Патент USA US2134297код для вставки
oct. 25, 1938. l _L L. BREESE, JR A 2,134,297 OIL BURNING APPLIANCE ` Filed Dec. 24, 1954 2 sheets-sheet 1 Oct. -25, 1938. ' „_ L. BREESE, JR ' 2,134,297 OIL BURNING APPLIANCE~ Filed Dec. 24, 1934 17 ë l” 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 47 .48 „_F' .4. ` i w I % ä Y ì ¿l I Ik Z” ~ 2,134,297 Patented Oct. 25, 1938 , UNITED STATE-s PATENT OFFICE * j 2,134,297 OIL BURNING APPIJANGE . James L. Breese, Jr., Santa. Fe, N. Mex. Application December 24, 1934, Serial No. '158,980 '_ 10 Claims. (Cl. 158-92) This invention relates to oil burning appliances, Fig. 4 is a horizontal sectional view on~ the'plane and has particular reference to an' automatic indicated by‘the line IV-IV of Fig. 1; , valve mechanism for such appliances by*which The oil burning apparatus disclosed in the ac ` the quantity of oil flowing to the appliance for companying drawings comprises a cylindrical combustion purposes will be automatically regu retort I having horizontal rows of perforations 2 lated to maintain desired rates of combustion and formed in the walls thereof. The bottom of the uniform temperatures. retort is Aseated within a metallic4 cup 3 hav It is an object of the present invention to pro ing a bottom wall 4 of dished or concave form, vide a simple yet efficient oil burner which may the lower end of the retort resting on a hori 10 be employed for use in connection with domestic zontally disposed annular flange 5 of said cup, 10 water heaters; stove- and circulating warm-air while the walls of the' cup above the ilange 5 heaters, garage heaters, poultry brooders and the closely and frictionally engage withthe lower like. In most of these applications, it is neces walls of the retort. Directly connected with the sary that the burner shall operate at uniform lower- surfaces of the bottom wall 4 is a valve 15 combustion rates to produce for sustained periods >casing 6, preferably formed from cast aluminum of time substantially constant predetermined or other metal of high heat conductivity. The temperatures. Heretofore in oil burning appli casing is attached to the bottom wall 4 preferably ances of this character, it has been customary by means of screws 1 and 8, the latter being to provide float actuated and other relatively provided with a central bore 9 which constitutes complicated mechanisms for controlling the ñow the admission passage through which oil is led of oil at required rates to the burner, or to use into the- bottom of the retort for combustion thermostatically actuated electrical switches for purposes.- - - opening and closing loil flow controlling valves. n 'I'he casing G'includes an elongated substan- , Such devices are rather complicated and are fre tially axially disposed passage I0, having its outer quently the source of mechanical disorders which end internally threaded for the reception of the 25 render the operation of such oil burning systems f reduced threaded extension II of a valve seat inefiicient and unreliable. ing fitting I2. ’I'his ñtting connects with an oil Itis, therefore, a primary object of the present invention to provide an improved oil flow regu lating valve mechanism for oilburning appliances of the character referred to wherein the oil inlet casing of the appliance is4 provided'with an oil ñow passage and a valve seat with which-is en gaged a needle valve which normally obstructs 35 oilfiowpast _said seat toward the combustion region of the appliance, the said casing and valves being formed from metals having diil’er supply pipe I3 through which liquid oil obtained _ from any suitable source, such as an elevated tank, passes under a suitable pressure head. The 30 ñtting I2 is formed at its inner end withla- re duced orifice I4 which terminates in a seat I5, and adapted for engagement with the seat vI5 to normally prevent ilow of oil into the >passage I0 of the valvecasing, and the inlet bore 9, is the tapered end I6 of a. needle valve I_l. The needle valve is lformed from a metal having a low co ent coeñicients of' expansion'which are inter efficient of expansion lsuch, for example, as Invar related an'd so disposed with respect to the com steel, whereas'the casing 6 and itsvassociated# fitting I2 have a much higher coeñicient of ex-` 40 bustion region of the appliance as to be respon sive to combustion temperatures so that relative -_ pansion. By the use of these materials and the movement between said valve and its seat will >construction and arrangement of the valve parts take place to open and