Патент USA US2134409код для вставки
acme 095251938 _ ' " ' 2,134,409 _ ' UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE ' . ’ 2.13am " a I > ‘ nnrareamrme SYSTEM John Kirgan, Easton, Pa, asaignor a llngersollq Band Company, Jersey City, N. J., a corpora tion of New Jersey > . Application June 17, 1936, Serial No. 85,653 ; 7 (CI. 62-115) My invention pertains ‘to refrigerating systems, I shall make clear other ‘objects and advan and especially to a refrigerating system designed to meet the requirements of all conditions of operation from maximum to minimum output. 5 It is a particular object of this invention to, provide a refrigerating system wherein a liquid refrigerant is partially vaporized and chilled, andwherein the vapor so formed is condensed, the system being so constructed that it can be 1o advantageously operated over‘ the entire load range. To this end the practical embodiment of . the system comprises parts or members which tages of the invention in the description of the ‘ form of the invention illustrated herein, but the right is reversed to change the structure of the apparatus and mode of procedure without de Ol parting from the principle or scope of the inven tion as set forth in the appended claims. 0n the drawing‘ Figure 1 Shows in Outline an arrangement of parts according to this invention, » and " ' 10 Figures 2 and 3 present details, Figure 3 being a section on line 3—_3 of Figure 2. . _ can be connected and operated in several diiferThe numeral I indicates a vessel enclosing an out ways to maintain the expenditure of power _ evaporator chamber‘having near the top thereof 15_ substantially in proportion to the amount of an inlet header 2 with spray openings through '15v _ refrigerating eifect that is needed. which water or other liquid refrigerant issues in > Another object of the invention is to provide condensing apparatus in such a refrigerating sys- tem wherein the consumption of the heat-ab.20 sorbing medium, such as water, for liquefying the the form of jets into<~the chamber from a Pipe 3 Some vaporization of the liquid occurs, but the greater Portion of the refrigerant remains liquid and’ passes into the Outlet conduit 4- In this 20.! vapor formed in the process of partial vaporiza- , pipe the refrigerant is conducted to a cooling coil . tion, can be much reduced when the refrigerating load drops. Thus, in its preferred form, the system includes an evaporator for the refrlg- or other device; There the refrigerant absorbs heat and may thereafter return to the evaporator by way of the pipe 3. ' 25 era-nt,_ evacuators for‘removing the vapor from g The evaporator I has Outlets 5 in the top lead- 25 the evaporator and for'delivering such vapor to ing to the intakes of evacuators that both with the condensing apparatus, the condensing appa- dray the vapor and maintain the proper vacuum ratus comprising several separate condensers in the chamber. The evacuators are centrifugal which may be utilized in several different ways compressors in housings 6 and ‘I. The com - 3° to effect the desired economy of cooling medium consumption. ‘ A still further object of the invention is to enable the relationship between'the evaporator, densers 8 and 9. The compressors. ‘are each ro tated by a separate variable speed motor [0 p the evacuators, and the condensers to be changed through shafts and Suitable Step-11D gearing “ 35 as desired, to aiford the greatest possible economy for part-load operation over along period of time. ‘ pressors raise the pressure of the vapor formed 30' in the chamber and force the vapor into con Each motor l0, if an electric motor, may be con- ‘35 nected by wires 3| to the supply wires 30,1 and For removing vaporized refrigerant from an ‘in one of the wires 3| may be placed a variable evaporator a centrifugal compressor has been ' resistance as diagrammatically illustrated at 32, found to produce good results, because it is self40 regulating in power consumption and to a-great extent self-stabilizing in function. This is characteristic of such a machine‘ at heavy loads and‘ for varying the speed of each motor. It will be understood, however, that other types of motors, 40 such as steam turbines, for example, may be. utilized if desired. - ’ somewhat less, but at very light loads‘ difficulties may arise, for as the load decreases the degree 45 of'compression demanded of the compressor becomes greater and the operation of theecomr pressor tends to become unsteady and at very light loads is manifested by surging of the vapor in the compressor. My system of refrigeration’ 50 is well adapted for use with a centrifugal compressor under'light load conditions and comprises several such units connected to, operate _in variable relation to each other and at variable speeds according to the requirements ,01' any con- The two condensers may be cooled by any suit able medium, such as water, supplied by a pipe l2 and carried away therefrom by a pipe I3. 45 These condensers have interior tubes through which the cooling medium ?ows while the vapor of the refrigerant is being lique?ed by contact with same. .After being condensed the vapor will be conducted from each condenser throughthe o. pipes it back into the pipe 3 or evaporator l. The condensers will of course be provided with suitable air removal pumps (not shown) for the purpose of maintaining the desired vacuum 55 dition that may be encountered. therein. ' q > 55’ 2 2,134,409 With this apparatus different adjustments can be made for operation under heavy and light load conditions. The two compressors-can oper ate together at‘ full speed, or'one may be sov operated and the other may be run at reduced the discharge pipe I3 of the condenser 8 to the admission pipe I2 of the condenser 8. In this case one compressor must compress the vapor to a higher pressure than the other, because the pressure in the condenser 9 will- be higher. The speed or shut down entirely, or both compressors compressor ‘I is therefore operated on a different . or one alone may run at a reduced speed. part of its capacity curve and will extract some A great deal of ?exibility