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Патент USA US2134254

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0st. 25, 1938.
'
H_ E__ LA BOUR
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2,134,254
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Filed Nov. 5, 1954
4 Sheetsj-Sheet 1
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Get. 25, 1938.
2,134,254
H. E. LA BOUR
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Filed Nov. 5, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 2
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Oct. 25, 1938.
H. E. LA BOUR
2,134,254
GENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Filed’ Nov. 5, 1934
4 Sheets-Sheet 5
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Oct. 25, 1938.
H. E. LA BOUR
2 ,134,254
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
Filed Nov. 5, 1934
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4 Sheets-Sheet 4
Patented Oct. 25;’1938
2,134,254
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE *
2,134,254
CENTRIFUGAL rum
Harry B. La Bour, Elkhart, Ind.
Application November 5, 1934, Serial No. 151,445
14 Claims.
(Cl. 103-103)
The present invention relates to centrifugal
pumps.
,
angularly to attain the desired velocity, Icon
ceive that it should be promptly discharged. Now
in‘ order to produce the minimum travel angu
larly, the impeller must be coordinated in form,
‘
The chief object of the present invention is
to provide a pump of high hydromechanical e?i~
cien'cy and simple rugged construction.
size and speed with the intake and discharge so
A further object is to provide a pump which
that the liquid picks up its velocity in minimum
angular travel and is then promptly discharged.
This coordination of attainment of velocity and
will produce a desired pressure over a wide range
of delivery, i. e., out?ow from the pump.
A further object is to provide a novel method
of pumping whereby the desired pressure may be
arrival at a point of discharge I term synchronism
or synchronous operation. By coordinating syn-' 10
chronous operation with the proper shape of the
passageways I am able to develop e?iciencies and
outputs never before attained in comparable sizes
realized in a centrifugal pump over a wide range
of delivery, i. e., out?ow from the pump.
A further object is to control within the pump
itself the distribution of pressure and flow, where
by ?ow restrictions in the intake and discharge
of impellers or pumps.
passageways are eliminated and a great increase Y‘
in volumetric and hydro-mechanical e?iciency is
attainable.
The speci?c embodiment herein shown is a
multi-throat pump employing an open impeller.
With the speci?c form of pump herein disclosed,
I have been able to realize high e?iciencies even
in small capacities, with accompanying advan
tages of compactness, simplicity and low cost.
In the accomplishment of the aforesaid chief
object, I construct the casing, impeller and dis
charge passageways in such form and proportions
as to secure the desired velocities which are to
be generated and the ?ow to be carried, with a
high degree of streamline ?ow.
\
It is to be observed that if approximate stream
line ?ow through the pump is to be attained, each
functional part of the pump which has to do with
?ow must be coordinated with the others so that
' these elements, most of which operate in series
with each other, will not interfere with attain
ment of e?iciency of the whole.
The preferred form of pump which I shall here
in describe and illustrate is an open /'impeller
pump.
It is a familiar fact that an open im
peller pump will generally not operate at as high
mechanical eiiiciency as a closed impeller pump,
other things being equal. Open impeller pumps
have certain advantages such as simplicity, lower
cost, less tendency to clog up etc., and hence
there is a real demand for a high e?iciency low
cost open impeller pump.
The chief reason for the lack of e?‘lciency in
pumps of the open impeller type I conceive re‘
sides in the fact that the water is carried idly in
frictional contact with the side walls of the pump
casing. I have observed that the liquid to be
pumped must be moved radially and angularly
in order to attain the desired velocity. But after
55 it has traveled the required distance radially and
_
-
The present invention embodies a new principle 15
applicable to multiple throat centrifugal pump
devices. 'I'hat principle, as will be explained
more fully below, comprises the simultaneous con
trol of distribution of ?ow and the development
of pressure at the multiple discharge throats by 20
internally regulating the ratio of angular travel
to radial travel of the operating medium in the
impeller inadvance of release into the throats.
According to the best application of this prin
ciple each and every particle of ?uid is free to 25
?ow into the pump, and is free to ?ow out of the .
pump without any ?ow restriction or any inter
ruption except that each and every particle must
in ?owing through the pump pass through ‘a
de?nite angular travel at the periphery of the 30
impeller.‘
There are at least four distinct features, which,
according to the teachings of my pump, combine
to produce the desired advantageous results in
regard to e?iciency, and output.
-
35
The ?rst feature is the introduction of the
water into the impeller. The second is the travel
through the impeller. The third is the transition
of the water from the impeller to and through the
discharge throats; and fourth, the combining of 40
a plurality of streams into the common discharge.
_ According to the preferred form of the present
invention the working ?uid is free to ?ow into
those parts of the impeller which are passing over
the concentric portions, and in fact to every point 45
on the periphery of the impeller, the blades being
of negligible width compared to the width of
the ports. But while the ?uid can ?ow freely
into the impeller, it cannot ?ow radially outward
of those parts of the impeller which at any in
stant are passing over the closed or concentric
portions. Neither can it ?ow out of any part of
the impeller without ?rst passing over the con
centric portions or sealo?'s. Radial ?ow at the
periphery is stopped by these concentric portions
aromas
.
or sealo?s, and radial pressure is
as
angular travel occurs.
The working ?uid which is at any instant pass
water has had imparted to it maximum energy,
1. e., is brought up to full velocity, it is dis
charged i’rom. the working chamber. Any un
4 ing or about to pass over a concentric portion is
necessary travel particularly at maximum veloc
ity results in friction losses and eddy current
losses and detracts from both mechanical and
volumetric e?iciency. In the form of pump here-v
in disclosed, three discharge throats are provided;
This number may be varied, but'the desideratum
temporarily held against radial ?ow while angu
lar travel occurs. Then, having been given an
gular motion and hence having acquired a prede
termined inertia of motion, the working ?uid is
allowed to escape from the periphery of the im
10 peller and be thrown or impelled through a throat
which is suitably proportioned to the other char
acteristics of the pump, so that maximum velocity
of the working ?uid occurs at this point.
'
is to have the water discharged as soon as it has
reached discharge pressure or velocity, and not be
carried angularly any further than necessary.
The preferred form of impeller blades of ‘\my in- .
These throats lead through relatively long ex _ vention are shown as substantially straight with
pansion passageways where velocity is gradually the tip or end of the blade curved back only to the
extent of avoiding the formation of eddy cur
transformed into pressure. These long expan
rents at the blade tips. I have employed abso
sion passageways all lead to the common dis
charge outlet in parallel and, as for as possible, lutely straight blades with excellent ei?ciency at the same velocity and at a small angle to but there appears to be a whistling noise thatis
undesirable. The straight blade brings the liquid 20
each other, so as to minimize all shock.
’
The greatest di?lculty with multiple discharge to maximum velocity in the least angular travel
pumps as heretofore known has been the problem and makes the least frictional contact with the
water, and due to maximum acceleration of the.
of equalizing pressure and ?ow around the im
.peller, i. e., at the various branches or passage
ways where liquid is intended to be discharged.
Unless provision is made to prevent it, one part
of the impeller and one throat will provide most
of the discharge, and the remainder of the im
peller and the other passageways allow useless
80 work to be done'on the working ?uid, with re
sultant loss of e?iciency. The art heretofore has
liquid allows the use of more throats for the
discharge.
.
25
In the three throat pump, the ideal action for
maximum emciency and capacity is to have full
pressure developed within substantially 120 de
grees of angular travel, and the more nearly
this synchronism is accomplished, the better will
attempted to equalize the discharge, either by
be the performance of the pump. This ideal may
not always be attainable in production, but ac
placing ?ow restrictions in the outlets, such as
cording to my preferred embodiment, it is closely
30
the so-called di?users, or by placing constrictions . approximated within the practical tolerances of
35 in the inlets leading to the various parts of the
commercial manufacture. I consider that the 35
impeller.
production of the synchronous operation above
According to my invention, no restrictions are
provided at either the inlet or in the discharge
passageways. Both these passageways are pref
erably formed so as to provide maximum freedom
to ?ow so that e?iciency is not lowered. I secure
control of distribution by the same means which
described is broadly new.
