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Oct.'25,1938. v HLENTZ ET AL ' 2,134,466 ‘COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE ' Filed Jan. 29, 1937 E97] 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 Oct. 25, 1938; H. LENTZ ET AL . 2,134,466 COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE Filed Jan. 29, 1937 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 Oct. 25, 1938. ‘ H. LENTZ ET AL ' 2,134,466 COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE med Jan‘. 29, 1937 7 Sheets-Sheet s \ Q . m&\\\kw.\&wH\I, PM» pm! 57.. ..1 ‘a.v w,\%.\.\Rh§m. v,w. /.AF_.5Nw mw.a um.‘ W“. aQ Lml s \. | :“w‘ . £W<<f L..r<. Hia: .4 .64‘/4v/ /4 M,____w Z“. m._Ww@m.\ ? w _-0ct..25, 1933, V ~ H. LE‘NTZ Er AL COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE Filed'Janl 29, 1957 2,134,466 - 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 Oct. 25; 1938. I H, LEQTZ ET AL‘ 2,134,466 COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE _ Filed Jan. ‘29, 1937 28’ 7/ " 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 ' 5/’ I . <\ 2a 70 50 61.6 }l\\ ‘ F1917 , ‘ |\ ‘ \ \‘ I W \ ~~ H L 41'“ \ wk?“ / \ \\\ / % / A] 0 7,, 6/ m 622 / Oct. 25, 1938. H LENTZ ET'AL _ 2,134,466 COMPOUND STEAM ENGINE Filed Jan. 29, 1937 ‘6] 7, 4 ‘7 Sheets-Sheet s ' 472 oct'; 25, 1938. - ‘ H‘ LENTZ ET A]. v COMPOUND STEAM ' 2,134,466 ENGINE ‘ Filed Jan. 29, 1957 7 Sheets-‘Sheet 7 5a ‘192 ‘' Patented oer. 25, 1938] 22,134,466 > UNITED STATES PATENT. OFFICE [ . comomm STEAM ENGINE ' Hugo llentz, Berlin, Germany, and Hugo Johannes . Lents, Vienna, _Austrla .IApplication January 29,1931, Serial No. 122,994 ' . > In Germany January 29, 1936 '1 Claims. * (01. 121-102) Compound steam engines of the Woolf type valves for the high pressure to open separately ’ when starting so that the live steam is immediate 1y fed to the low pressure cylinder and there‘ de velops a high pulling moment until the normal with poppet valve gear are known, in which these valves are arranged side by side at each end of the cylinder block and in which each of the 5 valves is controlled by a separate cam. However, the object of this arrangement, namely to keep vthe steam passages short and the clearance small, running can begin. ' _ , of Fig. 2 through the high pressure cylinder, the 10 low‘ pressure cylinder and the valve chest inter trol valves with spindles located the one'within posed between these two cylinders of- a com pound steam engine of the Woolf type with con trol drive actuated in the middle. Fig. 2 is an end view of the cylinder block on 15 the other at each end ‘of the cylinder, to thus ar rangethem coaxially one behind the other and control them by a common cam. ‘ Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section on line 1-1 10 cylinder steam engines, to~ construct the two con 1.5 , lustrated by way of example in the accompany ing drawings, in which:---- .is not entirely‘attained. It is likewise. known, in connection with single ' ( Several embodiments of the invention are il ‘ The invention goes still farther, in that in com pound steam engines of the Woolf type a com larger scale. * t Fig. 3 shows on larger scale and in longitudinal bined cam controls the setsgo‘hvalves arranged at each end of the cylinder block between high section the valve chest situated at one end of the cylinder block with built-in valve set. pressure and low pressure cylinders, each set com 20 'prising three coaxial valves arranged one behind Fig. 4 shows the intermediate levers in side ele- 29, ' the other with their spindles mounted one within the other. By this arrangement an extrelnely compact construction of the valves and conse vation. _ Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section through the valve chest and valve set of a compound engine quently a considerable reduction in the clearing of the Woolf type, in which a cam shaft is pro 25 is obtained but at the same time the whole gear vided at each end of the cylinder block for con- 25 trolling the valve set. drive is considerably simpli?ed. . _ Fig. 6 is an elevation on a larger scale showing . The combined cam serving for controlling the a combined cam acting on the valve spindles. Fig. 