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Патент USA US2134297

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oct. 25, 1938.
l
_L L. BREESE, JR
A
2,134,297
OIL BURNING APPLIANCE `
Filed Dec. 24, 1954
2 sheets-sheet 1
Oct. -25, 1938.
' „_ L. BREESE, JR
'
2,134,297
OIL BURNING APPLIANCE~
Filed Dec. 24, 1934
17
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2 Sheets-Sheet 2
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2,134,297
Patented Oct. 25, 1938
, UNITED STATE-s PATENT OFFICE * j
2,134,297
OIL BURNING APPIJANGE
. James L. Breese, Jr., Santa. Fe, N. Mex.
Application December 24, 1934, Serial No. '158,980 '_
10 Claims. (Cl. 158-92)
This invention relates to oil burning appliances,
Fig. 4 is a horizontal sectional view on~ the'plane
and has particular reference to an' automatic indicated by‘the line IV-IV of Fig. 1;
,
valve mechanism for such appliances by*which
The oil burning apparatus disclosed in the ac
` the quantity of oil flowing to the appliance for companying drawings comprises a cylindrical
combustion purposes will be automatically regu
retort I having horizontal rows of perforations 2
lated to maintain desired rates of combustion and formed in the walls thereof. The bottom of the
uniform temperatures.
retort is Aseated within a metallic4 cup 3 hav
It is an object of the present invention to pro
ing a bottom wall 4 of dished or concave form,
vide a simple yet efficient oil burner which may the lower end of the retort resting on a hori
10 be employed for use in connection with domestic
zontally disposed annular flange 5 of said cup, 10
water heaters; stove- and circulating warm-air while the walls of the' cup above the ilange 5
heaters, garage heaters, poultry brooders and the closely and frictionally engage withthe lower
like. In most of these applications, it is neces
walls of the retort. Directly connected with the
sary that the burner shall operate at uniform lower- surfaces of the bottom wall 4 is a valve
15 combustion rates to produce for sustained periods
>casing 6, preferably formed from cast aluminum
of time substantially constant predetermined or other metal of high heat conductivity. The
temperatures. Heretofore in oil burning appli
casing is attached to the bottom wall 4 preferably
ances of this character, it has been customary by means of screws 1 and 8, the latter being
to provide float actuated and other relatively provided with a central bore 9 which constitutes
complicated mechanisms for controlling the ñow the admission passage through which oil is led
of oil at required rates to the burner, or to use into the- bottom of the retort for combustion
thermostatically actuated electrical switches for
purposes.-
-
-
opening and closing loil flow controlling valves. n
'I'he casing G'includes an elongated substan- ,
Such devices are rather complicated and are fre
tially axially disposed passage I0, having its outer
quently the source of mechanical disorders which end internally threaded for the reception of the 25
render the operation of such oil burning systems f reduced threaded extension II of a valve seat
inefiicient and unreliable.
ing fitting I2. ’I'his ñtting connects with an oil
Itis, therefore, a primary object of the present
invention to provide an improved oil flow regu
lating valve mechanism for oilburning appliances
of the character referred to wherein the oil inlet
casing of the appliance is4 provided'with an oil
ñow passage and a valve seat with which-is en
gaged a needle valve which normally obstructs
35 oilfiowpast _said seat toward the combustion
region of the appliance, the said casing and
valves being formed from metals having diil’er
supply pipe I3 through which liquid oil obtained _
from any suitable source, such as an elevated
tank, passes under a suitable pressure head. The 30
ñtting I2 is formed at its inner end withla- re
duced orifice I4 which terminates in a seat I5,
and adapted for engagement with the seat vI5
to normally prevent ilow of oil into the >passage
I0 of the valvecasing, and the inlet bore 9, is the
tapered end I6 of a. needle valve I_l. The needle
valve is lformed from a metal having a low co
ent coeñicients of' expansion'which are inter
efficient of expansion lsuch, for example, as Invar
related an'd so disposed with respect to the com
steel, whereas'the casing 6 and itsvassociated#
fitting I2 have a much higher coeñicient of ex-`
40 bustion region of the appliance as to be respon
sive to combustion temperatures so that relative -_ pansion. By the use of these materials and the
movement between said valve and its seat will >construction and arrangement of the valve parts
take place to open and close said seat or passage - . as disclosed, the heating of the valve casing and
its fitting I2 above normal atmospheric tem
to regulate the inflow of oil to the burner in ac
45 cordance with the fuel demands of the burner.