The number of blades is an important consid
eration. Theoretically, the space between blades
should be relatively small, and the blades should 40
occupy no space, but practical considerations re
quire the blades to have su?icient body and
strength to withstand mechanical service and
corrosion. I have adopted eight blades with a
45 quisition of adequate discharge pressure. This ‘ three-throat pump as a satisfactory! working 45
concept of free entry into the impeller-and free comprise. Too much surface or too great a num
outward ?ow beyond the throats is, so far as I ber of‘ blades is not desirable. The use of eight
blades with three throats gives an excellent bal
am able to determine, broadly new, and consti
tutes the introduction of a new principle into the ance which makes it easy to keep the packing
art of moving fluid by centrifugal effect. The gland tight. In referring to balance I do not
principle of my invention is independent of the mean mechanical balance alone but both me
insures adequate discharge, 1. e., by the concen
tric portions of the channel which insure the ac
working ?uid. The invention is applicable not
only to multiple discharge centrifugal pumps, but
s also to centrifugal blowers or fans operating on
55 gases. The principle is also independent of the
‘particular type of impeller. My: invention is
broadly’ new as applied to open impellers or
closed impellers, and for either liquid pumps or
gas blowers or fans.
'
The results secured by my invention ‘are not
only greater mechanical or hydraulic‘ efficiency,
but much greater output from a given size of
impeller and casing, and a- much wider range of
deliveries at a, given head.
.
v - The water must be twisted 0! the intake stream
and begin its acceleration angularly and radially
with minimum friction, shock and eddy currents,
"and my construction is highly eiiicient insecur
ing this effect;
10
7
.
With respect to the phase of acceleration of
chanical and hydraulic balance.
a
At the important zone.i where the wate
emerges from the impeller and enters the throat,
it has maximum energy, and here its treatment
is most important. The impeller of my inven
tion leaves the water stream with minimum dis
turbance. I promote this by a slight rounding
or curving back the tips or ends of the blades.
The object here is to provide, as nearly as pos
sible, ‘a smooth’ streamline ?ow of the slip
between the blade end and the outgoing stream.
I am‘ aware that blades with long trailing tips ’,
have been proposed for securing pressure in
crease, but the impeller. of- my invention is de
signed for no such purpose, as the long trailing
tip intended to secure higher pressure must be
designed, I believe, to set up eddy. currents to‘
realize such high pressure. My impeller has
straight blades slightly modi?ed.
After the water enters the ‘throat, it is allowed,
bring the water smoothly and with minimum ' according 'to‘my invention, to travel through a
travel to maximum velocity and immediately relatively-long slender expansion passageway.
Therein, the reduction of velocity and trans
thereupon remove the water from further en
70
the water‘ in the impeller, my invention aims to
J76 gagement with the impeller.‘ As soon as the
formation into pressure is gradually accomplished
7
.
areas,“
with minimum opportunity ‘ to depart from
streamline ?ow. The expansion passageways of
the pump of my invention extend peripherally
about the pump for a considerable angular dis
Cl tance, and as nearly on the same radius as pos
sible to each other. The chief direction of ex
pansion is lateral, i. e., axial of the shaft.
This insures that ?rst a high velocity stream
does not discharge into a low velocity stream
10 with consequent shock and friction losses, and,
second, so that when two streams are brought
into contact, that is at a very small angle at slow
speed and with minimum differential in speed
and direction.
‘
I believe the coordination of the synchronous
action of building up the velocity in a fraction of
the circumferential travel with immediate dis
charge and streamline flow produced by proper
proportioning of the cross sections of the pas
20 sageways through the pump is broadly new.
A second and highly important object of my
invention is to improve the mechanical structure
of pumps of this character. Among the features
provided to accomplish this object are the fol
25
lowing:
‘
1. An improved form of supporting and align
ing bracket for coupling the pump casing to a
suitable support, and to align the packing gland
of the impeller shaft and the bearings of a sup
30
porting and driving shaft.
2. An improved form of assembly clamp for
3
?uid through the venturi, this could be accom
plished by moving a vane V at‘ an accelerated
rate to take the positions D, D, D", D3, D‘, this
vane occupying substantially the ful. cross section
at each place, with corresponding velocities of Cl
movement; At position D4v the vane is removed
from the stream.
.
If the rotor of a pump should be constructed
so as to ‘secure the operation 'above described,
with the position D4 corresponding to theextreme 10
periphery of greatest radial extent of the impeller, '
it is conceivable that'minimum loss due to eddy
currents, by providing the substantially stream
lined ?ow with an acceleration of the liquid,
might be secured.
If,'in the usual single outlet pump, indicated in
Fig. 2, this theory‘be applied, then in order'to
secure streamline ?ow with minimum idle carry
of the liquid, the liquid should flow from the
inlet E at the center to the tangential outlet F 20
as a spiral stream. The velocity of inlet flow at
the inlet E,should be a minimum, with maxi
mum cross section, increasing velocity occurring
through the‘convergent or nozzle portion of the
path as indicated-at B,.until maximum.- velocity 25
is attained at A at the most constricted portion
of the ?ow, where the ?ow of the central part of
the stream substantially leaves the tips of the
impeller blades such as G. From the most con
striated portion or highest velocity of flow, the 30
liquid then should continue to flow with decreas
ing velocity through the expanding or divergent
coupling the front plate to the pump casing to
allow, conveniently, of any desired adjustment ‘ nozzle portion C leading 'to the discharge outlet F.
3.5
of the inlet and outlet relative to each other.
3. An improved and simpli?ed form of pack- ‘
ing gland and follower which keeps the pump
shaft tightand makes servicing of the gland un
usually easy.
»
4. "A novel form of combined mounting and
40 cooling hub for the casing and packing gland.
Other and incidental objects and improvements
will be apparent from the following detailed de
scription, the drawings, and the appended claims.
Now in order to acquaint those skilled in the
45 art with the manner of constructing and operat
ing. a device embodying my invention, I shall
describe, in conjunction with the accompanying
drawings, a speci?c embodiment of the same.
In the accompanying drawings, in which like
reference numerals indicate like parts, Figures 1
to 6, inclusive, are diagrams to explain the oper
ation of the pump;
Figure 7 is a side elevational view, with parts
broken away, showing one speci?c pump of my
invention with its drive shaft and mounting;
Figure 7a is a fragmentary section through the
pin of the modi?ed form of a gland follower arm;
Figure 8 is a transverse cross section‘ taken on
the line 8-—8 of Figure 7;
-
Figure 9 is a front view, partly in section, of
the pump with the cover‘ or inlet plate removed;
Figure 10 is a section taken on the broken line
Ill-l0 of Figure 9, looking in the direction of the
It will be seen, however, that if synchronism
be thus attained, the rest of the periphery of
the pump and the impeller is either idle or must
carry water idly around the interior periphery
represented by the dotted line H.’ Assume that
in the case illustrated in Figure 2, the blades G
of the impeller have brought the liquid from the
intake E to the discharge port Whit .1 lies between 40
the points I and J, to the desired velocity within
120° of rotation, that is, by travel from point H
to point I.
It can be seen that the impeller and
pump casing could, theoretically, be capable of
discharging three times the amount of liquid
which the pump'is actually handling, as. per the
diagram of Figure 2.
.
’
But another defect is now apparent in the
pump if it be constructed in accordance with
standard practice, and that is that the desired I
progressive constriction in the cross section of
the stream from intake to point of maximum
velocity cannot be attained by-circumferential
constriction. Hence, synchronism which I herein
teach is not practically attainable in that manner.
