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Патент USA US2134409

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acme 095251938
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2,134,409 _
' UNITED ‘STATES PATENT OFFICE
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2.13am
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nnrareamrme SYSTEM
John Kirgan, Easton, Pa, asaignor a llngersollq
Band Company, Jersey City, N. J., a corpora
tion of New Jersey
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Application June 17, 1936, Serial No. 85,653 ;
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(CI. 62-115)
My invention pertains ‘to refrigerating systems,
I shall make clear other ‘objects and advan
and especially to a refrigerating system designed
to meet the requirements of all conditions of operation from maximum to minimum output.
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It is a particular object of this invention to,
provide a refrigerating system wherein a liquid
refrigerant is partially vaporized and chilled,
andwherein the vapor so formed is condensed,
the system being so constructed that it can be
1o advantageously operated over‘ the entire load
range. To this end the practical embodiment of .
the system comprises parts or members which
tages of the invention in the description of the ‘
form of the invention illustrated herein, but the
right is reversed to change the structure of the
apparatus and mode of procedure without de Ol
parting from the principle or scope of the inven
tion as set forth in the appended claims.
0n the drawing‘ Figure 1 Shows in Outline an
arrangement of parts according to this invention, »
and
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Figures 2 and 3 present details, Figure 3 being
a section on line 3—_3 of Figure 2.
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can be connected and operated in several diiferThe numeral I indicates a vessel enclosing an
out ways to maintain the expenditure of power _ evaporator chamber‘having near the top thereof
15_ substantially in proportion to the amount of an inlet header 2 with spray openings through '15v _
refrigerating eifect that is needed.
which water or other liquid refrigerant issues in >
Another object of the invention is to provide
condensing apparatus in such a refrigerating sys-
tem wherein the consumption of the heat-ab.20 sorbing medium, such as water, for liquefying the
the form of jets into<~the chamber from a Pipe 3
Some vaporization of the liquid occurs, but the
greater Portion of the refrigerant remains liquid
and’ passes into the Outlet conduit 4- In this 20.!
vapor formed in the process of partial vaporiza- ,
pipe the refrigerant is conducted to a cooling coil .
tion, can be much reduced when the refrigerating
load drops. Thus, in its preferred form, the
system includes an evaporator for the refrlg-
or other device; There the refrigerant absorbs
heat and may thereafter return to the evaporator
by way of the pipe 3.
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25 era-nt,_ evacuators for‘removing the vapor from g
The evaporator I has Outlets 5 in the top lead- 25
the evaporator and for'delivering such vapor to ing to the intakes of evacuators that both with
the condensing apparatus, the condensing appa- dray the vapor and maintain the proper vacuum
ratus comprising several separate condensers in the chamber. The evacuators are centrifugal
which may be utilized in several different ways compressors in housings 6 and ‘I. The com
- 3° to effect the desired economy of cooling medium
consumption.
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A still further object of the invention is to
enable the relationship between'the evaporator,
densers 8 and 9. The compressors. ‘are each ro
tated by a separate variable speed motor [0 p
the evacuators, and the condensers to be changed
through shafts and Suitable Step-11D gearing “
35 as desired, to aiford the greatest possible economy
for part-load operation over along period of time.
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pressors raise the pressure of the vapor formed 30'
in the chamber and force the vapor into con
Each motor l0, if an electric motor, may be con- ‘35
nected by wires 3| to the supply wires 30,1 and
For removing vaporized refrigerant from an ‘in one of the wires 3| may be placed a variable
evaporator a centrifugal compressor has been ' resistance as diagrammatically illustrated at 32,
found to produce good results, because it is self40 regulating in power consumption and to a-great
extent self-stabilizing in function. This is characteristic of such a machine‘ at heavy loads and‘
for varying the speed of each motor. It will be
understood, however, that other types of motors, 40
such as steam turbines, for example, may be.
utilized if desired.