peratures causes the casingv to expand, but since 45
For a further understanding of the invention, the valve I1 is stationarily supportedvwithin'the
reference is to be »had to the following descrip
tion and the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view taken „through
50 an oil burner and the oil flow controlling valve
mechanism employed in connection therewith;
Fig. 2 is a similar View; the plane of the sec
tion being indicated b`y the line II-II of Fig. l;
'Fig. 3 is a detail sectional view' on the plane
indicated by the line III-_III of Fig. 1;
passage I 0 and is not effected to any appreci-ì
able extent by the increased temperature, an un
seating of the valve takes place which allows
passage of oil through the valve casing'and into ' 50
the bottom of the retort for combustion purposes.>
The support- of the valve I1 within the casing
6 is effected, in the form of my invention illus
trated in Fig. 4, by providing the outer axial por
tion of the casing 6 with an internally threaded 55
2
2,134,297
socketfor the reception of an externally threaded retort. 'I'he elbow 43 'is secured as at 45 to the>
adjusting screw I8. This screw is provided with . vertical wall of the retort and is connected with
an axial outwardly projecting stem I9 equipped an air supply pipe> 46, which may project through
at its outer end with a hand wheel 20 by means the wall of the outer casing 33. The pipe 46
of which the screw may be rotated and advanced is connected with fan means 46", as illustrated in
back and forth to various positions of adjustment Fig. 2 for delivering air under pressure to the
burner. The bottom of the casing 33 is pro--l
in the casing socket. The stem I9 preferably re
ceives a packing 2| to prevent fluid seepage. - 'I‘he vided with a strap 41, which is equipped with a
inner end of the screw I8 terminates in a reduced thumb screw 48 disposed for engagement with
tubular extension 22 formed near the end thereof the under side of the valve casing 6, whereby to
retain the various parts of the burner assembly in
with openings 23 for the reception of a trans
versely extending pin 24,> which passes through
rigidly secured fixed relationship.
spring.25 is arranged within the extension _22
and engages the end of the valve rod to normally
force the pin 24 thereof into contact withthe
. end walls of the elongated openings 23.
admitting valve and the heat or temperature of
fuel combustion. It will be noted that the valve
The
I1 opens and closes entirely by reason of tempera
ture changes which are developed in operation
within theburner itself. When active combus 20
tion takes place within the retort, near its bottom
wall 4, the temperature of the lower portion of
the retort is increased, andthis increased `tem
perature is transmitted to the heat conducting'
material from which the valve casing is formed, 25
causing the valve casing to expandfand move away
from the tapered end of the valve rod to increase
hand wheel 20 is provided with spaced lugs 26
which are arranged for engagement with a sta
20 tionary stop arm 21 projecting from one end of
the valve casing 6, whereby the extent of adjust
ment of the screw I8 may be limited to control the
amount of relative longitudinal movement which
may take place between the valve rod and the
as extension 22 of the screw I8, whereby to provide
for adjustments in the position of the needle valve
in order to provide for high, intermediate and
low rates of combustion of fuel in the associated
the flow of oil into the retort. This results in
producing a greater body of oil within the bot
tom of the retort, which admixes
th the air 30
oil burning apparatus.