A further requirement which I teach is that the
constriction of cross section to give true, or ap
proximately true, venturi ?ow
55
must be secured '
mainly in an axial direction, i. e., by progressively
thinningthe stream axially more than it spreads
out circumferentially to ?ll the sector, otherwise
_?ow is choked more at the-central part of the
impeller than it is at the periphery, where its
Figure
11
is
a
side
elevational
view
of
the
im
65
velocity should be a maximum.
peller which is shown in front elevation in Figure
In Figure 3 I have illustrated diagrammatically 65
9; and
arrows;
_
'
Figure 12 is a fragmentary section taken on ~
the line l2--l2 of Figure l1.
Referring to the diagrams of Figures 1 to 6, I
70
have indicated in Figure 1 a passageway of typi
cal venturi shape with the throat, or narrow
part of the passageway at A, with a converging
portion at B and a diverging portion at C. As
sume that it were intended to create a flow of
and idealized, for the sake of clearness, the im—
pellerl and a development of the casing and
passageways of the pump of my invention, this
impeller having a multiplicity of blades mounted
upon a shaft 2 which is preferably formed inte 70
gral with the blades.‘ The casing provides an
inlet _ passageway E which opens into a pocket 3
in the impeller to facilitate the distribution of
liquid from the passageway Eabout the entire 75
8,184,954
4
my invention. requires no ?ow restrictions, inlet
circumference of the impeller. The casing de
?nes an impeller chamber which, in cross-section,
directors or outlet diffusers, such as have been
employed in multi-throat pumps‘ of the prior art.
Also, my pump is thereby able to employ the
streamline flow through Venturi-shaped passage
ways, as above described, without flow restrictions
is shown by the outlines of the impeller I in Fig
ure 3, thisimpeller terminating atthe most con
stricted part-of the outlet, as indicated by the
reference character A, where the blade tips termi
nate. Beyond the blade tips the casing provides
, the divergent passageways C—C.
either on the inlet or outlet side. The result is
that my pump operates, in a given size impeller,
From this dia
at superior efficiency.
gram it may be seen that the cross section of the
10 passageways through which the liquid flows from
the intake pipe E‘to the discharge outlet is in
tended to follow the general scheme of the Ven
turi pipe shown in Figure 1, wherein the impeller
blades accelerate the liquid from the larger cross
section to maximum velocity at the minimum
cross section, and from thence the liquid in an
expanding passageway loses velocity and in
creases in pressure.
-
In Figure 6 I have indicated how, in a three
throat pump, the desired synchronism may be
attained. The throat spacing, as abscissal, is
shown as 120°. The desired delivery velocity or
pressure is indicated by the ordinates to be any
desired value represented by 100%. ‘
15
Taking into account the size (diameter) of the
impeller; the shape thereof ; the shaft speed de
sired; the delivery required, and the density of '
a
chamber with a continuous peripheral outlet will
not give the desired ef?ciency or characteristics,
the liquid to be pumped, it is possible to build
up the pressure .within the angular distance allot 20
ted (120°) so that the liquid arrives at the throat
one of the reasons being that the impeller will
as indicated by line OM at the exact instant of
An impeller such as I moving in an annular
impart rotary motion to the liquid beyond the
blade tips, and it is necessary, therefore, to provide
vanes which serve first to limit the radial travel
attaining its full delivery pressure. If the pro
portions be slightly diiferent the delivery pressure
may be developed before the liquid arrives at the 25
of liquid driven by the impeller to permit a
delivery pressure to be built up', and, second, to
discharge port, as shown by line 0L. Then the
carry of liquid from L to M is idle or wastful
stratify the flow so that each passageway or por
tion of the discharge ?ow will be conducted in
carry of water at high velocity.
30 orderly manner through an expanding channel.
These channels, I conceive, must then discharge
into a common outlet through a suitable junc
tion, this junction being so arranged that the
difference in mean velocity of any two adjacent
streams, and the mean difference in direction of
?ow of the streams, is a minimum. Since the
'
‘i '
If the proportions be changed, as by providing 1
blades of greater curvature, the delivery pressure 30
will not be attained until the liquid has been
carried through a greater angular distance than
the minimum between throats as indicated by
line OPN. In such a design the most e?lcient op- '
eration would be at a velocity or pressure corre 35
sponding to the height of point P above line OX.
The pump could also deliver at higher pressure
discharge, follows in' general a spiral path, a num- ' but at decreased efliciency, because of lack of
synchronism. Were the blade formed so‘that full
ber of discharge throats may roughly be de
40 termined by determiningthe angular distance delivery pressure were not attained until the liquid 4o,
through which the water must travel in order had been carried through 240° travel, as per line
to take up the desired energy from the impeller. OSQ, then there would be, two points at which.
Thus if, as indicated in Figure 2, the design speed the liquid could be discharged,” the first throat
and size of the impeller, the shape of the blades would tend to relieve the pressure at less pressure
than is attainable at Q. Again the emciency is 45
.- and shape of the casing is such as to permit sum
cient energy to be imparted to the water within reduced } because of lack of synchronism. The
120° of travel, it will be obvious that a particle ideal condition of synchronous operation, together
of liquid entering anywhere around the periphery with proper shape‘ of passageways for streamline
of the intake pipe E should not be carried through ?ow andsmooth acceleration and deceleration of
any appreciable idle travel if discharge ports were the liquid, provides maximum eiiiciency, and it is
arranged at 120° apart on the periphery. There; . the object of the. present pump to embody the
same.
'
upon synchronisni with a completely ?lledan
In Figure 7 I have illustrated, in side eleva
active impeller will be attainable.
'
liquid, in going from the inlet’ pipe E to the
It is ’ tional view, a specific embodiment of my pump
Multiple discharge pumps are known.
55 known by pump designers that a centrifugal
multiple discharge pump involves the difilculty
of controlling the distribution of work as between
throats. If no provision is made to cure this there‘
will be a tendency for one or more throats to
with a suitable support and mounting, and driving 55
mechanism therefor.
,
The pump ' ,l'll comprises three chief parts,
namely, the impeller I, the main body and casing
12, ‘and the cover or inlet member IS. The
impeller shaft 2 is coupled to a suitable driving
‘shaft section I‘, ‘the coupling being in endwise alignment, as will be later described. The driv
ing shaft section I4 and the impeller shaft 2 are
extent which largely destroys the value of the coupled by a key I! which lies within telescoping
splines formed in the respective parts, the im 65»
05 design, I have conceived of the possibility of
constructing a high e?iciency multi-discharge port peller shaft having a reduced end or stud portion
pump which, through the simple expedient of which its within an axial recess I6 in the adjacent‘
restricting radial flow of liquid in advance of end of the driving shaft section ll, a threaded
'00 rob the others and produce an unbalanced condi
tion which renders the pumping characteristics
unsuitable for general use, and which interferes
with volumetric and mechanical e?lciency to an
each discharge port, will insure the functional , rod or bolt I‘I extending through the hollow
70 independence of the sections of the pump and shaft section It and being threaded into the end 70
of the impeller shaft 2 and provided externally
compel each section to develop the desired de
livery pressure, andv hence ‘do its own share of ‘ with a tightening nut l8 to pull the shaft section . '
the work. Since this control resides at the point ' I4 and the 'impeller» shaft 2 into telescopic rela- .
where both radial ?ow and the development of tionand in alignment, this being particularly
76 pressure can be and are governed, the pump of facilitated by the sliding fit and the provision of
/
9,184,854
the shoulder I6 at the junction of the stud or
reduced portion of the impeller shaft with the
full section thereof. This shoulder engages the
end face of the driving shaft section I4.
The impeller shaft 2 is designed to be guided
concentrically of the packing recess 26 which is
formed about the shaft opening through the hub
5
bearings thus may be removed without disturbing
the main body of the pedestal member 21.
