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Патент USA US2134571

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Oct. 25, 1938.
,
' E. MORLOCK
’
2,134,571
DEVICE FOR THE HYDROGENATIQN OF VEGETABLE OR ANIMAL
'
OILS OR FATS, vFATTY ACIDS, (JR-THE LIKE
'
Filed July 27. 1935
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HYDRoaEN
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(143mm;
2,134,511
Patented Oct. 25‘, 1938,
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE- .
' 2,134,571
DEVICE FOR THE HYDROGENATION OF ’
VEGETABLE OR'ANHVIAL ,OILS 0R. FATS,
FATTY-ACIDS, OR THE IIKE
Emil Morlock, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany,
assignor to American Lurgi Corporation, New‘
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York
Application July 27,, 1935, Serial No. 33,519
In Germany July 27, 1934
9 Claims.- (01. 87-12) ‘
and which can be constructed on the same lines
The invention relates to a device for the hy
drogenation of vegetable or animal oils or- fats, as the impeller of a centrifugal pump and be
turned at a high speed by means of a suitable
fatty acids or the like.
For the hydrogenation of vegetable or animal driving gear. The impeller is surrounded by a
5 oils or fats, fatty acids or the like it is necessary shell which rotates with the impeller and which
that the substances to be hydrogenated as well may for instance be of cylindrical or conical
as the catalyzer and the hydrogen are brought shape. The rotary motion of the shell is pref
into intimate contact at the requisite tempera~ erably derived from the impeller by means of
ture and pressure. In order to do this it has been a rigid connection between impeller and shell.
,0 customary up to thepresent either to pass the The mixture of the, liquid to be hydrogenated, 10
hydrogen in a ?nely distributed state through with the catalyzer may be fed to the impeller,
- the liquid contained in the hydrogenation vessel,
or the substances to be hydrogenated have to be
mixed with hydrogen in the gas space of the
I :5 hydrogenation vessel, for instance in such a man
ner that the liquid collecting in the lower portion
of the hydrogenation vessel is continuously re
turned into the gas space by means of, a pump.
In'all these known processes the hydrogen or
20 the substances to b‘e-hydrogenated have to be
circulated by means of special equipment situ
ated outside the hydrogenation vessel.‘
By means of the present invention it is now
possible not only to eliminate these disadvan
for instance through a tube. It leaves the im
peller at a high velocity and reaches the inside
of the shell that surrounds the impeller. Here
it spreads in a thin layer and rises until it is
thrown into. the gas space of the hydrogenation
vessel either through holes in the shell or over
the upper rim of theshell. The mixture ?nally
descends in the gas space or runs down on the
walls surrounding the latter, unites with the 20
liquid in the lower portion of the hydrogenation
vessel, and is then seized again by the projecting
device.
'
The impeller is preferably arranged at the
25 tages but also to obtain considerable advantages ' height of the‘liquid level in the hydrogenation
with regard to the hydrogenation process proper. vessel. If the process is worked in such a manner
It is the object of the present invention to
project the substances to be hydrogenated, which
?ll the hydrogenation vessel up to a certain level,
into the gas space of the hydrogenation vessel
by means of an impeller and a distributing de
'30
vice that surrounds this impeller and has for
instance a cylindrical or conical shape. This
equipment and,’ if necessary, any additional
equipment, for instance an agitator, which is
best connected to the equipment, produce a good
mixture of'the catalyzer with the oil in the hy
drogenation vessel proper so that the substances
to be hydrogenated are projected into the gas
40 space of the vessel in an intimate and uniform
"mixture with the catalyzer.
as .91
.
Apart from the fact that the present inven
tion eliminates all circulating devices, which
in the known hydrogenation plants are situated
outsidethe hydrogenation vessel, and that the
cost oi‘v mixing the catalyzer and hydrogen with
the substances-to be hydrogenated is thereby‘
considerably reduced, the present invention also
offers the great advantage that the hydrogena
' 50 tion process can be carried out quickly, at lower
temperatures than up to the present, and with
a small quantity of catalyzer.