is thus secured. Thus the mass and rate of removal of the vapor extracted 10 by each compressor can be regulated as conditions demand. ‘ Also under some circumstances the apparatus may be required to run for long periods of time at reduced load and at the same time use a mini mum supply of cooling water for the condensers. In that case the outlet ?ue I5 of the evacuator 8 may be coupled to the inlet neck or ?ue I6 of the evacuator ‘I through a cross connection I1, and this connection may have valves to break communication between the compressor I5 and its condenser 8 and put this compressor in series with the other compressor ‘I, which is .then dis connected from the evaporator I. The valves what less vapor from the evaporator I than the » other. Hence condenser water can be saved in ‘ 10 The connections for the changes in the ar rangement are shown in Figure 1 where a length of piping 25 unites the inlet I2 of the condenser 9 to the outlet I3 ofthe' condenser 8. The pipe I2 of the condenser 8 has a shut-o?' valve indi 15 this instance likewise. cated at 26, and the pipes I3 and 25 have similar shut-oil valves 21 and 28 respectively. When the valve 28 is closed and the other two are open, the two condensers operate independently. When however, the valve 28 is open and the valves in the pipes I2 and I3 are closed, then the two condensers are in series. may be located at the junction of the cross con nection with the pipes I5 and I6. Such a valve is shown at I8 having a spindle I9 at one end in If the compressors are identical in design and size and run in parallel at the same speed, they now divide the single mass of vapor in the evap orator I into separate portions and compress suitable bearings where the ?ue I‘I joins the ?ue these portions unequally. One portion is deliv I5. In one position this valve will close the ?ue ered by the compressor 6 to the condenser 8 and I'I while leaving the ?ue I5 open, and in another the remainder is delivered by the compressor ‘I to position it will close the ?ue I5 and open 'the ?ue vthe condenser 9. The cooling water in this con I‘I so that the compressors are in series instead denser 8 will be somewhat higher in temperature of in parallel. See Figure 2. than in the condenser 8. Hence the evacuator ‘I A similar valve element at the junction of the will work against a slightly‘higher back pressure ?ue I1 and inlet neck I6 of the other compressor and will‘ compress the‘vapor to a greater extent, may be used for the same purpose 'to shut the although the suction pressure for each com ?ue I‘! when the compressor ‘I is to work in paral pressor is the same. .The compressor ‘I will there lel with the compressor 6, or to cut oil‘ the com fore operate on a di?erent part of its capacity pressor ‘I from the evaporator I and connect the curve, and will extract somewhat less vapor from‘ ?ue II to the inlet side of this compressor. Thus the evaporator than the. other compressor 6. The water needed for the condensers may thus 40 the one compressor ‘I may be cut off from the evaporator I to receive the discharge of the other be diminished and operating costs cut down, compressor 8, both compressors then delivering while at the same time the necessary reduction in to one condenser 9 while communication is in temperature of the water entering the evaporator terrupted between the compressor 8 and ,con When so related the two compressors will ‘most of the time be operated at‘ reduced is rendered possible. The system operates well speed to save horsepower, but even at low speed in series arrangement they will produce a. con running at‘constant speed, is self-regulating, siderably higher ratio of compression than would 50 either compressor operating at full speed. That matically reduced when the ‘loadis reduced. 45 ,denser 8. is to say, the vapor in the evaporator I is com at full load or part load. A centrifugal com pressor in a refrigerating system of this type that-is, the power for operating same is auto Also the operation of the compressor is quite stable over a greater range than when it is uti pressed toa greater extent by the two compressors lized for other purposes. Generally a centrifugal in series before it reaches the condenser 8, compressor .will run unsteadily and the vapor will Hence the inside pressure of the condenser 9 will surge when the load falls to about two-thirds of 55 be higher and the water which circulates the full load. In a refrigerating system as set through the condenser to cool it can be used in forth above, however, the compressor load re smaller quantity. . mains stable until a much lighter load is reached. To- hold each valve I8 in either position, the Therefore the two compressors running in, paral spindle I9 has an arm 2I with a threaded bolt 22 lel with the. condensers in series will cooperate at 60 passing through a threaded opening in its outer full output of the system, though the compressor end. This bolt has a head 23 to serve as a knob ‘I then operates at less than its total'capacity, or handle. This bolt can be screwed into and at part load also until the point where'surg threaded openings in projections 24 on, the out ing in one compressor will begin. So thatsurg side ‘of the pipes I 5, I8 and I1, there being two ing of the vapor in either compressor will not 65 projections at each junction at such points as I will enable each valve to close‘ one-or the other _ pipe at the junction controlled by said valve. While the two compressors may be‘ operated in parallel as described above and deliver to sepa 70 rate condensers supplied with cooling water at the same temperature, or in series and deliver to a single condenser, another arrangement that can be adopted is to cause the cooling water to pass through the condensers in series when the two compressors are in parallel, that is, to'connect interfere with normal operation, even\at rela tively low load, a suitable automatic governor .or controlling device may be attached to each com pressor when the condensers are in series, to take e?’ect at the‘ right moment; that for the com pressor ‘I to act ?rst because this compressor may a attain instability of load before the other, or the - compressor ‘I may be stopped atv a selected point by switching off its motor I I] while the other compressor continues to operate. The centrifugal compressor is virtually self 76 _ . 