>
The base 26 is provided with ?anges upon op
posite sides such as indicated at 46, suitable feet
such as 46-46 being formed on the four corners
:or
mounting the base 26 upon a suitable surface
. .
2| formed on the main pump casing or frame I2.
The barrel member 31 and ring 32 are piloted
This hub 2| projects axially from the side wall
together by registering grooves or keyways into
10 of the pump casing or frame, and is provided
which a pin or key 52 may be disposed for accu
with a ?at, annular machined surface 22 which rate alignment and assembly
of the parts.
provides a clamping surface against which there
While the ring members 3| and 32 are prefer
is bolted a similar annular surface on a cooperat
ing clamping member 23, which is preferably
N15 ring-shaped in form and provided with a coop
erating clamping surface engaging the surface
22. The hub 2 I is provided with an extending
piloting ?ange ~24 to facilitate‘ the fastening of
the hub member 2|. and the clamping member 23,
20 as by a series of studs 25. Cap screws may be
employed instead of studs. The clamping mem
ber 23 and the ?ange 24 are preferably piloted
10 “
ably split ard then clamped upon the ?anges 36
and 36, the parts may be provided merely with a
suitable concentric ?t and bolted in place by 15
overhanging ?anges, if desired.
Within the axial packing recess 26 in the hub .
2| I provide suitable packing material 20' which
is compressed upon the shaft 2 by a suitable
gland follower 53 which ?ts within the axial re
cess 26 and is guided therein to compress the
packing material 26'. This gland follower 53 is
provided at its outer end with a recess adapted
to receive packing material 54 and a secondary
gland follower 55 seals the outer end of the gland
follower 53 upon the shaft 2. The intermediate,
together by interengaging .annular shoulders,‘ as
indicated at 26. A supporting pedestal 21 is
25 adapted to support both the driving shaft sectionv
I4, with its connected impeller shaft 2 and im
peller I, and also to hold the pump casing or or main gland follower 53 is provided with a cir
frame in proper alignment. This pedestal mem .cumferential recess with which
there communi
ber 21 includes the base portion 26, the clamping cates a lubricating pipe 56 (see Figure
8) to the
30 member 23, and the- supporting arms 36-36
outer end of which a compression grease cup is 30
which support the pump by cantilever action. preferably connected. A follower vring 51
\ These arms 36-36 are relatively thin, vertically
disposed’ plates which merge into the clamping mounted on the shaft 2 is adapted to engage'the
plate or slotted ring-like’ member 23 that is end of the secondary gland follower 55 and apply
35 bolted against the ?ange 24 of the hub 2|. These a yielding pressure to the main gland follower 53 thereby to retain packing in the recess 26.
arms 36, at their opposite ends, are formed inte;
gral with the central part of the pedestal mem
_ ber 21, which central part includes the apertured
or ring-like clamping members 3I', 32 for sup;
40 porting the bearing for the shaft section I4. The
ring-like members 3|, 32 are 'formed at their
lower ends integral with the base portion 26, the
base portion 26’ being hollow.
.
The shaft section I4 is supported at the bear
.ings 33 and 34,'these beirings being shown as ball
bearings having the inner rings mounted on the
'
,
shaft section
I4 as by means of a shoulder on the
shaft section, a clamping ring 35 for the bearing
33, and a similar clamping ring- 36 for the hear
ing 34. The outer rings are mounted in a cylin
drical sleeve member or barrel31 which has ex
‘ The secondary gland follower 55 may be split.
so as to be removable if desired. The ring 51 has
a recess which embraces the end of the follower
55 and provides the necessary hoop strength ‘for
the outer end thereof, the inner end of the fol
lower 55 being restrained in the recess in‘ the
outer end of the main gland follower 53.
_ '
The ring 51 has a pair of notches (see Fig. 8)
into which are extended the short pins or- studs
56-56 of a fork member 66 formed on the lower.
or vertical arm 62 of a bell crank lever 63 which
is pivoted upon a pin 64 extending loosely
throuhg the bell crank lever and through the
plates 36-36 and held in place as by cotter pins
65-65 (see Fig. 8). The bell crank 63 may be
provided with an eccentric sleeve I26, held in
tending ?ange portions at 36, 36 for cooperating 7 place by a ‘set screw I 22 and being adjustable
angularly by the hexagon head I23 to raise or
55 44 against the corresponding ends of the barrel lower the pivot about which the arm 62 swings.
-The horizontal arm 66 .of the bell crank' lever
with the split rings 3| and 32. Cap-members 46
and 42 are held by suitable bolts such as 43 and
member 31 and hold the outer races in place.
The outer race of the bearing 34 is held in place
63 is provided with a fork 66 at-its-outer end, this
‘fork 66 being adapted to receive the shank 66 of
' endwise to limit the axial travel of the shaft sec
the eye-bolt 16 between the tines thereof. These
tion I4 and hence of the impeller I in the pump‘ tines 66 are notched transversely to receive the
casing I2. The outer race of the bearing 33 is ends of the pivot bar 14 which, in effect, forms a
merelycon?ned circumferentially and is allowed
to ?oat in the axial directions.
The impeller shaft 2 carries a liquid slinger 45
85 which cooperates with the end cap 42 to prevent
- the travel of liquid along the shaft 2 into the
bearings or into the junction between the two
shaft sections. The barrel 31 may be provided
with a suitable ?lling of oil or grease as through
70 the plug 46, a drain plug 41 being provided at the
rear.
.
_
It will be seen that the ?anges of‘ the barrel
member are less in diameter than the opening
through the slotted clamping ring 23 carried by
75 the arms 36-36.
The barrel member and the
knife edge bearing in the aforesaid notches. The '
pivot bar 14 has'a central hole through which
passes the shank of the eye-bolt 16 and a com
pression spring 15-bears upon the said pivot bar
14 and is adjustably stressed by the wing nut
16. The eye-bolt 16 is supported on a transverse
pin 12 which passes through the plates 36-36 and
is held against endwis displacement by the cot
ter pins 65-65.
'
-
'
\- To service the packing gland, the wing nut 16
is released to allow the bar 14V to be raised out
70
'
of the notch'in the fork 66,- whereupon the eye- '
bolt'16 may be swung about the shaft 12 to re
lease the same from the horizontal arm‘ 66 of
the'bell crank lever 63. If desired, the trans- 15
9,134,954
6
verse pin 18 may be'removed, but this is not
tially ?at wall 88 which has a Junction with the
erably removed to provide access to the gland
having a- central'opening for the impeller shaft
usually n. The lever 88, however, is pref- ‘ hub Ii or II’, as the case may be, the said hub
and follower.’ This is done by withdrawing one
of the cotter pins 88, pulling out the cross pin
88, unhooking the‘ pins, 58 from the notches in
the ring 81, whereupon the bell crank lever 88
may be withdrawn, making the entire gland read
ily accessible from the space between the two
2 and an axial recess 28 about the same for the
main packing. This end wall may be suitably re
inforced by radial ribs or ?anges, if desired. The
end wall 88- has a finished interior surface, 82 -
forming the side ofv the runner channel. The
inner surface of the wall 88 is relieved from said
machined surface 82 to the center. This obvi 10
10 plates or arms 88-88. Since these plates 88-"
do not extend substantially below the center line . ously, is optional.
of the packing gland and its shaft 2, the lower
half of the gland is quite open at all times, and
with the lever 88 out of the way a high degree of
15 accessibility is afforded. In Figures '1' and 8 it
will be observed that the lower edge of the arms
88-48 lies above the top of the shaft 2.
If it is desired to remove the impeller i the
- pressure on the packing gland may be released
by throwing the eye-bolt 18 and its spring 18
and cross bar 14 out of register with the fork i8,
whereupon the pressure upon the packing is re
leased. The shaft section Il may then be uncou
This end wall 88 is substan
tially disc-shaped and its outer periphery merges ,
into the volute portion and into the outlet con
nection or nomle 88 in the following manner.