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somewhat less, but at very light loads‘ difficulties
may arise, for as the load decreases the degree
45 of'compression demanded of the compressor becomes greater and the operation of theecomr
pressor tends to become unsteady and at very
light loads is manifested by surging of the vapor
in the compressor. My system of refrigeration’
50 is well adapted for use with a centrifugal compressor under'light load conditions and comprises several such units connected to, operate
_in variable relation to each other and at variable
speeds according to the requirements ,01' any con-
The two condensers may be cooled by any suit
able medium, such as water, supplied by a pipe
l2 and carried away therefrom by a pipe I3. 45
These condensers have interior tubes through
which the cooling medium ?ows while the vapor
of the refrigerant is being lique?ed by contact
with same. .After being condensed the vapor will
be conducted from each condenser throughthe o.
pipes it back into the pipe 3 or evaporator l.
The condensers will of course be provided with
suitable air removal pumps (not shown) for the
purpose of maintaining the desired vacuum
55 dition that may be encountered.
therein.
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2,134,409
With this apparatus different adjustments can
be made for operation under heavy and light
load conditions. The two compressors-can oper
ate together at‘ full speed, or'one may be sov
operated and the other may be run at reduced
the discharge pipe I3 of the condenser 8 to the
admission pipe I2 of the condenser 8. In this
case one compressor must compress the vapor to
a higher pressure than the other, because the
pressure in the condenser 9 will- be higher. The
speed or shut down entirely, or both compressors
compressor ‘I is therefore operated on a different .
or one alone may run at a reduced speed.
part of its capacity curve and will extract some
A
great deal of ?exibility is thus secured. Thus the
mass and rate of removal of the vapor extracted
10 by each compressor can be regulated as conditions
demand.
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Also under some circumstances the apparatus
may be required to run for long periods of time
at reduced load and at the same time use a mini
mum supply of cooling water for the condensers.
In that case the outlet ?ue I5 of the evacuator
8 may be coupled to the inlet neck or ?ue I6 of
the evacuator ‘I through a cross connection I1,
and this connection may have valves to break
communication between the compressor I5 and its
condenser 8 and put this compressor in series
with the other compressor ‘I, which is .then dis
connected from the evaporator I. The valves
what less vapor from the evaporator I than the »
other. Hence condenser water can be saved in
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The connections for the changes in the ar
rangement are shown in Figure 1 where a length
of piping 25 unites the inlet I2 of the condenser
9 to the outlet I3 ofthe' condenser 8. The pipe
I2 of the condenser 8 has a shut-o?' valve indi 15
this instance likewise.
cated at 26, and the pipes I3 and 25 have similar
shut-oil valves 21 and 28 respectively. When
the valve 28 is closed and the other two are open,
the
two
condensers
operate
independently.
When however, the valve 28 is open and the valves
in the pipes I2 and I3 are closed, then the two
condensers are in series.
may be located at the junction of the cross con
nection with the pipes I5 and I6. Such a valve
is shown at I8 having a spindle I9 at one end in
If the compressors are identical in design and
size and run in parallel at the same speed, they
now divide the single mass of vapor in the evap
orator I into separate portions and compress
suitable bearings where the ?ue I‘I joins the ?ue
these portions unequally. One portion is deliv
I5. In one position this valve will close the ?ue ered by the compressor 6 to the condenser 8 and
I'I while leaving the ?ue I5 open, and in another the remainder is delivered by the compressor ‘I to
position it will close the ?ue I5 and open 'the ?ue vthe condenser 9. The cooling water in this con
I‘I so that the compressors are in series instead denser 8 will be somewhat higher in temperature
of in parallel. See Figure 2.
than in the condenser 8. Hence the evacuator ‘I
A similar valve element at the junction of the will work against a slightly‘higher back pressure
?ue I1 and inlet neck I6 of the other compressor and will‘ compress the‘vapor to a greater extent,
may be used for the same purpose 'to shut the although the suction pressure for each com
?ue I‘! when the compressor ‘I is to work in paral
pressor is the same. .The compressor ‘I will there
lel with the compressor 6, or to cut oil‘ the com
fore operate on a di?erent part of its capacity
pressor ‘I from the evaporator I and connect the curve, and will extract somewhat less vapor from‘
?ue II to the inlet side of this compressor. Thus the evaporator than the. other compressor 6.