'I is a section on line VII-VII of Fig. 6. Fig. 8 is a diagram showing the curves of the 30 valve lifts in dependency upon the crank angle. sets of valves can have all three control surfaces for the admission, bypass and exhaust, in which .30 instance it is driven by a cam shaft. It is then ' possible to use the control. surfaces for the ex haust also for-controlling the admission; if the ' Figs. 9 to 12 ‘show a“ cam drive, in which the Y admission cam is arranged adjustable relatively valve so that it opens later than the/exhaust “ to the exhaust cam and separately driven. , Fig. 13 shows a section through the valve chest 35 35 valve. The combined cam can,'however, be also constructed as a two-part cam, one part having‘ of another form of construction of gear employ , ' the‘control surfaces for the admission and the ing single seat'valves. Fig,(14 is a similar section with open by-pass second part the control surfaces for bypass and admission valve is constructed as piston slide .exhaust, each part being driven by a‘ separate 40 shaft. . ‘ _ d. - The combined cam for controlling both sets of valves can be arranged in the middle ‘of the ' cylinder, in which case the valve spindles mount ed one ‘within the other are directed the one 45 against the other. The valve spindles may, how ever, also be outwardly directed, in which case a combined cam is arranged on each end of the valve chest. This arrangement presents the ad vantage that in the case of repairs being neces 50 sary each set of valves can be removed as a whole and replaced by a new set. ’ For closing the valves an elastic pressure me dium .(for example steam) acting on the valve spindles is employed, which medium, however, 55 enables in the new arrangement the admission valve. . - Fig. 15' is a section showing a control valve for 40 > the closing steam in the position corresponding to coasting of the engine. - -, , _ Figs. 16 and 17 are diagrams showing, respec tively, the position of the control valve for start ing the engine and for closing all valves. The form of construction illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4 will ?rst be described. I - is a cylinder block of a compound engine with a high pressure cylinder 2 and a' low pres sure cylinder 3. At each end of the cylinder block 59 a valve chest 4 is cast between the two cylinders, the feed and exhaust passages for the steam lead ing into this chest. In each valve chest an admis sion valve 5,‘ a by-pass valve 6 and an.exhaust valve 1-, are arranged ‘coaxially one behind the 2 2, 184,466 other and effect the steam distribution for one, with a certain overlapping, so that it opens later piston side of the two cylinders. For this purpose than the exhaust valve 1. This presents the ad a cup-like member 8 is inserted in the endwali vantage that the acceleration of the admission 8 of the valve chest and carries the lower seat valve takes place already before it opens, so that of the exhaust valve 1. The upper seat of the the admission passage is exposed very quickly and exhaust valve is arranged on’ ‘an inwardly pro the steam can flow into the high pressure cylin - jecting edge to of the valve chest 4. Radial slots der without being throttled. 9' in the tapered part of the cup member 0 guide To maintain the gear elements permanently the ribs ‘I’ of the exhaust valve 1 and preventthis in contact and to return the valves on to their 10 .valve from turning. The exhaust valve ‘I shuts seats, an elastic pressure medium such as steam off a space H from the side of which an exhaust passage I2 extends. . The seats for the by-pass valve I are arranged on a valve cage l3 inserted in the valve chest 4. 15 This cage can bear against the cup member 9 and has an annular extension I4 which engages in a central bore in the, member 9. The inner part of the valve cage i3 is of smaller diameter than the outer part so that an annular space It 20 remains between the by-pass valve i and the exhaust valve 1, said space being connected with a by-pass passage l6 leading to the low-pressure cylinder 3. acting on the valve spindles is employed instead _ of springs. ‘ ' In the valve cage It a second valve cage i1 25 is arranged for the admission valve I constructed as a piston slide valve. The valve cage I‘! has passages i8 which lead into an annular space I! situated above the by-pass valve I. A pas sage 20 leads from the annular space I! to one 30 end of the high-pressure cylinder 2. . A space 22 situated above the admission valve 5 and closed by a cover II is connected with the For this purpose the following ar rangement is provided: Firstly, a bore 12 is provided in the cover ii,‘ to which wet steam or some other pressure me dium is supplied‘ through a conduit 3i. This medium acts on a pressure piston 33 mounted in the bore 32, which piston is pressed against the spindle to of the admission valve into its closed position. With a view to maintain also the other valves 5 and 6 in closed position by steam pres sure, the bottom of the Tvalve cage II is con structed as a hollow body 34, the internal space 35 of which is connected by a bore 38 in one of the reinforcement ribs with a steam conduit 8|; The 25 space 35 communicates by means of a bore 81 in the hollow spin e is with an annular space 85a produced by re using the spindle la of the admission valve from its normal diameter iii to a smaller diameter dz. The admission valve 80 spindle 5a is pressed towards the right by the closing pressure acting on it. It can therefore live steam'conduit by a laterally arranged tubu lar connection 23 indicated in dotted lines in be regarded as a rigid counter bearing-so that .. 