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Патент USA US2134588

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Oct. 25, 1938.
' A. E. s'rAcEY, JR
Filed NOV. 12, 1934
3 Sheets-Sheet l
ALFRED Eowuv Smczv J2.
Oct; 25, 1938'.
.Filed Nov. 12, 1934
3 Sheets-Sheet 2
ALFRED Eoww STACEY ‘1a.’; ‘_ BY
x): .
Oct. 25, 1938.
' Filed Nov.‘ 12, 1954
s Sheets-Sheet is
41%;‘. 431/
Patented Oct. 25, 1938
RAILROAD chasm ms'ramnrma srs'rmu
Alfred E. Stacey, Jr., Essex Fells, N. J.,
by mesne assignments, to Carrier, Corporation,
Newark, N. L, a corporation of Delaware
Application November 12, 1934, Serial No. 752,548
6012111118. (01. 98-5)
are made up and the car interior presents sub
stantially a single free area.
This invention relates to air conditioning sys
tems for railway cars and more particularly to
object of the invention is to provide
methods‘ of and apparatus for distributing air ' forAnother
distributing conditioned air within a sleep
in sleeping cars, or cars where a plurality of
5- con?ned areas are provided for the use of passengers.
ing car or the like through a series of ducts 5
positioned within or in connection with existing
The general object ‘of the invention is to pro-
partitions between adjacent sections vor berth
vide for e?icient and adequate distribution of'
areas. As a msult, the ducts will be accommo
conditioned air in compartment, berth and aisle
dated within or as part of existing structural
10 areas of sleeping cars so that the full bene?t elements, and hence, will not mar the appear- 10
of" the conditioned air may be made available ance or interfere with the scheme of interior
to the occupants, regardless of impediments to decoration of the can
free circulation. In passenger cars generally,Another object of the invention is to utilize
where conditioning systems are employed more
the conventional steam coils positioned at the
15* especially for b day time use, the interior of the
car is usually one free area. This is true or
?oor level and along the sides of the car, in com- 15
bination with an enclosing duct and branch Sup
-coaches and, except for compartments, also 6?
Pullman ‘type cars. The air may be introduced
without regard to partitions or impediments tov
20 free circulation, because no such impediments
exist. Thus, the air may be introduced in the
upper part of the car, above the zone of occupancy, and will then ?lter‘ down into the passenger occupancy area. Normally, especially
25 under summer operating conditions when it is
desirable to introduce air at a temperature below
that of the atmosphere in the car, the air will
be discharged from a central source of supply
- through outlets located adjacent the ceiling area.
30 The distribution is such that the relatively cold
' Ply Conduits, whereby the 00115 may hellsed under
winter operating conditions to heat air circulat
ins within the" duct, and the duct utilized
throughout the year for distributing conditioned 20
air to the car. The duct may be arranged with
suitable ports to enable heating of thecar to
be carried on in winter by natural air circula
tion due to convection, the steam coils alone be-.
ins used if desired; whereas in the summer time as
the duct would be supplied with all‘ from any
suitable conditioning and air handling apparatus.
A feature of the invention resides in the pro
vision of a plurality of Outlets arranged to dis
tribute air ~ to pro “08 eqllable, conditions 30
and dehumidi?ed air will reach the zone or oc- throughout a car interior during non-Sleeping >
cupancy in comfortable condition and be dis- ' Periods. when ‘the berths are made up
tributed equally free from streaks or drafts. In
Another feature of the invention resides in
a; sleeping car, however, the provision of cur- 'the provision of volume and directional con
35 tained areas, and of- upper and lower compart- trolled devices whereby the quantity and direc- 35
ment areas, make the problem of mil-1
and tion of discharge of air may be Suitably regu
controlled distribution a di?icult one embracing lated in accordance with demands. of di?erent
special factors not found in the open area or
parts of the car or the desires of passengers
non-sleeping cars.
accommodated therein.
Applicant's solution provides for distributing
controlled Volumes of air to lower berth. upper
berth, compartment, and aisle areas, so that the
benefits of air conditioning, with respect to proauction and mamte of desired tempem_
45 tum, relative humidmes, and an. motion’ will
Another feature embraces the provision of ?ex- so
ible conduits or duct structures adapted to be
removably connected to aeisource of air supply.
These ?exible ducts may be} mad‘? of textile ma‘
terial arranged as non-collapsible‘ structures.
Theirdetachable character enables them to be 45
be available to all parts of the can regardless placed in desired positiolrli touserve liiswerygerth
of barriers to free circulation of air within the
car inten-or
A further object of the invention is to provide
a‘ system of air
or compartment area's W en
e car
ma‘ e up
for sleeping purposes, and to be taken down
when the curtains are removed and the car made
up during nomsleepmg periods
distribution which
will he ca-
A further feature resides
in ' the provision
Dave of effective use not ‘ml? when the car is
divided up into con?ned areas enclosing upper
outlets which may serve for direct introduction
of air into the car during nomsleepmg periods,
91nd 10W?!‘ berths, but which will be equally e?ec55 tlve ‘11111318 non-Sleeping Periods, when the berths
and as receptacles for branch ducts into which
they will discharge air for distribution into des- 55
ignated berths when the car is made up for
sleeping purposes. The outlets, therefore, serve
a double purpose and, additionally, provide for
directing and throttling air quantities discharged
Another feature of the invention resides in the
provision of a duct serving as ‘an enclosure for
steam coils running along the side of the car at
the ?oor level, and means including slides or the
10 like for enabling air from the car to circulate by
convection in contact with the coils and then
out into the car again.