close said seat or passage - . as disclosed, the heating of the valve casing and its fitting I2 above normal atmospheric tem to regulate the inflow of oil to the burner in ac 45 cordance with the fuel demands of the burner. peratures causes the casingv to expand, but since 45 For a further understanding of the invention, the valve I1 is stationarily supportedvwithin'the reference is to be »had to the following descrip tion and the accompanying drawings, wherein: Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view taken „through 50 an oil burner and the oil flow controlling valve mechanism employed in connection therewith; Fig. 2 is a similar View; the plane of the sec tion being indicated b`y the line II-II of Fig. l; 'Fig. 3 is a detail sectional view' on the plane indicated by the line III-_III of Fig. 1; passage I 0 and is not effected to any appreci-ì able extent by the increased temperature, an un seating of the valve takes place which allows passage of oil through the valve casing'and into ' 50 the bottom of the retort for combustion purposes.> The support- of the valve I1 within the casing 6 is effected, in the form of my invention illus trated in Fig. 4, by providing the outer axial por tion of the casing 6 with an internally threaded 55 2 2,134,297 socketfor the reception of an externally threaded retort. 'I'he elbow 43 'is secured as at 45 to the> adjusting screw I8. This screw is provided with . vertical wall of the retort and is connected with an axial outwardly projecting stem I9 equipped an air supply pipe> 46, which may project through at its outer end with a hand wheel 20 by means the wall of the outer casing 33. The pipe 46 of which the screw may be rotated and advanced is connected with fan means 46", as illustrated in back and forth to various positions of adjustment Fig. 2 for delivering air under pressure to the burner. The bottom of the casing 33 is pro--l in the casing socket. The stem I9 preferably re ceives a packing 2| to prevent fluid seepage. - 'I‘he vided with a strap 41, which is equipped with a inner end of the screw I8 terminates in a reduced thumb screw 48 disposed for engagement with tubular extension 22 formed near the end thereof the under side of the valve casing 6, whereby to retain the various parts of the burner assembly in with openings 23 for the reception of a trans versely extending pin 24,> which passes through rigidly secured fixed relationship. spring.25 is arranged within the extension _22 and engages the end of the valve rod to normally force the pin 24 thereof into contact withthe . end walls of the elongated openings 23. admitting valve and the heat or temperature of fuel combustion. It will be noted that the valve The I1 opens and closes entirely by reason of tempera ture changes which are developed in operation within theburner itself. When active combus 20 tion takes place within the retort, near its bottom wall 4, the temperature of the lower portion of the retort is increased, andthis increased `tem perature is transmitted to the heat conducting' material from which the valve casing is formed, 25 causing the valve casing to expandfand move away from the tapered end of the valve rod to increase hand wheel 20 is provided with spaced lugs 26 which are arranged for engagement with a sta 20 tionary stop arm 21 projecting from one end of the valve casing 6, whereby the extent of adjust ment of the screw I8 may be limited to control the amount of relative longitudinal movement which may take place between the valve rod and the as extension 22 of the screw I8, whereby to provide for adjustments in the position of the needle valve in order to provide for high, intermediate and low rates of combustion of fuel in the associated the flow of oil into the retort. This results in producing a greater body of oil within the bot tom of the retort, which admixes th the air 30 oil burning apparatus. The upper end of the perforated retort I is provided with a fixed stationary cap 28 formed 30 Y ' In the operation of my improved oil burning apparatus, it will be observed that there exists a principle of reciprocal action between the oil the outer end of the valve rod I1, and a> coil drawn from the atmosphere through the perfora / tions in the walls of the retort and through the air elbow 43 so that operating on the Bunsen principle, the region of combustion raises to its ` with an axially disposedl vertically arranged burner tube 29. ’The annular wall .of the cap 28 above the annular upper edge of the retort wall is perforated as at 