35 Fig. 2. ' As already mentioned, the spindles of the valves are mounted one within the other. For this pur towards the right with a pressure which acts in pose the spindle ‘Ia of the exhaust valve ‘I is-a hollow spindle, which is mounted at one end in a 40 central bore 9" of the valve cage 9 and at its other end in a central bore II’ in an inserted member It. The hollow spindle ‘Ia accommo dates the hollow spindle 8a of the by-pass valve 6 and in this hollow spindle 6a the spindle Ia 45 of the admission valve 5 is mounted, The ends of the spindles project into the cam shaft cham the pressure prevailing in the chamber Ila presses the spindle 6a of the by-pass valve 4 the annular chamber formed between the diam eters iii-dz. The steam pressure prevailing in the. space 35 may also act on the end of spindle ‘la of the exhaust valve. Thus, all the valves 40 are maintained under‘ closing pressure during the service. The steam conduits 30 and 3| leading respec tively to the chambers 32 and 35 are ‘at the same time connected with a control valve 41 in a cas ing 46, the valve being adjustable from the ber 25 in which the cam shaft 24 and the other ' driver's stand through a suitable rod, not shown, and a lever e and serving at the same time as arranged. The cam shaft 24 is oscillated in the _ starting and coasting pressure compensation de elements serving for controlling the valves are 50 usual manner by/a rod system. The gear drive comprises a combined cam keyed on the cam shaft 24 and carrying the cams for actuating all the valves. - The admission valve 5 of the high-pressure cylinder and the exhaust valve ‘I of the low vice The valve 41 has a passage I and controls four passages in the casing 46. Passage a is con 50 nected to the boiler of the engine, or to a com pressed-air reservoir, by a pipe 53; the passages b and c are connected, respectively, to the con‘ duits III and'tl; and a vent passage d is con nected to a discharge pipe d’ opening into the 55 pressure cylinder are actuated by the same cam 21. When this cam swings, it presses against an atmosphere. In the coasting position, Fig. 15, intermediate lever 28 oscillatable about an axis; the supply of medium under pressure through 28' and'having a forked end. A middle finger conduit 83 and passage a is closed by the valve 60 28a comes into contact with the end of the ad 41, and the pipes 30 and 3| are connected to at mission valve spindle 5a, whereas two ‘outer fin , gers 28b come into contactwith the end of the hollow spindle ‘la. - On the other hand the by-pass valve 6 is ac (i5 tuated by a cam 28 which acts on an interme; diate lever 29 oscillatable about an axle 29’. x The free end of the intermediate lever 29 is also forked.- Its ?ngers 29a engage between the fingers of the intermediate lever 28 and’act on 70 the end of the spindle 6a of the by-pass valve As in this construction of the cam the lifting surfaces 2'! lift the admission-and exhaust valves simultaneously, but the two valves must open'at di?'erent times, the high-pressure admission .76 ,valve 4 must be constructed as piston slide valve mosphere. The valves brought into their open position by the cams then remain in this posi tion, so that free communication is established between the two ends of the cylinder. When“ starting a compound ‘locomotive, it is 65 found necessary to ?rst supply steam only to the large surface of the low pressure piston, so as to obtain a stronger pulling moment, whereas the . high pressure cylinder is only connected up later. This can be effected in a simple manner with the 70 gear according to the invention by placing, when starting the control valve 41 into the position shown in Fig. 16. In this position, steam from passage (1 flows to the conduit 30 and the hollow space "a. The vent passage d is closed. The 75 2,134,443!) 3 pressure prevailing in the annular ‘chamber Ila same manner as in the form of construction first If the regulator is then slowly opened, the live described, and ‘they are controlled in the same mannerby a cam shaft 24 which is, however, here journalled in a hollow cover 45 covering the bore of the valve chest 4 and at the same time securing the different inserted- members in the valve chest. 