The upper end of the perforated retort I is
provided with a fixed stationary cap 28 formed
30
Y '
In the operation of my improved oil burning
apparatus, it will be observed that there exists
a principle of reciprocal action between the oil
the outer end of the valve rod I1, and a> coil
drawn from the atmosphere through the perfora
/
tions in the walls of the retort and through the air elbow 43 so that operating on the Bunsen
principle, the region of combustion raises to its `
with an axially disposedl vertically arranged
burner tube 29. ’The annular wall .of the cap 28
above the annular upper edge of the retort wall
is perforated as at 30, and above the perforations
30, the cap terminates in an outwardly and hori
normal position, namely, that above the retort and 35
in substantially the plane of the distributing cone
46. Since the combustion r‘egion is then removed
zontally directed annular flange 3 I. Seated upon
from the bottom of the retort, the latter becomes
this ñange is a horizontal top wall 32 of a sta
cooler, causing the seating or partial seating of
tionary burner casing 33, which is of greater diam
the needle valve on its seat, and thereby arrest
ing or diminishing the inflow of oil to the bot
tom of the retort. The normal position of the
. eter than the retort I in order to provide an annu
lar air circulating space 34.- 'I'he bottom of the
casing 33 is?open to the atmosphere, so that airo
may enter the space 34, pass upwardly through visible flame of »combustion is, as stated, at the
the same,- thence throughthe perforations 36 ` mouth of the burner, as represented by the upper
-end oi.' the tube=29, and the visible combustion
45 of the cap 28 and outwardly of the casing by way llame drops down into the retort only when the 45
of an opening 35 in which is> positioned the burner is receiving an insufficient quantity of oil.
somewhat smaller upper end of the tube 29, where l This .action automatically brings about la re
by air may unite with- the vaporized mixture leav
ing the retort .by way of the tube 29 to produce plenishment of oil by’variation in _the vertical
position of the- fire. In other words,„'when -the 50
50 highly efiicient combustion of the fuel.
nre begins to be “starved” for lack of oil to sup
In further carrying out the emcient combustion Aport
it, it drops from its normal position at the _
of the liquid fuel introduced into the bottom topof the burner ~down into the retort, where its
of the retort, use is made of anl air distributing proximity to the oil valve causes thevalve _to open
head vwhich comprises a tube 36 securedin con
55 nection with a socket 31 formed in the top wall
32 of the casing 33. The tube 36 extends up
wardly from the socket 31 andi'terminates in a
horizontally directed extension 38 provided with -
» and release more oil. - As more oil is released into 55
the burner, the fire is driven upwardly to' its nor
mal top position and the oil'fiow stops until again
demanded bya“starv
"ilre.
f
-
y
-
. The oil vaporizing control .disclosed in connec
ñanges 39, as shown in Fig. 2. Seated on the tion
with the retort is such as to obtain what is 80
flanges
39
is
a
perforated
air
distributing
cone
48,
,60
known‘fas
the hydroxylating process >of burning
which is held in place by the vertical Vscrew 4I, oil. In this hydroxylating process, the ` oil is
the said cone being provided with upper and
lower horizontal rows of perforations 42. The ~ changed by the radiant heat of the burner from
distributing cone `43' acts to introduce a tertiary a liquid into la gas and mixed with'air before com
bustion takes place, in much the same way as the 65
65 body of air into the vaporized combustible mix
ture issuing from the top of the retort by way of Bunsen burner mixes the gas and air before com
the tube 36in order to complete combustion of
` the mixture in an eillcient manner with but mini
mum formation of smoke and carbon.l
70
- .
Additional control of the -air supply to th
burner is obtained by the provision'of an air ad
mitting elbow 43 which terminates within the re
tort in an axially disposed downwardly projecting
open-ended nozzle 44, the _open end of the latter
76 being spaced-from the concave lower wall 4 of the
» bustlon. ' In a burner of this type, where the unit
is operating at the highest emciency, there is no .
fire burning in the retort', which means that 'EE
floor of the retort or burner is relatively cool. As 70
soon as a shortage of oil in comparison with
the amount of air that is being constantly de-;
livered takes place, a rareñed mixture in the re-"
tort occurs, which results in the lowering of the
.'fireandtheburningofthelatterintheretort.
3
2,134,297
This presence of the fire increases the tempera
ture on the i‘loor ofthe burner or the retort, so
that heat is `transmitted in greater'quantities to
the aluminum valve casting comprising the casing
of the oil valve and more oil is admitted to the
a> burner tube positioned in said opening, a cas
ing open at its lower end surrounding said re
tort and spaced therefrom to provide an annular`
draft chamber, said casing having a top wall
formed with an axial opening for the discharge
burner to restore normal operation.