, The device according to the present invention
, consists for instance of an impeller which is ?tted
' 55 to a vertical shaft inside the hydrogenation vessel
25
that the liquid level in the hydrogenation vessel
varies, it is advisable to arrange the impeller at
approximately the lowest liquid level in the hy
drogenation vessel, so that it will always be
supplied with the necessary quantity of liquid
through the suction pipe without requiring any
special feeding device in the suction pipe. The
shell surrounding the impeller is partlysituated
in the gas space of the hydrogenation vessel. 35
If the process is carried out in such a manner
that the liquid level in the hydrogenation vessel
varies, the shell shall suitably be brought up so
high as to have its upper rim'still situated above
the highest liquid level. It is advisable to let 40.
the suction pipe rotate as well, which is best
done by connecting it either to the impeller
or to the impeller shaft. The suction pipe ex
tends so far down into the vessel that there can
be no separation of the catalyzer from the liquid 45
in the lower part of the vessel. In order to be
absolutely on the‘safe side in this respect, ,par
ticularly with regard to large hydrogenation ves-.
sels,-it is advisable to provide an agitator at the
bottom end of the suction pipe. This .agltator
can for instance consist of inclined plates ?tted
to the suction pipe.
The projecting device produces on the one
hand a very uniform and line distribution of the
liquid and therefore an extremely intimate con 55
.
2
2,184,571
tact between liquid catalyzer and gas, and on
the other hand it permits the quantity of liquid
distributed in the gas space always to remain at
least approximately constant, even if the liquid
level in the hydrogenation vessel varies.
The
. device of the present invention offers the addi
tional considerable advantage that it is extremely
simple and safe in operation, as it contains no
parts that have a relative motion against one
10
another.
.
through which- the mixture of material to be hy
drogenated and the catalyst are projected in the
form of a mist into the atmosphere of hydrogen
above the surface of the liquid.‘ The impeller is
placed in the tank at such a height that the inlet
of the impeller a is below the surface of the liquid
and the perforations h in the shell b are above
the surface of the liquid. This apparatus for the
distribution of the material to be hydrogenated
and the catalyst in the form of a mist permits of 10
The inside of the shell surrounding the impellers
can be provided with guide plates or the like in
a very rapid reaction between the hydrogen and
order to regulate the flow of the liquid. In
addition to this, the top portion of the shell can
15 be provided with ?ne openings, for instance
slots, in order to insure a better distribution of
the liquid in the gas space. That part of the
shell which contains these openings may then
to completion than the methods of the prior art
or the apparatus of conventional design. Rigidly
preferably be situated above the highest level
the oil and enables the reaction to go more nearly
connected to the impeller a is a pipe d which 15
serves to feed the material to be hydrogenated to
the impeller a. In one embodiment of the inven
tion (not shown) this pipe is not used. The pipe
d rotates with the impeller a and attached to
of the liquid, so that the passage of part of the pipe d is an agitating device consisting of in 20
liquid through these openings is not obstructed. ' clined plates is secured to the pipe (1 and to a
It is also possible to construct this device in concentric ring'i. This agitator keeps the cat
such a manner that the impeller rotates round alyst in suspension’and thoroughly mixed with
a horizontal axis. In this case it is generally
25 advisable to arrange several impellers on the the oil or fat. The construction of the impeller
is similar to that of the impeller of a centrifugal
horizontal shaft,'and these impellers may then pump and reference to Fig. 3 will show that more
be immersed in the liquid to such an extent that clearly. In Fig. 3 the shaft g is indicated and the
their inlet openings are always completely cov
blades of the impeller a are also shown. The
ered by the liquid contained in the hydrogena
suction pipe is shown as d. The shaft 9 is rotated
30 tion vessel. These impellers can likewise be- sur
at high speed thereby imparting great velocity 30
rounded with shells which discharge the liquid to the material which is sucked through pipe d.
‘ in the desired direction and produce at the same
time a ?ne distribution of the liquid leaving the
impellers. With- this arrangement it is not abso
35 lutely necessary to feed the mixture of catalyzer
and liquid to the impellerby means of special
pipes.