'steam passes from the chamber 22 through the opened admission valve .5 and the by-pass valve This construction of gear presents the advan tage that in the event of repairs, the whole valve acts on the spindle in and brings the admission’ valve 5, as there is no counter-pressure, ?rst into its open position. It then places the spindles 6a and 1a under pressure, so that the by-pass valve 6 and the exhaust valve 1 can, operate normally. set can be taken out, after the removal of the 10 cover 45, and a fresh valve set inserted. The dismantling and fitting of the gear can there .fore be carried out in a very short time. The operation of the gear is the same in both forms of construction. If for example, the cam 16 '21 moves out of its middle position towards the left, the exhaust valve 1 will ?rst be opened and allows the exhaust steam to pass out of the low 10 controlled by the cam, directly into the low-pres-_ .sure cylinder 3 which, owing to the larger piston ‘surface, can produce the power necessary for K starting. When it’ is desired .to change over to normal service, the control valve 41 is placed 15. into the position illustrated in Fig. 17 in which passages b and c, and pipes 20 and SI, are con; nected to the supply passage 41, and the venture sage d is closed. All valves are now'under closing pressure. v . _ ' pressure cylinder 8 through the passage i6 into the exhaust space H, from which it escapes through the tubular connection l2. Shortly thereafter the same cam “opens the admission f . Undercertain circumstances, if the pressure surfaces are correspondingly proportioned,‘ the pressure piston 33 can be entirely omitted in that, 20] by gradually opening the regulator the increas-s valve 5, so ‘that live steam can pass from the space 22 through the inflow passage 20 to the ‘high-pressure ‘cylinder 2 in which it expands after the closing of the admission valve 5. During this time the by-pJass valve remains closed. Be fore the change of stroke and when the admis controlling position and the engine then operates sion- and exhaust valves are closed, the by-pass ing steam pressure acts on the spindle 5a of the. admission valve until it is able to overcome the counterpressure in the annular chamber 25a act ing on the same spindle. when this occurs the admission valve is‘ automatically brought into the 30 in its normal manner. . opens. so that partly expanded steam can pass - ‘ from the high-pressure cylinder 2 through the The form of gear shown. in Fig. 5 di?ers sub passages to and it into-the low-pressure cylin der. in which, after the closure of the vby-pass valve, the steam expands to its ?nal pressure. At the other end ‘oi’ the cylinder the same series stantially from that above described only in that the valve sets arranged on both ends of the cyl inder block I are insertable as anaggregate into the bores of the valve chest 4 and the valves are controlled each by a shaft arranged at each end of the cylinders.‘ In this ‘instance each valve set of operations take place only displaced through a phase of'i80". ' If the admissionvalve is not constructed as a - comprises an insert member 38 adapted tobe' piston‘ slide‘valve' ‘but, like the other valves, as ' slipped into the bore in/the valve chest,‘ in the an ordinary double seated poppet valve, sepa rate lifting surfaces are necessary for controlling the admission and inlet valves. In Figs. 6 and 7 - the exhaust valve 1. vThe other seat of the ex haust valve is arranged on an annular extension such‘a gear drive is shown in section and eleva tion. The ?nger-shaped end of an intermediate 38" of the insert member 38. lever 50, mounted on the axle 2t and actuated '45 A valve cage 40 for the by-pass valve t is ?tted by a cam ‘ti, bears against the end‘ of‘the ad in the casing '38 from the rear side thereof and bears at one end against the‘ inner edge of the mission valve spindle ta. To enable this inter insert ‘member 38 and at its other end against mediate lever W to swing out, the end of the spindle ta of the by-pass valve t has an aperture the edge of the cup 39, this cage having an an 6b, through which the‘ end of the intermediate 50 nularextension 40,’ which engages in the cup 39. 