30, and above the perforations 30, the cap terminates in an outwardly and hori normal position, namely, that above the retort and 35 in substantially the plane of the distributing cone 46. Since the combustion r‘egion is then removed zontally directed annular flange 3 I. Seated upon from the bottom of the retort, the latter becomes this ñange is a horizontal top wall 32 of a sta cooler, causing the seating or partial seating of tionary burner casing 33, which is of greater diam the needle valve on its seat, and thereby arrest ing or diminishing the inflow of oil to the bot tom of the retort. The normal position of the . eter than the retort I in order to provide an annu lar air circulating space 34.- 'I'he bottom of the casing 33 is?open to the atmosphere, so that airo may enter the space 34, pass upwardly through visible flame of »combustion is, as stated, at the the same,- thence throughthe perforations 36 ` mouth of the burner, as represented by the upper -end oi.' the tube=29, and the visible combustion 45 of the cap 28 and outwardly of the casing by way llame drops down into the retort only when the 45 of an opening 35 in which is> positioned the burner is receiving an insufficient quantity of oil. somewhat smaller upper end of the tube 29, where l This .action automatically brings about la re by air may unite with- the vaporized mixture leav ing the retort .by way of the tube 29 to produce plenishment of oil by’variation in _the vertical position of the- fire. In other words,„'when -the 50 50 highly efiicient combustion of the fuel. nre begins to be “starved” for lack of oil to sup In further carrying out the emcient combustion Aport it, it drops from its normal position at the _ of the liquid fuel introduced into the bottom topof the burner ~down into the retort, where its of the retort, use is made of anl air distributing proximity to the oil valve causes thevalve _to open head vwhich comprises a tube 36 securedin con 55 nection with a socket 31 formed in the top wall 32 of the casing 33. The tube 36 extends up wardly from the socket 31 andi'terminates in a horizontally directed extension 38 provided with - » and release more oil. - As more oil is released into 55 the burner, the fire is driven upwardly to' its nor mal top position and the oil'fiow stops until again demanded bya“starv "ilre. f - y - . The oil vaporizing control .disclosed in connec ñanges 39, as shown in Fig. 2. Seated on the tion with the retort is such as to obtain what is 80 flanges 39 is a perforated air distributing cone 48, ,60 known‘fas the hydroxylating process >of burning which is held in place by the vertical Vscrew 4I, oil. In this hydroxylating process, the ` oil is the said cone being provided with upper and lower horizontal rows of perforations 42. The ~ changed by the radiant heat of the burner from distributing cone `43' acts to introduce a tertiary a liquid into la gas and mixed with'air before com bustion takes place, in much the same way as the 65 65 body of air into the vaporized combustible mix ture issuing from the top of the retort by way of Bunsen burner mixes the gas and air before com the tube 36in order to complete combustion of ` the mixture in an eillcient manner with but mini mum formation of smoke and carbon.l 70 - . Additional control of the -air supply to th burner is obtained by the provision'of an air ad mitting elbow 43 which terminates within the re tort in an axially disposed downwardly projecting open-ended nozzle 44, the _open end of the latter 76 being spaced-from the concave lower wall 4 of the » bustlon. ' In a burner of this type, where the unit is operating at the highest emciency, there is no . fire burning in the retort', which means that 'EE floor of the retort or burner is relatively cool. As 70 soon as a shortage of oil in comparison with the amount of air that is being constantly de-; livered takes place, a rareñed mixture in the re-" tort occurs, which results in the lowering of the .'fireandtheburningofthelatterintheretort. 