For the purpose of giving those skilled in the
art a better understanding of the invention, the
40 ‘following description will be given in conjunction
with the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. 1 is a vertical view, partly in section, of a
hydrogenating apparatus embodying the prin
ciples of the present invention;
45
Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectional view taken on
Since the agitator is secured to the pipe d the
material is thoroughly stirred and mixed. The
construction of the agitator is shown in detail in
Fig. 4 in which the suction pipe is d. _ The con
runner is surrounded by the shell I). The inside
line A-—A of Fig. 1 and ‘having parts in elevation;
Fig. 3 is a similar sectional view taken on line
B-B of Fig. 1 and having parts in elevation; and
.Fig. 4 is a similar sectional view taken on line
50 C_—C of Fig. 1 and having parts in elevation.
In Fig. 1, a suitable tank f is provided, in which
of this shell is ?tted with guide plates 0, and the
upper part of the shell is provided with- slots h.
The height of the shell should of course not ex
ceed the attainable delivery height of the runner.
The cover plate e of the impeller is situated ap
the hydrogenation of animal or vegetable oils or
upper rim of the shell b still extends into the gas
space of the vessel, even when the liquid reaches
fats, fatty acids and the like may be carried out.
The tank is provided with‘ the usual means for
65 heating the contents and rotating shaft g.
Mounted in the tank 1' is the shaft g which is
rotated with high velocity by means of the usual
pulley, bearing and gear. The usual stu?ing box
is provided for the proper sealing of the entry of
the tank through which shaft g projects. Mount
ed on the shaft 9 and rotating with said vshaft is
an impeller a which is similar in construction to
35
centric ring is indicated by the letter i and the
inclined plates'by k. It is readily seen in Fig. 4
how the ring is attached to the pipe.
The shaft 9 is arranged inside the closed hydro
genation vessel of well-known design. The shaft 40
carries the impeller a which is firmly connected
to the suction pipe d. If necessary, it is also pos
sible to provide a connection between suction pipe
and shaft in the bottom part of the vessel. The
proximately at the lowest liquid level, whilst the
its highest level. The lower end ofthe suction
pipe carries an agitator which may for instance
consist of a ring 1‘ and four inclined plates k
which are connected to both the ring i and the
suction pipe d.
The method of operationof the present inven
tion and its performance have already been de
scribed above in sufficient detail.
Iclaim:
'
the impeller of a centrifugal pump.
1. In an apparatus for hydrogenating mate
A shell b surrounds the said impeller and may rials including vegetable and animal oils and fats,
be connected with the impeller to rotate with the fatty acids and the like in the liquid state in the
impeller. The shell extends axially beyond the form of globules, spray, droplets, mist and the 65
impeller less than the attainable delivery height like as the dispersed ‘phase in a gas containing
of the impeller and is provided with guide plates hydrogen as the continuous phase, the combina
or vanes c. The relationship of the impeller, the tion comprising a closed reaction vessel adapted
70 shell and the guide plates or vanes c is readily to contain a catalyst suspended in a liquid to be
70
seen in Fig. 2 in which the top plate of the im
hydrogenated in the lower portion and a gas con
peller is designated by the reference character e. taining hydrogen in the upper portion thereof,
As indicated in the Figure 2 the guide vanes c a cylindrical pipe rotatably mounted in said ves
extend past the periphery of the plate of the im
sel, an impeller coaxially mounted in said pipe
75 peller. In the shell b (Fig. 1) are perforations h and adapted to draw said liquid and catalyst up
75
as
3
2,184,571
ward through said pipe, a top'plate partially cov
ering said impeller, a shell coaxially mounted on
said impeller, guide-vanes radially arranged in
said shell, liquid outlet ports substantially devoid
of catalyst in said shell, and means for simul
taneously rotating said pipe with said impeller
constructed and arranged to cause a ?ow of said
liquid and said ‘catalyst into said shells and to
discharge, said liquid‘ and-said catalyst through
said outlet ports in the form of globules, drop
lets and mist into said hydrogen gas and means
for rotating said shaft at high speeds whereby
2. In an apparatus for hydrogenating materials
including vegetable and animal oils‘ and fats, fatty
an apparatus is provided for hydrogenating ma
terials as globules, droplets and mist containing
catalyst as the dispersed phase in hydrogen gas
acids and the like in the liquid state in theform
as the continuous phase.
and said shell.