The nozzle or, outlet is provided with a clamping 15'
?ange 85. The wall 88,‘which de?nes the adja-'-'
cent part of the outlet, is joined to a circumferen-'
tial wall 81 and the junction of these two walls .
forms a cut-off 88 de?ning the termination of one
discharge port 88. The wall 81 is curved about the
axis of the impeller shaft for a short distance
as a cylinder then continues on an increasing
radius and its inner‘surface de?nes for a short
pled from the shaft 2 by loosening the bolt i1 distance the cylindrical bottom of the runner
channel then continues as a passageway com
25 or the nut 18 and pullingthe' impeller l, with municating with the discharge port 88. The wall ,
its shaft 2, to the left as viewed, in Figure 1. The‘
liquid slinger 48 is relatively loose uponthe shaft 81 continues in spiral ‘form to form the outermost
2 and may readily be'stripped oil of the end of
the same, and the shaft 2 thereupon pulled
30 through the packing gland and out of the open
side of the pump frame or casing II, the inlet
plates i8 being removed.
If it is desired to remove the bearings, this may
readily 'be done by releasing the barrel 81 from
the rings 8i and 82. Where it is desired to remove
the barrel and the shaft section it with the pump,
the studs or bolts 25 which hold the pump to the
' pedestal member 21 are loosened, the bell crank
88 is pulled out of the way, the barrel 81 is re
wall of the volute 88 and finally ends up at the ‘
?ange 88. The end of the discharge port 88 is
defined by a spiral.wall 8|, the forward end of
which 82 forms a cut-off for the discharge port
88. This wall 8| eontinuesfor a short distance
as a cylinder then proceeds in spiral form, de
?ning between‘itself and the outermost wall 81
a spiral passageway of gradually increasing cross
section, said wall 8i ?nally terminating at 88 sub
stantially in a feather edge. On its inner side the '
wall 8| forms for a short distance the cylindrical
bottom of the channel then continues as a pas
leased from the rings 8| and 82, and thereupon sageway for the discharge port 84. The discharge
the shaft section ll with the barrel may be pulled port 84 terminates at the edge 85 of another
out through the clamping ring 28 which is»large spirally disposed ‘wall 88 which wall 86 forms,
enough to permit these parts to pass. It will be between its outer surface and the inner surface
observed that the clamping plate or ring 28 is of the wall 8|, a gradually expanding passageway preferably cut away at the bottom (see Figure 8). 81 which merges beyond the feather edge 88 with
This is done to facilitate assembly and also to the discharge of the passageway 88. The wall 88
prevent liquid of a corrosive character from at ‘extends between the passageways 8i and 81 for
tacking the clamping plate or ring. Obviously a short way as a cylinder, then continues as a
spiral wall and terminates in a feather edge at
the ring 28 need not be so cut away.
7 ,
The hub 2| is provided with an annular water 88, so that the stream from the passageway 81
passageway surrounding the main packing for merges with the liquid from the passageways 88
cooling the same. Water may be introduced into . and 81, which have previously merged.
this cooling chamber or water jacket either from , Each of the three sections of the channel is’
an external connection, such as the delivery side thus provided with a cylindrical portion which is
of the pump, as through a pipe 1.1, the water then concentric with the impeller l, and of a radius
being discharged through a passageway 18 to the 'which except for mechanical clearance is sub
runner chamber near the hub thereof, or the stantially the same as that of/the impeller. This
circulation for the water jacket may be entirely ‘ cylindrical portion represents the angular carry
internal, by providing an inlet passageway to the ,of water to build up delivery pressure. The walls
water Jacket from a point where the pressure is or vanes 8| and 88 are relatively thin platelike
greater and a discharge at a point where the portions with the trailing ends gradually tapered
pressure is less, such points existing at different to approximate feather edges for leading the ad
jacent streams together smoothly. The thickness
radial distances within the casing.
‘
v
The hub and supporting construction which of the vanes is not the important feature, but
I have shown may be varied. In fact, the pump the shape should be such as to form, in conjunc
casing I! may be supplied with a solid hub II’, tion with the'cooperating walls in each case, a
as shown in Figure 10, forv mounting in a split gradually increasing passageway to provide a
clamp carried by the arms 80-48 instead of the smooth deceleration and increase in pressure.
clamping ring 28. Such form of hub and split Sharp changes in direction or ‘velocity in the
10
clamp is shown in my Patent No. l,993,999,vissued passageways are to be avoided.
10 March
It will/‘be observed that the axial "depth or
12, 1935. The gland and follower con
width of the blades of the impeller I is relatively
struction and the bearing construction are pref
small as compared to the diameter of the‘outlet
erably ofthe form shown in Figure ‘7. ~ _
opening or nozzle 88.. The outlet opening, 84 is’
Referring now to Figures 9, .10 and 11, the cas
" ing or main pump frame comprises a'substan 'preferably circular, as is the ?ange 88. The 7‘
8, 184,954
'7 ,
?are or progressive increase in cross section from‘ or cylindrical ?ange I01 fits within the-bore I04,
the discharge ports to the outlet 04 of the re
and a radial ?ange I08 extends out beyond the
spective passageways is secured chie?y by in
?ange neck I05, a suitable packing gasket being
creasing their axial dimensions as they lead from interposed
between the ?ange I00 and the neck
the periphery of the impeller to the outlet open
I05. A split clampingring vI00, having its in 5
ing 84.
‘
wardly extending flange adapted to be disposed
Thus, by reference to the width-of the pas
back‘of the ?ange on the neck I05 registers with .
sageway as indicated in Figure 10 it will be seen
that the axial dimension or width of the channel
in which the ends of the blades‘ of the impeller
run is shown by the position of the wall 00.
the outer periphery of ‘the ?ange I00 so that
studs or bolts IIO may clamp the split ?ange I09
and the ?ange I08 together. The split ?ange I00 10
The width of thepassageway 91 is indicated by ‘is preferably split at two‘ or more points, so that
the position of the wall I00, and the width of the parts thereof may be readily disposed in posi
the passageway 90 is indicated by the position tion to hold the parts remo'vably together. The‘
inner radial margin of the annular plate I06
15 of the wall' IOI, all in Figure 10. Thus, by secur
ing the ?are, or increase in cross section mainly merges into the converging conical wall II_2_ and
by increasing the axial dimension, the casing of this wall H2 in turn merges with the diverging
the pump may be made more compact and of ‘ wall II3, the junction of the two walls H2 and
H3 forming the maximum constriction of the ' i
substantially less size in a radial direction.
inlet
passageway. The outer part of the wall “3 .