The air elbow is provided to inject an' added
amount of >air to the retort immediately above the
oil inlet. This produces a rareíied mixture which
10 causes the fire to vburn and in turn increases the
temperature of the valve, producing an increased
_of air from the top of said chamber, said open
ing being of a diameter slightly greater than said
burner tube and through which said tube pro
jects, an air tube communicating with the draft
flow of oil. As soon as enough oil is admitted to
the retort to cover its floor with a film or body of
positioned in axial registration with said burner
tube, an air admitting conduit extending through
the side wall of said retort and casing and termi
liquid oil, the valve is insulated by this body of
15 oil, causing it to cool off and minimize or check
20
oil iiow.
The valve mechanism disclosed permits of the
use not only of kerosene or equivalent, low boil
ing hydrocarbon oils but also the use of the bet
ter grades of fuel oil. The construction of the
valve is such that it is practically impossible to
permit the oil to build up flow obstructing guanti
ties of .parañin wax or the like on the valve seat,
since the needle valve in closing presses ñrmly
against the seat to remove clogging deposits. In
starting the appl’ancef it is> merely necessary to
inject by means of an oil can or’the like, a small
chamber, a downwardly directed distributing
coneconnected with said air tube, said cone being ‘
nating~ in a downwardly directed axially disposed 15
nozzle spaced from said concave bottom wall, and
an oil supply conduit communicating with the
lower interior portion of said retort.
_
_'
4. An oil burner comprising a retort provided
with a closed bottom, perforated side walls and 20
an open top, a casing open at' its llower- end sur
rounding -said retort and spaced therefrom to pro--`
vide an annular draft chamber, 'a valve casing
of metal readily expansible when subjected to
heat directly secured to the bottom of said retort
in intimate heat exchanging relationship there
with, the interior of said valve casing communi
quantity of oil into the retort, which may be ig , cating with the interior of said retort, said valve
ni‘ted> by means o_f a taper. As soon as.this pilot casing being formed with an internal valve seat,
combustion has been effected, the further oper-_ -a valve rod rigidly supported' at one end by said
ation of the apparatus becomes automatic. The- valve casing and engaging the valve seat at the
de_vi'ce operates to burn oil very economically so other end, and an oil supply conduit connected
that the heater may be used as a substitute for with said valve casing at the end opposite that to
apparatus burning more expensive types of fuels. which the valve rod is secured. "
What is claimed is:
5. lIn oil burning apparatus, an oil vaporizing
1. An oil burner comprising a retort provided and combustion vessel of the hydroxylating type
with a closed bottom, perforated side walls and' having a substantially closed bottom and an open
an open top, said top opening being of reduced top, a valve casing lformed from a material pos
size relative to thediameter of said retort, a short sessing a relatively high thermal expansion‘ fac
tube secured inthe top opening, a casing open> tor carried by and in direct heat exchanging re-f
at.its lower end' surrounding said retort and `lationship with the botto’m of said vessel, said
vspaced therefrom, said'casing having a top wall casing being formed with an oil conveying pas
-formed with an axial opening of a size slightly sage establishing flow between a source of oil sup
-greaterA than said tube to provide a space be
tween the tube and the sides of said opening, the
Í
30
35
.
ply and the interior lower portion of the vessel,- lthere being a valve s'eat in said passage, and valve 45
latter providing for the discharge of air 'from the _ jmeans cooperative with s_aid seat, said means be
top~ of said casing and for the admixture of such ing formed from a material possessing a rela
air with yvaporized fuel constituents discharged tively low thermal expansion factor as compared
from said tube, an air conduit extending through with that of said casing, whereby the flow of oil
50 the side wall of said retort and casing and termi
through said passage increases or decreases ’in 50
nating in a downwardly directed nozzle, and an direct proportion to the increase or decrease in
oil supply~ tub‘e communicating with the lower in
the temperature of the bottom of said vessel.
terior portion of said retort.