3 2,134,297 This presence of the fire increases the tempera ture on the i‘loor ofthe burner or the retort, so that heat is `transmitted in greater'quantities to the aluminum valve casting comprising the casing of the oil valve and more oil is admitted to the a> burner tube positioned in said opening, a cas ing open at its lower end surrounding said re tort and spaced therefrom to provide an annular` draft chamber, said casing having a top wall formed with an axial opening for the discharge burner to restore normal operation. The air elbow is provided to inject an' added amount of >air to the retort immediately above the oil inlet. This produces a rareíied mixture which 10 causes the fire to vburn and in turn increases the temperature of the valve, producing an increased _of air from the top of said chamber, said open ing being of a diameter slightly greater than said burner tube and through which said tube pro jects, an air tube communicating with the draft flow of oil. As soon as enough oil is admitted to the retort to cover its floor with a film or body of positioned in axial registration with said burner tube, an air admitting conduit extending through the side wall of said retort and casing and termi liquid oil, the valve is insulated by this body of 15 oil, causing it to cool off and minimize or check 20 oil iiow. The valve mechanism disclosed permits of the use not only of kerosene or equivalent, low boil ing hydrocarbon oils but also the use of the bet ter grades of fuel oil. The construction of the valve is such that it is practically impossible to permit the oil to build up flow obstructing guanti ties of .parañin wax or the like on the valve seat, since the needle valve in closing presses ñrmly against the seat to remove clogging deposits. In starting the appl’ancef it is> merely necessary to inject by means of an oil can or’the like, a small chamber, a downwardly directed distributing coneconnected with said air tube, said cone being ‘ nating~ in a downwardly directed axially disposed 15 nozzle spaced from said concave bottom wall, and an oil supply conduit communicating with the lower interior portion of said retort. _ _' 4. An oil burner comprising a retort provided with a closed bottom, perforated side walls and 20 an open top, a casing open at' its llower- end sur rounding -said retort and spaced therefrom to pro--` vide an annular draft chamber, 'a valve casing of metal readily expansible when subjected to heat directly secured to the bottom of said retort in intimate heat exchanging relationship there with, the interior of said valve casing communi quantity of oil into the retort, which may be ig , cating with the interior of said retort, said valve ni‘ted> by means o_f a taper. As soon as.this pilot casing being formed with an internal valve seat, combustion has been effected, the further oper-_ -a valve rod rigidly supported' at one end by said ation of the apparatus becomes automatic. The- valve casing and engaging the valve seat at the de_vi'ce operates to burn oil very economically so other end, and an oil supply conduit connected that the heater may be used as a substitute for with said valve casing at the end opposite that to apparatus burning more expensive types of fuels. which the valve rod is secured. " What is claimed is: 5. lIn oil burning apparatus, an oil vaporizing 1. An oil burner comprising a retort provided and combustion vessel of the hydroxylating type with a closed bottom, perforated side walls and' having a substantially closed bottom and an open an open top, said top opening being of reduced top, a valve casing lformed from a material pos size relative to thediameter of said retort, a short sessing a relatively high thermal expansion‘ fac tube secured inthe top opening, a casing open> tor carried by and in direct heat exchanging re-f at.its lower end' surrounding said retort and `lationship with the botto’m of said vessel, said vspaced therefrom, said'casing having a top wall casing being formed with an oil conveying pas -formed with an axial opening of a size slightly sage establishing flow between a source of oil sup -greaterA than said tube to provide a space be tween the tube and the sides of said opening, the Í 30 35 . ply and the interior lower portion of the vessel,- lthere being a valve s'eat in said passage, and valve 45 latter providing for the discharge of air 'from the _ jmeans cooperative with s_aid seat, said means be top~ of said casing and for the admixture of such ing formed from a material possessing a rela air with yvaporized fuel constituents discharged tively low thermal expansion factor as compared from said tube, an air conduit extending through with that of said casing, whereby the flow of oil 50 the side wall of said retort and casing and termi through said passage increases or decreases ’in 50 nating in a downwardly directed nozzle, and an direct proportion to the increase or decrease in oil supply~ tub‘e communicating with the lower in the temperature of the bottom of said vessel. terior portion of said retort. . 