It will be observed that in, the embodiment il
lustrated in Figure 9, there are three discharge is provided with a suitable clamping ?ange ‘I I4 20
for connection to a corresponding ?ange on the
ports leading to the common outlet 84 substan . inlet
pipe.
tially without constriction. Between the outlet
The
impeller I, which is shown in dotted lines
ports 89, 90 and 94 there are concentric cylindri
cal portions or walls with which the tips of the in Fig. 7 and in full lines in Figures 9 and 11, is
formed in two somewhat dissimilar parts, but 25
blades‘ have substantially only mechanical clear
ance. These cylindrical bottom portions of the these'partsare so formed mainly for convenience
channel in conjunction with the impeller 2 form in manufacture rather than for difference in
radially restraining walls whereby each of the
three sections of- the pump isat all times func
tionally substantially closed oil’ from the other
sections by the impeller blades whether these
blades be parts of an open runner or of a closed
runner. The blades are preferably spaced apart
a distance which is substantially not greater than
the extent of the radially restraining portions, so
that at least one blade is always in registering
relation with respect to a substantially cylindri
cal wall of the bottom of they channel for each
40 of the three parts of the pump. These radially
restraining portions to that extent act function
ally as sealo?s. It is to be‘ understood that the
functional eifect of predominating'angular travel
followed by the functional eifect of predominat
45 ing radial travel in proper synchronous relation
is the characteristic sought. Variations of form
are not important so long as the above charac
operation. Tliat is to say, considering the outline ;
of the impeller I as viewed from the side (see Fig
ures 7 and 11) this outline is the result of prac 30
tical consideration rather than theoretical consid
erations. Theoretically considered, the impeller
might better be shaped according to the strict
converging »Venturi shape shown at the point B
in Figure 3, but for practical reasons the impeller
is divided into two parts, namely, the extending
blade ends IIG, the axial faces of which lie in par-‘ '
allel planes for convenience in manufacture, .‘and
the wing portions III which take the form of
truncated conical portions. In brief, the impeller 40
of Figure 11 is the practical embodiment‘of the
theoretical shape shown in Figure ‘3. The arms
II6 are substantially oblong in cross section ex
cept for the reinforcing ribs II8 upon the backs
thereof, and at the edge facing the intake the
wings III are cut away at ‘the center to provide 45
.
teristic is predominant. Even if the blade tips ‘ an axial inlet recess which may be‘ clearly seen
have more than mechanical clearance, the effect in dotted lines, in Figure '7.
The wings II'I are made as thin as possible in
50 is not lost so long as the liquid which is carried
on the cylindrical channel walls is responsive to order to avoid occupying space which, at the cen 50
tral part, is diiiicult to gain except by increasing
the blades in partaking of angular carry to ac
quire discharge velocity or pressure in advance - the axial length. It will be observed that the axial
length or depth of the impeller at the central
of release radially into the discharge ports.
part
is relatively great and that the correspond
The'shape
of
the
impeller
blades
is
also
capable
55
of considerable variation, so long as the above ing shape of the runner chamber is made accord 55
characteristic synchronous action‘ is maintained. .ingly. In other words, the conical wall’ II2 fol
A draining opening I02 through the wall 9| . lows quite closely, with clearance only, the taper
' '
and a draining opening with a plug I03 through of the Wings “1.
The
present
pump
is
designed
to
impart
to-the
60 the wall 8'! permit liquid to be draine from the
‘liquid operated upon the necessary energy for
pump to avoid injury by freezing.
,
.
60
The main pump casing or ‘frame I2 is provided delivery pressures within approximately 120° of
angular
movement
of
the
liquid.
There
is
always
with a cylindrical recess which terminates .at its
end on the machine surface 82, this cylindrical some slip of the water or liquid with respect to
the impeller, but obviously, eihciency is promoted
65 recess being of such diameter as to permit the by reducing such slip. In
the present construc- '
insertion of the impeller I from the left as ‘viewed
05
in Fig. 7. This recess is machined out to provide tion I-have three discharge ports about the in
ternal
periphery
of
the
runner
channel
and
the
a cylindrical surface at I04 (see Fig.7) . ‘ A short
?anged neck I05 is formed on the left-hand end open impeller has eight blades or arms tapering
in axial‘ depth from a maximum at the center,
70 wall as viewed in Figures '7 and 10 for the con
nection of the, cover or inlet member I3. This or adjacent the center, to a minimum at the tips. 70
The impeller is thus balanced mechanically and
inlet member comprises an annular ?at wall sec
also hydraulically because the eight arms do not
tion I06 with a machined surface parallel to the permit
simultaneous register with the three ports.
machined surface 82' to form the front side of
75 the runner channel. A cylindrical wall portion It will be observed that the blade tips “0 are
given a backward curve. This is done mainly to 75
8,154,!!!‘
_
i
'
I
,
.
ciency of the pump. As a pocket between blades
is rotated from-one discharge throat to the next
avoidnoises and eddy currents at the point where
the blade leaves the departing water at high
velocity. If the blades could leave the water with
out slip, curvature on the ends of the blades
would be substantially ine?ectual and ‘all that
discharge throat, the pocket is‘ kept substan-
tially closed at its outer end, so that liquid can
not escape freely until it comes into register 5
would be required would be to give the blades a - with the next pocket. Now at the same time, it
is to be understood that the rate of movement v
smooth, tapered end for withdrawing the same
out of the current of water. As a practical-mat
ter, the blade ends must have sumcient substance
10 or material mass to provide the necessary strength
to sustain the stress of driving the liquid, and
of the pocket, while thus closed and carried be
tween throats, is such that the desired discharge
pressure (or ‘centrifugal force) is developed. 10
The attainment of the desired pressure (or cen
trifugal force) and the arrival at the discharge
to sustain some degree of corrosion.
position or port must concur to secure the desired
synchronism. The diagram of‘ Figure 6 is in
tended to convey the above thought. The physi- 1'5 cal structure which secures it is shown in Figure
, ‘The axial recess indicated at 3 in Figure 3 al
lows the water to enter the impeller without sub;
constriction. Constriction at this point
is stantial
would mean that the velocity of the liquid would
9. The cylindrical bottom part of the channel
between the point of cuto? 82 and the next port
be unduly high, ‘and this is undesirable. _
. The double taper of the inlet member provides
N illustratesthe feature of functionally closing‘ oi! the pocket between adjacent blades The wa~ 20 .
-’a control which cuts down losses in the'intake
20 throughexcessive rotation or helical travel of the
ter contained in that pocket at the instant illus
trated in Figure ‘9 (assuming the impeller to be
water in the intake pipe. At the point where the
water takes up angular motion instead of longi
tudinal motion there is a vrapid change in direc
tion and velocity. .The throat at the inlet, as
indicated, tends to limit the formation of uncon
rotating) is being moved angularly substantially
without radial travel. It is thereby acquiring
kinetic energy and developing centrifugal force. 25
Then when the pocket opens to the discharge ‘pas
trolled ?ow and eddy currents at this point, which
is conducive to an increase inefficiency of the - sageway 94, the water from the pocket is re
device. The form of pump herein shown carries leased smoothly at high angular velocity, 1. e., wit
'
30'
‘as
out the thought of Venturié-shaped passageways
and streamlined ?ow to 'a high degree,‘ even
maximum possible " discharge pressure.
.
‘
~Release of the water in a pocket results in in- 30’
though the parts are not strictly in conformity to _ crease in the radial ?ow as compared to the an
theoretical curves as indicated in Figures 1 and 3. gular travel. This means that the water is being
delivered radially through the pocket with less
- Figure 4 indicates diagrammatically the in
work done upon it by the impeller. This is illus- ,
cluded blocks of water K lying between two ad
trated by the pocket in Figure -9 containing the as
jacent vanes or arms of theimpeller, and C in
dicates the divergent discharge passageway lead» reference numerals 9| and 94. This produces.
an inertia of radial ?ow which assists in provid
ing from the port which lies on the interior pe
.- riphery H of the. casing,-‘this port being de?ned. ing discharge. However, such radial flow
by the opening between points I and J. However,‘ gins to diminish as the pocket passes over
the actual ?ow of water is not radial, bntspiral, next .cutoif as at 9!. Then the water in
pocket passing over the cylindrical portion
as indicated'in Figure 5. The passageway com
be- '
the
the 40 I
prises the spiral convergent portion -B leading to
the point ‘of greatest restriction at A‘ and dis-
fol
lowing cutoif 95 substantially" loses radial ?ow
and takes up angular motion to develop kinetic
charging therethrough through the divergent dis
energy (centrifugal force).
