Патент USA US2134578код для вставки
‘L Get. 25, 1938. E J, REMSCHEED ' 2,134,578 INSULATING AND SEALING MEANS FOR EVACUATED DEVICES Filed Dec. 14, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet l A l nventor': . Emil J. Remscheid‘ ‘ ' b9 2/ H is . Attorneg. Get, 25, 1938, E. J. REMscHEzD 2,134,578 INSULATING AND SEALING MEANS FOR EVACUATED DEVICES Filed Dec. 1.4, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 inveint'or: Emil J. Remscheid, b 26/y W n n. ACQLi“F L»! .H 6 A e9 Patented Oct. 25, 1938 2,134,578 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2,134,573 INSULATING AND SEALING MEANS FOR EVACUATED DEVICES Emil J. Remscheid, Scotia, N. Y., assignor to General Electric Company, a corporation of New York Application December 14, 1935, Serial No. 54,522 1 Claim. (Cl. 250—27.5) My invention relates to insulating and sealing sufficiently to provide a vacuum-tight seal. Pref means for use in connection with metal recep erably the coating is of the nature of a porcelain tacles operating under widely varying tempera enamel or vitreous enamel baked on the rigid ture conditions and containing a vapor or gas 5 undera predetermined pressure, such, for ex ample, as the evacuated metal tanks of mercury arc recti?ers. The invention relates particularly to means for insulating and sealing the cathodes, and in 10 certain cases the anodes, of metal tank mercury arc rectifiers and the like, and its object'is to provide means for this purpose which are simple, of a high degree of reliability in operation, and of low cost. ’ metal ring. In usual mercury arc recti?er apparatus the anodes are sealed from the evacuated receptacle by a suitable sleeve insulator molded between an anode supporting member and a cover member of the receptacle or an extension thereof. In cer tain cases, however, particularly in those mer 10 cury arc recti?er devices of the metal tank type which have only one anode, the anode is prefer ably directly supported by and electrically con nected to a metal cover plate or similar member In the mercury arc recti?er of the iron tank which is then insulated and sealed from the type, it is usually desirable to insulate the oath ode from the metal tank, and for this purpose the mercury is placed in a metal container be low the tank and insulated and sealed therefrom. '20 It has been usual practice heretofore'to pro vide, for this insulating and sealing of the oath ode container, a large and heavy porcelain ring interposed between metal sealing surfaces of the evacuated tank. It is a feature of the present invention that prior, not entirely satisfactory ar rangements for insulating the anode cover plate, 15 tank and cathode container respectively. - To 25 insure a vacuum-tight seal, hoop-rings of metal, such as aluminum, deformable under heavy pres sure, are laid between the upper surface of the large porcelain ring and the tank surface and between the lower surface of the ring and the 30 container surface, and pressure is then applied suiiicient to deform and crush the metal hoop rings into intimate contact with the porcelain ring surfaces and the metal sealing surfaces. Dif?culties have been encountered, however, in "35 the use of the above-described cathode porcelain ring, such as breakage of the ring under the ex tremely severe conditions of heavy pressure and varying temperature incident to the operation of high power mercury arc recti?ers. The breakage 40 of the procelain ring necessitates not only a rela tively costly replacement but also the shutting down of the recti?er for a protracted period and the complete degassing of the unit in which the porcelain ring breakage occurs. 45 In accordance with the present invention the above-mentioned and other dif?culties are ob— viated by the provision, in place of the porcelain ring, of a rigid metal member or ring arranged to operate as an insulator‘ by the application to 50 its surface of a coating of insulating material, this material being of such characteristics, how= ever, that the coating not only acts e?ectively as such for example, as mercury seals, are dispensed with, and the insulating and sealing of the anode plate is simply and ef?ciently accomplished by coating the plate with the vitreous material above described, metal hoop-rings which are in terposed between the coating and a sealing sur face of the metal tank being deformed under 25 heavy pressure to form the seal. My invention will be better understood from the following description when considered in con nection with the accompanying drawings and its scope will be set forth in the appended claim. Referring to the drawings, Fig. l is an ele vational view, partially in section, of a mercury arc recti?er or the like of the metal tank type, in which a cathode insulating and sealing means in accordance with my invention has been em bodied; Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional view of a portion of a mercury arc recti?er embodying a cathode insulator and seal in accordance with my invention, and Fig. 3 is an elevational view. partially in section, of a single anode mercury arc recti?er in which an anode insulating and sealing means in accordance with my invention has been embodied. In Fig. 1 the numeral l0 designates a device comprising a metal receptacle or tank H con taining a medium under a predetermined pres“ sure, this device in the present embodiment of the invention being shown for illustrative pur~ poses as a mercury arc recti?er of the multi— an insulator but is able to withstand without anode, evacuated metal tank, mercury pool type having an opening l2 in the lower portion of the tank, below which opening is mounted a metal member [3 constituting a cathode con cracking, peeling or other damage, the heavy 55 pressure required to deform the metal hoop-rings