?ce I03.) Awbushing- IM’having a ?ange I05 is inserted within‘ this ori?ce; 'A valve stem I06 is passed throughthis bushing and is pro vided at its lower end with the usual large'mush room valve .I0'I. ‘The-actuating mechanism for this valve is identical with that described in the, ?rst two embodiments and it is therefore not _ necessary to further describe ‘this, portion of the invention. A valve seating I08 isprovided in the lower end of the cylinder head to receive the valve I07 and extends upwardly into a passageway I09 which ?ares outwardly as best illustrated in Figure4 to 50 provide a wide mouth IIO. Adjacent the valve Within the cylinder head is located a spark plug in a manner identical to that described in the second embodiment of my invention and shown most clearly in Figure '7. 55 Within the cylinder 91, I provide a vertically disposed ‘sleeve III, to the lower end of which is pivoted an arm IIZ. This arm extends between the cylinder and one leg of a bell crank I I3 which is rotatably mounted upon a shaft II4 affixed to 00 the crank case walls. The lower leg of the bell crank is made to bear against an eccentric cam I I5 mounted upon the cam shaft I I 6 by means of a tensile helical spring I I‘! extending between the bell crank and the crank case. ' 65 A detailed view of the type of bearing used at either end of the arm H2 is illustrated in Fig ure 8. Into the sleeve or bell crank whichever the case may be, is screwed a short stub‘ shaft, II8 which is also threaded at its outer end to 70' I receive a nut II8. It will be noted that a cross sectional view of the bearing surfaces I20 of the arm I2 are of a convex con?guration. This design is to allow a small amount of side play which will occur when the arm H2 is in motion. 4 2,134,236 , Instead of utilizing. a vertical reciprocating mo tion of the sleeve in‘this embodiment, I have designed a means whereby the ‘sleeve may be rotated upon its longitudinal axis as will be evi dent from the above description of the bell crank and associated mechanism. At the upper end of the cylinder is located a rectangular aperture I 2I having its longer axis disposed in a vertical plane which is designed 10 upon an oscillated motion of 'the sleeve III to move backwardly and forwardly between the side limits of the passageway I09 and thus to come successively into alignment with the exhaust and inlet ports I22 and I23 respectively which pass 15 through the walls of the cylinder. . This embodiment of my invention operates as follows. In the position indicated, the piston is at its lowest position and the passageway I09 opens through the aperture I2I into the exhaust port I22. Upon the piston moving upwardly, the sleeve III will commence to rotate and close the port I22 when the piston reaches its highest posi tion. During this operation, the valve III‘! has been opened in a manner similar to that described in the former embodiments. ' As the piston now commences its ?rst down ward movement, the aperture I2I- comes into alignment with the intake port I23 and fuel is sucked into the cylinder III. The valve III'I now 80 closes and the compression stroke commences. Immediately after the completion of this stroke, the spark plug ?res and the working stroke takes place whereupon the piston returns to the posi tion’ indicated in Figure 3 for which the cycle is again repeated. ' From the foregoing, it will now be evident that I have provided an extremely simple and ingen ious type of internal combustion engine which has the advantage of using only one valve for both intake and exhaust ports and thereby re duces the troubles encountered through the use of valves and also the noise produced thereby. The single valve also aids in vaporizing the fuel taken‘ into the cylinder and in cooling the exhaust gases expelled from the engine. Since various modi?cations can be made inlthe above invention, and many apparently widely di?erent embodiments of same, made within the scope ofthe claims without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, it is intended that all matter contained in the accompanying speci?ca< tion shall be interpreted as illustrative only and 10 not in a limiting sense and I desire only such limitations placed thereon as are speci?cally expressed in the accompanying claim. What I claim as my invention is: Improvements in internal combustion engines 15 comprising an engine cylinder, a cylindrical sleeve slidably mounted within said cylinder, a spark plug communicable with the interior of said sleeve, a cylinder head mounted upon said cylinder, a portion thereof being designed. to 20 depend into said cylinder, said depending por tion being spaced from said cylinder to ‘permit the passage of said sleeve between said dependent portion and said cylinder, a valve operating shaft operated in timed relation with themain crank 25 shaft of the engine, a poppet valve in said cylin der head, a gas inlet and exhaust passageway extending from the periphery of said depending portion and opening against said sleeve valve, said cylinder being provided with intake and 30 exhaust ports therein in alignment with the outer end of the inlet and exhaust passageway, said sleeve being provided with an aperture therein designed to move into alignment between said inlet .port and passageway or said exhaust port 35 and passageway during said selected intervals in the cycle of said engine, said sleeve valve being actuated by an eccentric upon said valve operat ing shaft, said poppet valve being actuated through a push rod and a rocker arm, by a cam 40 also upon'said valve operating shaft. , , ARTHUR L. REEVES.