’
It will be observed that the sole obstruction 45 .charge passageway C. In other words, the ?ow
of water, according to the diagram 5, is a transient to ?ow vfrom the intake l3 through the impeller
phenomena occurringwithin the pump, the ratios .to the outlet 84 is that introduced by the cylin
of cross section at any point in the diagram of drical bottom parts of the channel. No inlet
flow shown in Figure 5 being such as to allow the ' restriction for equalizing ?ow into the impeller,
water to enter the impeller at a relatively low rate . or outlet ?ow restriction or diffuser for equalizing 5o
50 of ?ow and then gradually to be accelerated until discharge as between discharge throats, is nec
the narrowest part of the passageway is reached, essary. This principle of compelling the water
to pass through a de?nite angular path, sub
at which point the impeller withdraws from ac
tion.
stantially without radial flow, as a means for se
'
In the diagrams no attempt is made to show the, wcuring distribution of work and a desired deliv- 55> '
actual dimensions or actual proportions, but ery pressure over a wide range of ?uid deliveries.
'
‘is broadly new.
merely to indicate the character thereof.
-
I am aware that it has heretofore been pro
Figure 6 indicates the action of three streams
of liquid according to the diagram of Figure 5.
posed to provide a centrifugal pump with multi
ple outlets, and I do not claim my invention so on .
Assume that the entire peripheral distance is in
dicated by the line O-X and the radial extent broadly as to include merely multiple outlets.
of the impeller by the vertical line O-Y. The No one, so far as I am aware, has provided in a
distance 0-)! represents 360° and, for a pump multiple outlet centrifugal pump de?nite por
tions of the channel in which the water is func
of three discharge throats, the velocity of the
- tionally con?ned radially ‘for the purpose of ae- 65
water in increased from the center to the pe
riphery through a certain angular carry, in this
case approximately 120°, as above discussed. '
'
Whereas I indicate 120° as the optimum, it
quiring centrifugal force in advance ,of release
into the succeeding discharge ports. Such ra
dial con?nement and development ofdischarge
‘is to be understood that the angular travel of ’ pressure forms the solemeans for controlling
distribution of ?ow through the pump. I believe 70
70 the water may be greater than. 120° for a three— it is broadly new to secure synchronous opera-'v
throat pump, but it will be seen’ that if the
travel be greater in angular extent than is nec:
essary to have the desired energy imparted there
tion of a pump as above-described.
It is also
broadly new I believe to coordinate the synchro-_
to, such excess travel introduces unnecessary F nous operation with the streamline ?ow secured
78 friction losses and reduces the volumetric eiil- ‘ by/varying thecross section of the passageways 75
2,184,264
9
to approximate Venturi shaped conduits of flow. -from the inlet connection to the outlet connec~
Also I am aware that ithas been proposed to tion, and a runner in said chamber, said runner
employ impellers with long trailing tips to co
having a plurality of vanes substantially greater
operate with specially shaped multiple throats in number than the number of discharge ports
with the object‘ of attaining high discharge pres
substantially to equalize the effect of the vanes
sures, but my pump is not concerned with that upon the ?uid ?ow through the ports, said run
structure or'mode of operation.
ner having an inlet recess registering with the
Tests of the present pump in comparison with ‘inlet connection to provide for relatively free
single outlet pumps, employing as nearly as pos
sible the same shape of impeller, show conclu
sively the improvement in efficiency and head
which may be obtained through the use'of the
present invention; A sample pump embodying
entry of liquid into the impeller and to prevent '
10
2. In a centrifugal pumping device, a casing
provided with an axial tubular inlet connection
and a substantially tangential tubular outlet con
nection, said casing providing a runner chamber
undue inlet velocity. .
the present invention equipped with 9%"
diameter impeller, 1" in width, was able to de
liver substantially the same volume and head as
a comparative pump of the type which I have
freely communicating with both said connections,
ner channel on the inner periphery thereof, said
marketed und'erthe designation #25-DW, having
channel having a plurality of substantially tan
an outlet located at only one point on the pe
riphery; andprovided with a 101/2" diameter im
pel1er;1"'in width,
gential discharge ports disposed, substantially
equidistant about the periphery, there being sub 20
'
stantially concentric arcuate bottom wall por
tions for the channel between discharge ports,
said chamber having a relatively great depth ax
ially at the central part and tapering in cross-sec
The pump of the present invention designated
as #30-,QW in comparison with the considerably
larger #25-’-DW showed markedly superior e?i
to Mi
ci'ency. The following is a comparative table of
tion to merge with the runner channel and the 25
outlet ports to provide in effect a converging pas
' results:
:
1 7 50 R. P. M.
sageway leading to each of the discharge ports,
said discharge ports having relatively long spiral
ly arranged overlapping discharge passageways
1 inch wide 9% 1 inch wide 10%
inches diameter inches diameter
30
free of flow restrictions and having a junction in 30
G. P. M.
Hd.
15'
said chamber comprising a relatively narrow run
E?.
Hd.
the tubular discharge connection, said passage
ways being separated by relatively thin walls one
E6.
of which terminates within the outlet connection
said passageways progressively increasing in cross
92
70
90
.
54.4
96
100
69
69
95
102
55. 6
6
104
as
106
54. a
‘axial dimension of the cross section, said runner
I do not intend to‘be limited-to the details
plurality of Venturi-like flow paths extending in
, section from the port to the said junction, said in
crease being provided mainly by increase in the
35
chamber and discharge passageways de?ning a '
40
speci?cally illustrated and described, particular-. parallel from the inlet to the outlet, and an open 40
ly since certain of the details are engineering
compromises to attain, as nearly as practically
possible in workable form, certain optimum or
vtheoretical constructions, the underlying princi
ples of which I have above set forth.
I claim:
:1. In a centrifugal pumping device, a casing
provided with an axial inlet connection and a
peripheral outlet connection, a runner chamber
between said connections having unobstructed
communication with said inlet connection, said
chamber comprising a relatively narrow chan
nel on the inner periphery of the chamber hav
'
runner in said chamber,,said runner having a
'plurality of vanes substantially greaterin number
than the number of ports substantially to equalize
the effect of said vanes upon the ?uid ?ow
through the ports, said runner having a depth
of the vanes axially corresponding to the dimen 45
sions of the runner chamber, and having an axial
recess registering with the inlet connection to
provide relatively free entry of liquid into the
runner and to limit the inlet velocity.
,
-
3. In a pump of the class described, a casing
50
comprising two chief parts, said parts consisting
of a body portion and an inlet portion, the body .
ing a series of substantially tangential discharge
portion comprising a back wall, a series of in
ports substantially equally spaced about the pe- ‘ tegral spiral walls and end walls de?ning out
riphery of the channel, there being substantially
wardly tapering discharge passageways between 55
concentric arcuate bottom wall portions for the
channel between discharge ports, the runner
chamber having a relatively great depth axially
at the inlet connection tapering in depth toward
them, a tubular outlet connection forming a com
mon junction for the outer ends of said passage
ways, and said casing having a cylindrical recess
the channel and merging therewith to produce
a passageway for liquid flow which passageway
is convergent in cross section toward the dis
charge ports, said discharge ports having inde
pendent passageways leading in parallel to each
other to the outlet connection, said passageways
being separated by spirally disposed walls, said
which terminates on the inside of said back wall, 60
the margin ‘of said recess having a short coupling
neck, said inside back wall having an annular
smooth surface forming the side of. a runner
channel, said inlet portion comprising a cover
plate having a cylindrical portion ?tting within 65
overhanging flange for attachment to said cou
pling neck, an axially disposed inlet connection
the cylindrical walls of the recess and having an
walls terminating in relatively thin edges to lead
adjacent streams together with minimum shock, - providing an inlet opening for said cover plate,
said passageways increasing in cross section
said cover plate having an annular smooth sur-.
from the discharge ports to the outlet connection
and being free of ?ow restrictions, said runner
chamber and said discharge passageways pro
viding in effect a plurality of separate Venturi
like flow paths extending in parallel relation
face registering with said ?rst annular smooth
surface and forming the front side of the runner
channel, said cover plate having a conical tubular
portion leading from said runner channel to said
inlet opening, said tapering discharge passage- 75.