The water needed for the condensers may thus
40 the one compressor ‘I may be cut off from the
evaporator I to receive the discharge of the other be diminished and operating costs cut down,
compressor 8, both compressors then delivering while at the same time the necessary reduction in
to one condenser 9 while communication is in
temperature of the water entering the evaporator
terrupted between the compressor 8 and ,con
When so related the two compressors
will ‘most of the time be operated at‘ reduced
is rendered possible. The system operates well
speed to save horsepower, but even at low speed
in series arrangement they will produce a. con
running at‘constant speed, is self-regulating,
siderably higher ratio of compression than would
50 either compressor operating at full speed. That
matically reduced when the ‘loadis reduced.
45 ,denser 8.
is to say, the vapor in the evaporator I is com
at full load or part load. A centrifugal com
pressor in a refrigerating system of this type
that-is, the power for operating same is auto
Also the operation of the compressor is quite
stable over a greater range than when it is uti
pressed toa greater extent by the two compressors lized for other purposes. Generally a centrifugal
in series before it reaches the condenser 8, compressor .will run unsteadily and the vapor will
Hence the inside pressure of the condenser 9 will surge when the load falls to about two-thirds of
55 be higher and the water which circulates the full load. In a refrigerating system as set
through the condenser to cool it can be used in forth above, however, the compressor load re
smaller quantity.
. mains stable until a much lighter load is reached.
To- hold each valve I8 in either position, the Therefore the two compressors running in, paral
spindle I9 has an arm 2I with a threaded bolt 22 lel with the. condensers in series will cooperate at
60 passing through a threaded opening in its outer full output of the system, though the compressor
end. This bolt has a head 23 to serve as a knob
‘I then operates at less than its total'capacity,
or handle. This bolt can be screwed into and at part load also until the point where'surg
threaded openings in projections 24 on, the out
ing in one compressor will begin. So thatsurg
side ‘of the pipes I 5, I8 and I1, there being two ing of the vapor in either compressor will not
65 projections at each junction at such points as I
will enable each valve to close‘ one-or the other
_ pipe at the junction controlled by said valve.
While the two compressors may be‘ operated in
parallel as described above and deliver to sepa
70 rate condensers supplied with cooling water at
the same temperature, or in series and deliver to
a single condenser, another arrangement that can
be adopted is to cause the cooling water to pass
through the condensers in series when the two
compressors are in parallel, that is, to'connect
interfere with normal operation, even\at rela
tively low load, a suitable automatic governor .or
controlling device may be attached to each com
pressor when the condensers are in series, to take
e?’ect at the‘ right moment; that for the com
pressor ‘I to act ?rst because this compressor may
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attain instability of load before the other, or the -
compressor ‘I may be stopped atv a selected point
by switching off its motor I I] while the other
compressor continues to operate.
The centrifugal compressor is virtually self 76
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2,184,409
stabilizing in function because, as is well lmown ‘ evacuators in series with the other evacuators
with a drop in load, the water entering the evap
orator is cooler, and the vapor formed is less in
when the load on the refrigerating system drops.
2. In a refrigerating system, an,evaporator, a
density but larger in speci?c volume. Also the
plurality of evacuators for the evafporator, a sep- '
pressures in the evaporator and in the condenser
diminish, but the ratio of compression of the
centrifugal compressor increases. The drop in
pressure and density of the vapor with increase
of volume and ‘greater compression are the factors
10 that tend to maintain the normal operation of the
» compressor until the load becomes small. Hence,
it
as the demand for refrigeration lessens, while the
rated speed of the compressor continues, the
power consumed by the compressor is reduced,
but no loss 'of stability ensues before very light
load is reached.