~
'
'
_ of globules, spray, droplets,- mist and the‘like as
' the dispersed phase in a gas containing hydrogen
as the continuous phase, the'combination com
prising, a closed reaction vessel adapted to contain
is a catalyst suspended in a liquid to be hydrogen».
ated in the lower portion and a ‘gas containing
hydrogen in the upper portions thereof, a cylin
drical pipe having a conical enlargement at the
upper end rotatably mounted in said vessel, an
20 impeller coaxially mounted in said conical en
'
,
‘
10
5. In an apparatus for hydrogenating mate
rials including vegetable and animal oils and
fats, fatty acids and the like in the liquidstate
in the form of globules, spray, droplets, mist and
the like as the dispersed. phase in a gas contain
ing hydrogen as the continuous phase, the com
bination comprising a 'closed reaction vessel
adapted to contain a catalyst and a liquid to be
hydrogenated in the lower portion and hydrogen
gas in the upper portion thereof, a vertical shaft 20
largement of said pipe and adapted to draw said , rotatably mounted in said vessel, an impeller
liquid and catalyst upward through said pipe, a‘
top plate partially covering said impeller, a shell
coaxially mounted on said impeller, guide-vanes
25 radially arranged in said shell, liquid outlet ports
substantially devoid of catalyst in said shell and
means for simultaneously rotating said pipe with
vsaid impeller and said shell,
'
3. In an apparatus for hydrogenating materials
30 including vegetable and animal oils and fats, fatty
acids and the like in the liquid state in the form
of globules, spray, droplets‘, mist and the like as
the dispersed phase in a gas containing hydrogen
as the continuous phase, the combination ‘com
mounted on said shaft having the inlet at least '
below the surface of said liquid, said impeller
comprising an inlet plate having a liquid inlet, a
plurality of blades radially mounted on said in 25
let plate and a cover disk partially covering said ,
blades; a shell mounted on said inlet plate and
extending beyond said cover disk, outlet ports
substantially devoid of catalyst insaid shell, said
shell and said impeller being constructed and ar 30
ranged to cause a ?ow of liquid and catalyst into
said shell and to expel said liquid and said cata
lyst in the form of globules and mist through said
outlet ports into said hydrogen gas, and‘means
for rotating‘ said'shaft at high speeds whereby an 35
apparatus is provided for hydrogenating mate
rials as globules, droplets and mist containing
tion thereof, a shaft rotatably mounted in said ' catalyst as the dispersed phase in hydrogen as
vessel, a cylindrical member supported by said the continuous phase.
6. In an apparatus for hydrogenating mate 40
40 shaft and rotatable therewith, said cylindrical
member having liquid outlet port's substantially’, rials including vegetable and animal oils and
devoid of catalyst, an impeller mounted on said fats, fatty acids and the like in the liquid state
in the form of globules, spray, droplets,'mist»and
shaft within said cylindrical member, said im
the like as the dispersed phase in a gas contain
peller and said cylindrical member being con
35 prising a closed reaction vessel adapted to contain
a catalyst and a liquid to‘be hydrogenated in ,the
lower portion and hydrogen gas in the upper por
'45
structed and arranged to cause a flow of said liq
uid and said catalyst through said cylindrical
member and to expel said liquid and catalyst
through saidoutlet ports asglobules and mist
containing catalyst into said hydrogen gas, and
'means for rotating said shaft at high speeds
whereby an apparatus is provided for hydrogen
ating materials in the form of globules and mist
as the dispersed phase in hydrogen gas'as the
continuous phase.
55
-
'
,
q
4. In an apparatus for hydrogenating mate
rials including vegetable and animal oils and
fats, fatty acids and the like in the liquid state in
the form of globules, spray, droplets, mist and
the like as the disperse'd'phase in a gas con
taining hydrogen as the continuous phase, the
combination comprising a ‘closed reaction’ vessel
adapted to contain a catalyst and a liquid to be
hydrogenated in the lower portion and hydrogen
gas in the upper portion thereof, a horizontal
shaft'rotatably mounted in said vessel,. a plu~
rality of impellers mounted in spaced relation on
said shaft ‘each of said impellers comprising ‘an
inlet plate having a liquid inlet at the center
and below the surface of said liquid, a plurality
70 of blades radially mounted on said inlet plate
and a cover disk 'mounted on and partially cov
ing hydrogen as the continuous phase, the com
bination comprising a closed reaction vessel
adapted to contain a catalyst and a liquid to be
hydrogenated in the lower portion and hydrogen
gas in the upper portion thereof, a vertical shaft
rotatably mounted in said vessel, an impeller
mounted on said shaft, said impeller comprising
a plurality of inclined blades radially mounted
on said shaft below the surface of said liquid
and a cover disk partially covering saidinclined
blades; a shell surrounding said blades and said 55
cover disk, supported by said shaft and rotatable
therewith and extending beyond said cover disk.