1O
2,134,264
‘ways terminating at their inner ends in a plu
rality of substantially tangential discharge ports
and a substantially concentric peripheral wall in
advance of each port forming a continuation of
the cylindrical wall of said recess.
4. A centrifugal pump comprising a casing
having an inlet, a runner chamber provided with
a runner channel and a plurality of discharge
throats and an outlet, and an open runner in
10 said chamber with blades having their tips ex
tending into said channel, substantially concen
tric walls between throats forming radial bound
aries for water in parts of the impeller, said cas
ing and runner providing a plurality of Venturi
15 shaped passageways between. said inlet and. out
let, with the blade tips and throats disposed at
substantially the point of maximum constriction
in said passageways, said runner having blades of
relatively little curvature and being adapted to be
20 operated at a rotatlve speed which will carry the
water over said substantially concentric walls
synchronously to discharge velocity and in regis
ter with each one of the throats.
5. In a centrifugal pump, a casing comprising
25 an impeller channel, said casing having an axial
inlet and a peripheral discharge connection, a se
ries of tapered passageways'leading without ?ow
restriction from the common outlet connection to
ports opening into the channel, an impeller in the
30 casing running in the channel, functionally effec
tive sealoff portions in the bottom of the channel
between adjacent ports over which sealoif por
tions full discharge pressure is developed, said
impeller having blades extending from the cen
35 tral part of the casing to the bottom of the chan
nel, the angular spacing between blades being not
substantially greater than the angular extent of
the sealoff portions of the channel, whereby each
section of the pump is functionally sealed off at
40 all times from adjacent sections by interposed
blades of the impeller, the blades being relatively
thin at their tips to avoid obstructing the ports, the
blades being greater in number than the ports
and the inlet connection opening without ?ow
45 restriction into the central part of the impeller.
6. In a centrifugal pumping device, a casing
having an impeller channel comprising periph
eral substantially concentric walls at the bottom
thereof, discharge ports opening through said
50 substantially concentric walls at a plurality of
substantially equidistant points, a volute having
a common discharge outlet, relatively thin vane
ports being connected through unobstructed ex
pansion passageways of outwardly tapering form
leading in parallel to each other to the manifold,
an impeller in said impeller chamber having
blades the tips of which have substantially ‘only VI
mechanical clearance with the said substantially
concentric portions of the channel, the blades of
the impeller being spaced apart angularly by a
distance substantially not greater than the dis
tance subtended by said substantially concentric
walls, whereby the sections of the pump between
adjacent concentric portions are peripherally
functionally closed off from each other at all
times by the impeller blades the concentric por
tions in cooperation with the rotating impeller 15
constituting independent parallel pumping sec‘
tions which at their inlets communicate freely
with each other and with the axial inlet at the
central part of the impeller, and communicate
freely with each other on the discharge side of
the manifold beyond the expansion passageways.
8. A ?uid moving device operating on the cen
trifugal principle, comprising a rotatable impeller
having vanes and a casing enclosing the same,
said casing providing a central inlet for ?uid 25
permitting free and unobstructed access of the
?uid to the central part of. the impeller from
which the ?uid can ?ow outward to the periphery
of the impeller, the casing comprising multiple
throats leading to a common discharge through 30
expanding passageways which are free of ?ow
restrictions and which direct the ?uid streams
in parallel at small difference in direction or ve
locity relative to each other, said casing having
sealo? portions functionally closing off the pe
riphery of the impeller registering with the same
to cause the ?uid to be impelled with a high ratio
of angular travel to radial travel whereby ade-
quate delivery pressure is insured in the ?uid
when it arrives in register with the throats.
'
9. A fluid moving device operating on the cen
trifugal principle, comprising a rotatable impeller
having multiple vanes the inner parts of which
are substantially radial and the outer ends of
which are curved back, the central part of the 45
impeller providing a chamber opening freely into
the space between vanes in the impeller, and a
casing enclosing the impeller, said casing provid
ing a central inlet freely opening into said cham
ber in the impeller, said casing comprising mul 50
tiple throats leading to a common discharge
through expanding passageways, which passage
ways terminating in the volute, an impeller hav
55 ing blades running in said channel, the ends of
ways are free of. ?ow restrictions and which re
duce the velocity of the ?uid streams and bring
them together all in the same direction relative
to each other and- at relatively small differences
60 angular extent at least as great as the angular
in pressure and velocity, said casing providing
concentric portions functionally closing off the
periphery of the impeller overlying the same for
short distances in advance of the respective
like walls providing tapered discharge passage
the blades being of small angular extent having
substantially only mechanical clearance with the
concentric portions of the bottom of the channel,
said substantially concentric portions being of an
distance between the ends of adjacent blades of
the impeller, said concentric portions, in coopera
tion with the rotating impeller, insuring delivery
pressure at each of the ports and controlling the
65 distribution of ?ow of ?uid between the respec
tive ports and forming the sole ?ow restriction
through the pumping device.
7. In a centrifugal pumping device, the com
40
throats to cause the fluid to be impelled with a
motion which comprises a high ratio of angular
to radial travel in advance of reaching the dis
charge throats, whereby adequate delivery of
pressure and flow is insured at each throat.
10.- In a centrifugal pumping device, a casing
comprising an open central inlet and a runner
bination of a casing having an axial inlet and a channel de?ned laterally by side walls and de
. ?ned peripherally in part by relatively thin vanes
70 discharge manifold leading to a common outlet of approximately uniform thickness and of gen 70
connection, an impeller chamber within said cas
ing, said impeller chamber comprising a channel, erally spiral form, between which vanes are
the bottom of which channel has angularly
spaced substantially concentric wall portions
76. with discharge ports therebetween, said discharge
formed outwardly tapered discharge passageways,
adjacent passageways being arranged to dis
charge substantially in parallelism with each
11
2,134,254
other to join smoothly into a common discharge
stream.
-
_
11. In a centrifugal pumping device, a casing
comprising a runner channel de?ned by side
walls and de?ned peripherally by relatively thin
platelike vanes, the inner ends of the vanes being
concentric to de?ne the bottom of the channel
and the outer ends of the vanes extending spiral
13! to de?ne between them spiral passageways of
increasing cross section to permit gradual reduc
tion of velocity of ?uid discharged therethrough,
adjacent passageways being arranged to dis-v
charge substantially in parallelism with each
the axis of the impeller, the opposite surfaces of ‘
said vanes leading toward each other at the end
at a small effective angle to bring the streams of
fluid on opposite sides of a vane ‘smoothly to
gether.
-
.
,
.
13. The combination of claim '12 wherein the
casing has an axial inlet freely opening into the
central part ofv the impeller and a volute ter
minating in generally tangentially disposed dis
'charge neck, one of said vanes terminating ‘with 10
in said volute and one of said vanes terminating
within said neck.
,
'
'
_
14. In a pumping device, a runner and a casing
other to join smoothly into a common stream.
’ ‘comprising a singleycontinuous inlet for ?uid
15
12. In a centrifugal pumping device, the com
into the runner, a runner channel and a‘ volute
bination of an-open multibladed impeller com- -
surroundinglthe channel, said channel having
prising relatively thin radially extending arms, a ' a pair of, adjacent discharge throats and expand
casing comprising a runner channel for receiving
the blades of the impeller, the casing having side
20 walls de?ning the sides of the channel and hav
ing thin platelike vanes, the inner ends of. said
vanes being concentric with the impeller for an
angular distance not substantially less than the
angular distance between impeller arms, 'the
outer ends of said'vanes extending spirally about '
ing passageways’ separated‘ by,v a thin vane the
inner end- of which is substantially concentric for
a short angular distance to de?ne the bottom of 20
the channel between throats, and the outer end
of which vane is spirally disposed in the volute
and terminates therein.
' Y.
"
' HARRY E. LABOUR.
25
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