tainer. To aid in sealing the opening l2, instead of the usual porcelain ring I provide a rigid ring 2 2,134,579 M, which may be in form and size substantially the same as the porcelain ring, but which is formed of metal, preferably steel. The ring may be of substantially square cross section as shown C71. in Fig. 1, or may be of other suitable section, for example, the rectangular section shown at IS in Fig. 2. Hoop rings l6, preferably two, of rela~ tively small cross-section and formed of alumi— num or other metal deformable under heavy 10 pressure are laid between the ring I4 or l5 and a metal sealing surface I‘! of the receptacle H, and a similar pair of hoop rings l8 are laid be tween the rings 14 or l5 and a metal sealing surface i9 of the cathode container [3. To insulate the cathode container I3 from the receptacle ll the rigid metal rings, M or l5, are provided with a coating 20 (clearly indicated in Fig. 2) of insulating material, which in the pres ent embodiment of the invention is a porcelain enamel or vitreous enamel preferably having sub stantially the composition: 8.6% feldspar, 30.4% borax, 31% silica, 3.7% sodium nitrate, 4% soda ash, 22.3% calcium carbonate, 1% cobalt oxide, and 1% nickel oxide. Preferably the ring is given two coats of the enamel, the first coat being baked on at a furnace temperature of approxi mately 830° C. the second coat then being applied, and baked on at the above temperature. After the second coat the insulating surface is given a high potential test, for example, of 3000 volts. If desirable a third and possibly a fourth coating of the enamel may be given the ring, all coat ings being kept relatively light to insure a smooth surface. When the insulation coated metal rings M or £5 and the hoop-rings l6 and [8 are in position in the apparatus 10, the cathode container [3 is drawn upwardly toward the receptacle I l by suit able means such as bolts 2 l , causing a heavy pres iii) sure to be exerted upon the hoop-rings between the enamel surfaces 20 and the metal sealing surfaces IT and i 9, thereby deforming and crush ing the hoop-rings to form a vacuum-tight seal. The hoop-rings, being of relatively small cross section, present to the enamel coating a re1a~ tively small area of contact per unit length. Nevertheless, I have found that the relatively thin enamel coating withstands, without crushing, the heavy pressure concentrated along the small area 5; 3 and required to deform and ?atten the hoop rings. I have found that in operation of the mercury arc recti?er apparatus illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, the insulating and sealing means, comprising the enamel coated rigid steel rings, 14 or l5, and the aluminum hoop-rings l6, [8 held under heavy pressure between the enamel coating 20 and the metal surfaces 11 and I9, maintains a high vac uum in the tank H and at the same time with stands the severe expansion and contraction ef fects due to the relatively large temperature var iations incident to the operation of the recti?er. The cathode insulating and sealing means illus trated in Fig. 1 therefore retains all the advan tages of the prior means which included the por celain ring. Further, however, since the rings M or I5 are of steel instead of the fragile porcelain, breakage of the ring, and the attendant above described expense, is entirely prevented, and the life of the cathode insulating and sealing portion 1O of the apparatus is practically unlimited. In Fig. 3, the numeral 22 indicates a mercury arc recti?er or like device comprising a metal receptacle or tank 23 and having only one anode 24, which is supported by the tank cover plate 25. Preferably the anode is directly connected to the 15 plate 25 as by screwing the anode to a metal stud 26 which may be welded to the plate. To insulate from the metal tank 23 the anode 24, thus electrically connected to cover plate 25, the plate 25 is provided at least on its under surface 21 with an enamel coating 28 as described in con nection with Figs. 1 and 2. To seal the anode, attached to cover plate 25, hoop-rings 29, similar to hoop-rings l6, l8, are interposed between the enamel coating 28 and the metal sealing surface 30 of the tank 23, and heavy pressure is applied to cover plate 25, as by bolts 3|, to deform and crush the hoop-rings 29 into intimate contact with the coating 28 and the surface 30. The operation of the anode insulating and seal 30 ing means illustrated in Fig. 3 will be readily understood by reference to the description of operation of the cathode insulating and sealing means of Figs. 1 and 2. My invention has been described herein in par C13 Cl ticular embodiments for purposes of illustration. It is to be understood, however, that the inven tion is susceptible of various changes and modi ?cations and that by the appended claim I in tend to cover any such modi?cations as fall 40 Within the true spirit and scope of my invention. What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is: In an arc discharge apparatus comprising an evacuated metal receptacle and an electrode, means to insulate and to seal said electrode from said receptacle including a metal member, a seal ing ring of metal deformable only under rela tively heavy pressure, a thin coating of vitreous enamel on said metal member including approxi- , mately 8.6% feldspar, 30.4% borax, 31% silica, 3.7% sodium nitrate, 4% soda ash, 22.3% calcium carbonate, 1% cobalt oxide, and 1% nickel oxide, said sealing ring being interposed between said coating and a metal sealing surface of said appa ratus, and means to press said ring between said coating and said sealing surface to deform sub stantially said ring, thereby to form a vacuum tight seal between said metal member and said sealing surface. 60 EMIL J. REMSCHEID.