in both directions, liquid outlet ports substan
tially devoid of catalyst in said shell, said im
peller and said shell being constructed and ar 60
ranged to cause said liquid and said catalyst to
?ow into said shell and to be expelled from said
shell as globules~ and mist containing catalyst
through said outlet ports into said hydrogen gas,
and means for rotating said shaft at high speeds
whereby an apparatus is provided for hydrogen
ating materials in the form of globules, droplets
and mist containing catalyst as the dispersed
phase in hydrogen gas as the continuous phase.
7. In an apparatus for hydrogenating materials 70
including vegetable and animal oils and fats,
fatty acids and the like in the liquid state in the
form of globules, spray, droplets, mist and the
outlet ports substantially devoid of catalyst .in like as the dispersed phase in a gas containing
75 each shell, said impellers and said shells being hydrogen as the continuous phase, the combina 75
ering said blades, a shell mounted on each inlet
' plate and extending past 'each cover disk, liquid
4
2,184,571‘
' tion comprising a closed reaction vessel adapted
to contain a catalyst and a liquid to be hydro
and catalyst up into said shell and expel said
liquid as globules and mist containing said cata
genated in the lower portion and hydrogen gas in lyst through said outlet ports into said hydrogen
the upper portion thereof, a vertical shaft rotat
ably mounted in said vessel and adapted to be
9. In an apparatus for hydrogenating mate
rotated‘ at high speeds, an impeller mounted on ‘ rials including vegetable and animal oils and fats,
said shaft, and a shell supported by said impeller fatty acids and the like in the liquid state in the
having liquid o'utiet'ports substantially devoid of form of globules, spray, droplets, mist and the
catalyst, said impeller and said shell being con
like as the dispersed phase in a gas containing
structed and arranged to cause a flow of said hydrogen as the continuous phase, the combina
liquid and said catalyst into said shell and to tion comprising a closed reaction vessel adapted
expel said liquid and said catalyst as globules to contain a catalyst and a liquid 'to be hydro
and mist containing catalyst through said outlet genated in the lower portion and hydrogen gas in
ports into said hydrogen gas whereby .an appa
the upper portion thereof, a shaft rotatably
-15 ratus is provided for hydrogenatin'g materials in mounted in said vessel, means for rotating said
the form of globules and mist containing catalyst shaft at high speeds, a tubular member sur
as the dispersed phase in hydrogen gas as the rounding said shaft and rotatable therewith, liq
continuous phase.
‘
uid outlet ports substantially devoid of catalyst in
8. In an apparatus for hydrogenating materials said tubular member above the surface of said
including vegetable and animal oils and fats, fatty liquid, inclined blades on the outer periphery of 20
acids and the like in the liquid state in the form said tubular member below the surface of said
of globules, spray, droplets, mist and the like as liquid and constructed and arranged to maintain
the dispersed phase in a gas containing hydrogen said catalyst in suspension in said liquid, and
gas.
as the continuous phase, the combination com
25 prising a closed reaction vessel adapted to con
tain a catalyst and a liquid to be hydrogenated
in the lower portion and hydrogen gas in the
upper portion thereof, a shaft rotatably mounted
in said vessel, means‘ for rotating said shaft at
30 high speeds, a shell surrounding said shaft and
-
,
means mounted on said shaft within said tubular
member and at least partially submerged in said 25
liquid and constructed and arranged to draw
said liquid and said catalyst into said tubular
member and expel said liquid and said catalyst as
globules and mist through said outlet ports into
rotatable therewith, liquid outlet ports in said
said gas whereby an apparatus is provided for 30
hydrogenating liquids in the form of globules con
shell above the surface of said liquid and means
mounted on said shaft within said shell in said
gen gas as the continuous phase. '
liquid and in close proximity of the surface
thereof adapted to draw a portion of said liquid
taining catalyst as the dispersed phase in hydro
EMHJ MORLCCK.
35
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