. 'y
2. An oil burner comprising a retort provid
6. Inv an oil burner of the hydroxylating type '
havinga closed bottom, perforated side walls and
55 ed with a c0ncave`bottom wall, perforated side`- an open top, a fuel control valve comprising a 55
walls and a top wall having a reduced axial open
ing, a burner tube positioned in said opening, a
casing open at its lower end surrounding said re
tort and spaced Vtherefrom to provide an annular
60 `draft chamber, said casing having a- top wall
formed with an axial opening of a diameter
slightly greater than said burner tube, the opening in the top wall of said casing providing for
the discharge of air from the top of said draft
65 chamber and into admixture with fuel constitu
' ents discharged from said tube, an air tube com
municating with the draft chamber, a down
- wardly directed distributing cone connected with
said air tube, said cone being positioned in axial
70 registration lwith said burner tube, and an oil
supply tube communicating with the lower inte
rior portion of said retort.
,
3. An` oil burner comprising a retort provided
with a concave bottom wall, perforated side walls
75 and a top wall having a reduced axial opening,
hollow body disposed in heat exchanging rela
tionship with the burner bottom, said body being
formed of metal having a high coefficient of ex
pansion, a seat provided within said body adja
cent the inlet thereto, the interior of said body
being in open communication with the interior of
said burner, and an elongated needle‘valve posi
tioned within said body and connected at one end
therewith, the opposite tapered end of said valve -
being in engagement with said seat, said valve 65
being formed- of metal having a low coeflicient of
expansion.
'
,
'
7. In an oil burner of the hydroxylating type
having a closed bottom, perforated side walls and
an open top, a fuel control valve comprising a 70
hollow body rigidly secured directly to the bottom
of the burner, said body being formed of a metal
having a high' coefllcient of expansion, a seat "
provided within vsaid body adjacent the inlet
thereto, the interior of said body being> in" open
u .
4
.
9,184,997
communication with the interior oi' said burner,
and an elongated needle valve positioned -within
said body and connected at .one end therewith,
10
high coeilicient o! expansion,-a seat provided ‘
within said body adjacent the inlet end thereof,
the interior oi said body being in- open communi
the opposite tapered end of "said valve being in cation with the interior of -said burner, and a
and resili
engagement with said seat, said valve being -needle valve disposed within
formed of a metal having a low coeiilcient of ently secured at one end thereto,"the opposite
tapered end oi said valve being in- engagement
expansion.
y
A
8. In an oil _burner of the hydroxylating type with said seat, lsaid- valve being; Y„formed oi'- a
_having a closed bottom, perforated side wallsand metal having a lower coemcient of expansion than 10
r _
an open top; a fuel control valve comprising a that of said body.
10. In an oil burner of the hydroxylating; type
tubular body secured intermediate of its ends to
having
a -closed bottom, perforated side walls and
the bottom of said burner, said body being formed i
of a metal having a high coeillcient of expansion, an open top, a fuel control valve comprising a
aseat provided within said body adjacent the
15 inlet end thereof, the interior of said body being
in open communication with the interior of said
burner, and a needle valve disposed within said
" body and secured at one end thereto, the opposite
tapered end of said valve being in engagement
with said seat, said valve being formed of a metal
vhaving a low coeiiicient of expansion.
A
9. In an oil burner of the hydroxylating type
_ having a closed bottom, perforated side walls and
an open top, a fuel control valve comprising a
25 tubular body carried by the bottom of said burn-'
`er, said body being formed of a metal having a
hollow body disposed in direct heat exchanging
relationship with the bottom of said burner. said 15
body being formed of a metal having a high co
efficient of expansion, a seat provided within said
body, the interior of said body beingin open com
munication with the interior of said burner, and
a -valve rod disposed within said body and 'ad
iustably- secured at one end thereto, the opposite
endl of ‘said valve rod engaging said seat, said- .
valve rod being constructed of a metal having a
lower coemcient of expansion than that of said ~
25
valve body.
JAMES I». BREESE, Jn.
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