'y 2. An oil burner comprising a retort provid 6. Inv an oil burner of the hydroxylating type ' havinga closed bottom, perforated side walls and 55 ed with a c0ncave`bottom wall, perforated side`- an open top, a fuel control valve comprising a 55 walls and a top wall having a reduced axial open ing, a burner tube positioned in said opening, a casing open at its lower end surrounding said re tort and spaced Vtherefrom to provide an annular 60 `draft chamber, said casing having a- top wall formed with an axial opening of a diameter slightly greater than said burner tube, the opening in the top wall of said casing providing for the discharge of air from the top of said draft 65 chamber and into admixture with fuel constitu ' ents discharged from said tube, an air tube com municating with the draft chamber, a down - wardly directed distributing cone connected with said air tube, said cone being positioned in axial 70 registration lwith said burner tube, and an oil supply tube communicating with the lower inte rior portion of said retort. , 3. An` oil burner comprising a retort provided with a concave bottom wall, perforated side walls 75 and a top wall having a reduced axial opening, hollow body disposed in heat exchanging rela tionship with the burner bottom, said body being formed of metal having a high coefficient of ex pansion, a seat provided within said body adja cent the inlet thereto, the interior of said body being in open communication with the interior of said burner, and an elongated needle‘valve posi tioned within said body and connected at one end therewith, the opposite tapered end of said valve - being in engagement with said seat, said valve 65 being formed- of metal having a low coeflicient of expansion. ' , ' 7. In an oil burner of the hydroxylating type having a closed bottom, perforated side walls and an open top, a fuel control valve comprising a 70 hollow body rigidly secured directly to the bottom of the burner, said body being formed of a metal having a high' coefllcient of expansion, a seat " provided within vsaid body adjacent the inlet thereto, the interior of said body being> in" open u . 4 . 9,184,997 communication with the interior oi' said burner, and an elongated needle valve positioned -within said body and connected at .one end therewith, 10 high coeilicient o! expansion,-a seat provided ‘ within said body adjacent the inlet end thereof, the interior oi said body being in- open communi the opposite tapered end of "said valve being in cation with the interior of -said burner, and a and resili engagement with said seat, said valve being -needle valve disposed within formed of a metal having a low coeiilcient of ently secured at one end thereto,"the opposite tapered end oi said valve being in- engagement expansion. y A 8. In an oil _burner of the hydroxylating type with said seat, lsaid- valve being; Y„formed oi'- a _having a closed bottom, perforated side wallsand metal having a lower coemcient of expansion than 10 r _ an open top; a fuel control valve comprising a that of said body. 10. In an oil burner of the hydroxylating; type tubular body secured intermediate of its ends to having a -closed bottom, perforated side walls and the bottom of said burner, said body being formed i of a metal having a high coeillcient of expansion, an open top, a fuel control valve comprising a aseat provided within said body adjacent the 15 inlet end thereof, the interior of said body being in open communication with the interior of said burner, and a needle valve disposed within said " body and secured at one end thereto, the opposite tapered end of said valve being in engagement with said seat, said valve being formed of a metal vhaving a low coeiiicient of expansion. A 9. In an oil burner of the hydroxylating type _ having a closed bottom, perforated side walls and an open top, a fuel control valve comprising a 25 tubular body carried by the bottom of said burn-' `er, said body being formed of a metal having a hollow body disposed in direct heat exchanging relationship with the bottom of said burner. said 15 body being formed of a metal having a high co efficient of expansion, a seat provided within said body, the interior of said body beingin open com munication with the interior of said burner, and a -valve rod disposed within said body and 'ad iustably- secured at one end thereto, the opposite endl of ‘said valve rod engaging said seat, said- . valve rod being constructed of a metal having a lower coemcient of expansion than that of said ~ 25 valve body. JAMES I». BREESE, Jn.