50 The valve cage 40, which carries the seats for lever til can’ pass. The forked end of an inter mediate lever 60 mounted on the axle‘ 29' and’ the by-pass valve _6 has passages 4! which estab end wall of which provided with a hub W’ a cup $9 is inserted, which carries the lower seat for actuated by a cam ti bears against the end of lish communication between the space I! above‘ the spindle to of the by-pass valve 6. The spindle ‘lq. of the exhaust valve ‘I, however, is controlled“ 55 the by-pass valve 6 and'the annular space vi5; between the by-pass valve 8 and the exhaust valve 1. A by-pass passage l6 ‘branches from the by two intermediate levers ‘Ill mounted on the axle ‘2B’ and by two similarly shaped exhaust space l5 and leads to the end-70f the low pres sure cylinder 3. I I ' » , ' A second valve cage 43 for the piston slide 60. valve 5 is ?tted in the valve cage 40. This valve cage 43 bears at its inner end against the bottom of the valve cage 40 constructed as a'hollow body _ '° 35 and at its outer side has an edge 43'. bearing ' against the edge of the valve cage 40.‘ The ad mission valve 5 opens directly into the live, steam space 22, to which live steam is supplied through the tubular connection 23. The admission valve 5\ controls the-passages 44 provided in the valve cage 43 which, whenthe valve is open, establishes 70 connection between the live steam space 22 and the’ space l8, from which the by-pass passage cams ‘ii. The two intermediate levers ‘l0 bear against the end‘of the spindle ‘la above the mid dle plane of the spindle. The lower half of the 00, spindle has an aperture ‘lb vwhich allows the intermediate lever 60 to move without hindrance. The cams 5i, ti and ‘II are in this instance cut from a block keyed on the cam shaft 245. Where necessary, apertures areprovided in this cs block to enable the unimpeded adjustment of the intermediate levers. The control surface of the admission cam 5i lags slightly behind the control surface of the exhaust cam ‘H, so that *the exhaust valve opens earlier than the admis 70 sion valve as shown diagrammatically in Fig. 8 . 20 leading tothe end of the high pressure cylin wherein the periodicity and extent of the valve der branches. The spindles 5a, to, ‘la of the three _ valves are mounted one within the other and are lifts are indicated. ' J The 'block with the cams is also constructed "(is held in closed position by steam pressure in the ‘ symmetrically to the vertical medial plane so 75 H 4 9,184,486 one behind the other, valve spindles one carry which only one shaft is arranged in the middle ing each‘ of said valves and mounted one within of the cylinder and two shafts are provided at - the other, and a combined cam adapted to con I that the block can be employed for gears in the cylinder ends. In the gear above described the admission cam 5| is stationary relatively to the exhaust cam ‘H. In Figs. 9 to 12 a gear drive is shown which trol said sets of valves. 2. A compound steam engine as speci?ed in claim 1, in which the combined cam is com differs from that previously described only in having a control surface for the admission, and the other the control surfaces for the by-pass and exhaust valves, and‘ the two parts are each 10 that the admission cam 5| is adjustable rela 10 tively to the exhaust cam 6| for the purpose of varying the charge. For this purpose the shaft 24 is constructed as a hollow shaft, the cam block removed from between the exhaust cams ‘H, and in this recess thus formed the 15 admission cam is turnably arranged, this admis sion cam being driven by a second shaft 24a mounted in the hollow shaft 24 and extending through a central bore therein and coupled there with by projections engaging in longitudinal 20 grooves in the shaft 24a. Each of these shafts is separately driven. Con sequently the admission cam can be displaced from the outside relatively to the exhaust cam, so that it opens sooner or later, which enables the steam distribution to be regulated within wide limits. The kinds of gear above described employ double seated valves. The-same gear drive can also be employed for- single seated valves which 30 are easier to produce and by which primarily the clearance can be kept very small. They are suitable for more slowly running marine steam engines. Figs. 13 and 14 show such a gear, wherein the valves are driven by a control drive 35 according to Figs. 6 and 7. Therefore, the cor responding gear elements are designated by the same references. Consequently, it is not neces sary to particularly describe this gear drive. Differing from the types of valve gear already described,'the valves are constructed as cone posed of two relatively adjustable parts, one part driven by a cam shaft. 