When the compressors 6 and ‘I run in parallel
and the condensers 8 and 9 are connected in
series, the compressors can be run together ‘at full
speed, or one at full speed and the other at re-‘
duced speed, or either can be run' alone at full ‘a
speed or less. When the compressor ‘I operates
alone or with the compressor 6 at any speed less
than full speed of the latter, the water in the con
arate condenser for each evacuator, connections
for supplying cooling medium separately to each
condenser, means for altering said connections to
cause the cooling medium to pass serially through
the condensers, means for selectively connecting
each evacuator in series with the evaporator and
its condenser or connecting the' evacuators in se
ries with each other and with the evaporator and
one of said condensers, and means for varying
the operating speed of one or more of said evacu
ators thereby varying the rate of evacuation of 15
said evaporator.
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'“ 3. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator, a
plurality of evacuators for the evaporator, con
densers to which the evacuators discharge, and
means for varying the relationship between the 20
evaporator, evacuators, and condensers to main
tain the consumption of power in the system sub
stantially proportionate to the load thereon, said
means being positioned to arrange some of the
denser 9 will not be warmed so much and there
fore the temperature and pressure in the con
denser 9 will be less, thereby permitting the com
evacuators selectively in parallel or in series with
each other with respect to their connection to the
pressor ‘I to force the vapor into the condenser 9
4. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator, a
plurality of vapor evacuators for the evaporator,
a separate condenser for each ‘evacuator, and 30
means for selectively directing the ?ow of vapor
more easily. The compressor 1 now will be more
30 stable than when operating with the compressor
6 and the former runs at the full speed which can
be imparted to it by its motor Ill.
An additional valve 29 may be placed in the
water inlet pipe I! for the condenser 8, and any
35 or all of the valves 26, 21, 28 and 29 may be auto
matically controlled in accordance with condi
tions in the system to control the cooling water
for the condensers. Automatic regulation of the
valves l8 may of course also be. practiced, the
valves then being arranged to operate in unison
evaporator.
,
from the evaporator in parallel streams through
each evacuator into its condenser or ‘directing
such ?ow in one stream‘ through the evacuators
35
in series and into one'of the condensers.
5. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator, a
plurality of evacuators for the evaporator, a
separate condenser for each evacuator, means for
alternativelylconnecting the outlet of one evacu
ator to its condenser or to the inlet of a second 40
or separately in accordance with variations in _ evacuator, and means for alternatively connect
ing the inlet of said second evacuator to the evap
that more than two compressors or condensers orator or to the outlet of said one evacuator.
arranged in the manner shown, may be used if
6.,In a refrigerating system, an evaporator, a
desired, two having been shown only for the pur
plurality of evacuators for the evaporator, a sep 45
pose of illustration.
arate condenser for each evacuator, a conduit
Thus it will be seen that the system may be op
connection between the outlet of one evacuator
erated in various ways and is readily adaptable and the inlet of a second evacuator, valve means
to part load operation. The speed of the com
at one end of the connection to alternatively con
pressors may be varied and the rate of evacuation nect the outlet of said one evacuator to its con-' 50
load within the system. It will, of course, be clear
varied accordingly to partly compensate for load denser or to said ‘connection, and valve means at
changes. The condensers and evacuators may the other end of said connection to alternatively
be placed in various relations to‘ each other and connect the inlet of said second evacuator to the
cooling water saved, or the relationship between evaporator or to said connection.
7. In a refrigeratingsystem, ‘an evaporator, a 55
55 the compressors may be altered to effect furthe
savings in the cost of operation.
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plurality of evacuators for the evaporator, sep
I claim:
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arate means for each evacuator to condense vapor ‘
1. In a refrigerating system, an evaporator
chamber, a plurality of evacuators for removing
vapor from the chamber, condensers to which the
discharged therefrom, and means for selectively
connecting the evacuators in series with each
other and with the evaporator and one of said 60
evacuators discharge, and means‘for eliminating
separate condensing means.
the communication between some of the evacu
ators and the chamber and for placing such
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JOHN
KIRBAN.
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