3 2,184,409 stabilizing in function because, as is well lmown ‘ evacuators in series with the other evacuators with a drop in load, the water entering the evap orator is cooler, and the vapor formed is less in when the load on the refrigerating system drops. 2. In a refrigerating system, an,evaporator, a density but larger in speci?c volume. Also the plurality of evacuators for the evafporator, a sep- ' pressures in the evaporator and in the condenser diminish, but the ratio of compression of the centrifugal compressor increases. The drop in pressure and density of the vapor with increase of volume and ‘greater compression are the factors 10 that tend to maintain the normal operation of the » compressor until the load becomes small. Hence, it as the demand for refrigeration lessens, while the rated speed of the compressor continues, the power consumed by the compressor is reduced, but no loss 'of stability ensues before very light load is reached. When the compressors 6 and ‘I run in parallel and the condensers 8 and 9 are connected in series, the compressors can be run together ‘at full speed, or one at full speed and the other at re-‘ duced speed, or either can be run' alone at full ‘a speed or less. When the compressor ‘I operates alone or with the compressor 6 at any speed less than full speed of the latter, the water in the con arate condenser for each evacuator, connections for supplying cooling medium separately to each condenser, means for altering said connections to cause the cooling medium to pass serially through the condensers, means for selectively connecting each evacuator in series with the evaporator and its condenser or connecting the' evacuators in se ries with each other and with the evaporator and one of said condensers, and means for varying the operating speed of one or more of said evacu ators thereby varying the rate of evacuation of 15 said evaporator. _ '“ 3. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator, a plurality of evacuators for the evaporator, con densers to which the evacuators discharge, and means for varying the relationship between the 20 evaporator, evacuators, and condensers to main tain the consumption of power in the system sub stantially proportionate to the load thereon, said means being positioned to arrange some of the denser 9 will not be warmed so much and there fore the temperature and pressure in the con denser 9 will be less, thereby permitting the com evacuators selectively in parallel or in series with each other with respect to their connection to the pressor ‘I to force the vapor into the condenser 9 4. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator, a plurality of vapor evacuators for the evaporator, a separate condenser for each ‘evacuator, and 30 means for selectively directing the ?ow of vapor more easily. The compressor 1 now will be more 30 stable than when operating with the compressor 6 and the former runs at the full speed which can be imparted to it by its motor Ill. An additional valve 29 may be placed in the water inlet pipe I! for the condenser 8, and any 35 or all of the valves 26, 21, 28 and 29 may be auto matically controlled in accordance with condi tions in the system to control the cooling water for the condensers. Automatic regulation of the valves l8 may of course also be. practiced, the valves then being arranged to operate in unison evaporator. , from the evaporator in parallel streams through each evacuator into its condenser or ‘directing such ?ow in one stream‘ through the evacuators 35 in series and into one'of the condensers. 5. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator, a plurality of evacuators for the evaporator, a separate condenser for each evacuator, means for alternativelylconnecting the outlet of one evacu ator to its condenser or to the inlet of a second 40 or separately in accordance with variations in _ evacuator, and means for alternatively connect ing the inlet of said second evacuator to the evap that more than two compressors or condensers orator or to the outlet of said one evacuator. arranged in the manner shown, may be used if 6.,In a refrigerating system, an evaporator, a desired, two having been shown only for the pur plurality of evacuators for the evaporator, a sep 45 pose of illustration. arate condenser for each evacuator, a conduit Thus it will be seen that the system may be op connection between the outlet of one evacuator erated in various ways and is readily adaptable and the inlet of a second evacuator, valve means to part load operation. The speed of the com at one end of the connection to alternatively con pressors may be varied and the rate of evacuation nect the outlet of said one evacuator to its con-' 50 load within the system. It will, of course, be clear varied accordingly to partly compensate for load denser or to said ‘connection, and valve means at changes. The condensers and evacuators may the other end of said connection to alternatively be placed in various relations to‘ each other and connect the inlet of said second evacuator to the cooling water saved, or the relationship between evaporator or to said connection. 7. In a refrigeratingsystem, ‘an evaporator, a 55 55 the compressors may be altered to effect furthe savings in the cost of operation. _ a plurality of evacuators for the evaporator, sep I claim: . arate means for each evacuator to condense vapor ‘ 1. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator chamber, a plurality of evacuators for removing vapor from the chamber, condensers to which the discharged therefrom, and means for selectively connecting the evacuators in series with each other and with the evaporator and one of said 60 evacuators discharge, and means‘for eliminating separate condensing means. the communication between some of the evacu ators and the chamber and for placing such " . v ’ _ JOHN KIRBAN. '