3. A compound steam engine as specified in claim 1, in which the combined cam is driven by a cam shaft and a control surface adapted tocontrol both the exhaust valve and the ad 15 mission valve for the high-pressure cylinder and said admission valve is constructed as piston slide valve adapted to open later than said exhaust valve. ' 4. In a compound steam engine as specified in 20 claim 1, in each valve set a valve cage carrying the by-pass valve, a valve cage carrying the ad mission valve and mounted in said by-pass valve cage, a bottom on said by-pass valve'cage con structed as a hollow body, and means for sup 25 plying steam to said hollow body to exert clos ing pressure on the spindles of said by-pass and exhaust valves. 5. In a compound steam engine as specified in claim 1, in each valve set a valve cage carrying 80 the by-pass valve, a valve cage carrying the» admission valve and mounted in said by-pass valve cage, a bottom on said by-pass valve cage constructed as a hollow body, and means for supplying steam to said hollow body to exert 85 closing pressure on the spindles of said by-pass and admission valves, the spindle of the admis sion valve mounted in the tubular spindle of the by-pass valve being reduced to a smaller diam eter and forming with the tubular spindle of the 40 shaped single-seat valves 52, 62 and 12.; The _ by-pass valve a chamber communicating with the by-pass valve 62 and the low-pressure exhaust space in said hollow body through a bore in the valve 12 are provided with ?anges “and 13, tubular spindle. respectively, mounted to slide in bores 64 and 45 14, respectively, of the valve casings I3 and 4, respectively. The stroke of the valves is equal - to the width of the corresponding by-pass pas sages l6 and 20. Fig. 14 shows the full-open position of the by-pass valve 52 in which the 50 ?ange 63 of the valve enters the bore 64 and the steam ?ows through the by-pass passage is from the high-pressure cylinder to the low-pres sure cylinder without being throttled. The low pressure exhaust valve 12 in its full-open posi 55 tion enters the bore 14 with its ?ange 13 so that the exhaust steam ?ows in the passage 20 without being throttled. 0f the nested valve spindles 5a, 8a and la the latter is guided on an insert member 48. They spindles 6a and 1a are secured against turning. by a key 49 which engages in longitudinal grooves in these spindles. To maintain the valves in closed position it is su?icient in this instance to connect the in ternal space 55 of the gear housing with an evacuated space (for example to a condenser) by means of a conduit 58.‘ We claim:-- ' 1. A compound steam engine of the Woolf type 70 with valve gear, comprising in combination a cylinder block having a high. pressure cylinder and a low pressure cylinder, sets of valves ar ranged at each end of ‘said block, each set com prising an admission valve, a by-pass valve and an exhaust valve said valves arranged coaxially I 6. In a compound steam engine as speci?ed in claim 1, in each valve set a valve cage carrying 45 the by-pass valve, a valve cage carrying the ad mission valve and mounted in said by-pass valve cage, a bottom on said by-pass valve cage con structed as a hollow body, and means for sup plying steam to said hollow body to exert clos 50 ing pressure on the spindles of said by-pass and admission valves, thespindle of the admission valve mounted in the tubular spindle of the by pass valve belng reduced to a smaller diameter and forming with the tubular spindle of the by 55 pass valve a chamber communicating with the space in said hollow body through a bore in the tubular spindle, a pressure piston subjected to the in?uence of a pressure medium and adapted to act on said admission valve spindle, and a cover ‘plate having a bore coaxial with said spindles and accommodating said piston. - 7. A compound steam engine of the Woolf type with valve gear, comprising in combination a cylinder block having a high pressure cylinder and a low pressure cylinder, sets of valves ar ranged at each end of said block, each set com prising an admission valve, a by-pass valve and and exhaust valve, said valves arranged co-axially one behind the other, valve spindles one carrying 70 each of said valves and mounted one within the other, a combined cam adapted to control said sets of valves, a hollow seat for the by-pass valve. 9. cover plate having a bore, a piston on the outer end of the admission-valve spindle mounted to II slide in the bore, a. reduced portion on the ad to the cylinder, and to the interior of the hollow ; mission-valve spindle de?ning an annular cham- \ seat, a. vent on the casing, and a. manually oper ber between this spindle‘ and the tubular spindle of ‘the by-pass valve which chamber communi ated control valve in the casing for controlling the conduits and the vent. v , \ cates with the interior of the hollow seat through the tubular spindle, a/ casing; conduits connect in; the casing to a suppiyoi' ?uid under pressure, HUGO LENTZ. HUGO JOHANNES LENTZ.