Another feature resides in the provision of a
supply duct serving as an enclosure for steam
15 coils, in combination with a plurality of branch
distributing ducts connecting to the supply ducts,
the distributing ducts being positioned upon or
constituting passages constructed integrally with
permanent partitions or structural members of
20 the car.
Another feature resides in the preservation of
8 supplies conditioned air from any desired
source, such as a cooling unit or air washer. The
duct runs longitudinally of the car on the out
side thereof and therefore does not mar the in
terior appearance thereof.
However, the posi
tition of duct 8 forms no part of the invention,
and if desired, a source of supply from a condi
tioning means may be otherwise suitably posi
tioned as in the monitor area 9. An upper berth
l0 and lower berth I l are divided by the usual 10
partition l2 which provides a bed support for
mattress and bedding l3, when the car is made
up for sleeping purposes. In non-sleeping pe
riods, partition [2 is thrown upwardly against
the side of the car, in the usual manner. Seat 15
l4, during sleeping periods, also serves as the
usual bed support, when made up as a berth.
Railing l5 serves as a support for curtains l6
which may be suitably designed to give individual
con?nement and privacy both to upper and lower 20
the conventional appearance'of the car interior,
Between rail l5 and the side of monitor 9, is
and the avoidance of unsightly structure tending , the usual opening which communicates with the
to mar the interior decorative e?’ect, either dur
aisle area. Air from the aisle delivered through
25 ing sleeping or day time periods.
outlet I‘! thus enters the upper berth, as shown
A further feature covers the use of a combi
by the arrows. Air for the lower berth is pro
nation outlet and socket, which normally re
vided from duct 8 through ?exible conduit or
tains an air discharge port in closed position, duct it. As best shown in Fig. 2, the duct has
but which opens against tension responsive vto sides l9 made of canvas or suitable textile ma
30 insertion therein of a duct structure or the like
terial having stiffening means 20 to prevent col
whereupon a measured quantity of air will be lapse. One end of the conduit has a nozzle 2|
directed within the duct structure.
of metal, ?bre or other stiff material. The noz
Another feature enables the occupant of a zle ?ts within the duct 8 of Fig. 1 or 8a of Fig. 3.
berth or compartment area to control the vol
The duct may have a suitable socket such as 22
35 ume of air admitted to said area from a source in which the nozzle 2| is snugly received. The
of supply fed to the area through a ?exible duct. duct is of such length that the discharge end
Other objects and features, making for sim
terminates adjacent the head portion of the.
plicity, economy and e?'ectiveness of air distri
lower berth, as shown in Fig. 1. With the nozzle
bution in passenger cars, will be more apparent 2| ?tted within a suitable socket, the length of
40 from the following description of a typical ap-‘ the duct is ?xed so that discharge opening 23
plication of the invention, to be read in connec
will admit air to the lower berth between the
tion with the accompanying drawings, in which: mattress supporting portion l4 and division l2 at
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary cross-section of a sleep
any desired point along the length of the berth.
ing car, showing applicant’s method of distribut
As shown in Fig. 2 ?aps 24 or the like suit
45 ing air to aisle and berth sections;
ably hinged at 25 may be raised or lowered to 45
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view of a ?exible fab
admit more or less air into the berth. Fastening
ric duct mounted over an upper berth rail, with
cord 26 may be manipulated to set the flap in
connecting means to the source of supply and any desired position. A vslide or other device
discharge outlet ‘adapted to‘serve a lower berth; may be substituted for the ?ap to enable the
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary section of a supply duct occupant to regulate the volume of air delivered.
?tted with a connection for receiving the socket
During non-sleeping periods when the curtains 50
end of a ?exible branchwconduit;
are removed, the ?exible ducts I8 may be col
Fig. 4 is a plan view of a ceiling outlet;
lapsed and stored away with the bedding. In
Fig. 5 is a section on the line 5-5 of Fig. 4;
such event, the nozzle is removed from the sup
Fig. 6 illustrates a distributing duct formed as ply duct and the sti?'ening members 20 adjusted
Part of a side member ‘positioned between adja
to allow the duct to collapse.
cent berth sections;
In the showing of Fig. 3, where duct 8a is em
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic fragmentary plan, ployed, the insertion of nozzle 2| raises cover 21,
view of two ‘adjacent berth sections equipped thus permitting air to enter duct I9. The cover
60 with the distributing duct arrangement of Fig. 6;
swings on hinge 28, and upon removal of the
Fig. 8 is a plan View in section of a distributing nozzle, will return to normally closed position 60
ductjocated within a partition structure separat
under the in?uence of spring 29.
ing adjacent berth sections; and ‘
As may be noted from the showing of Fig. 3,
Fig. 9 is a diagrammatic sectional view of an
duct 8a may be positioned, as in the monitor
65 other modi?cation of the invention in which the
space, above the aisle area; and the removable
conventional‘steam coils utilized for heating a nozzles may. swing directly down into the aisle 05
car are combined with an enclosing duct and
adjacent to the curtains, instead of in the man
branch distributing conduits adapted for use ner. shown in Fig. 1. If desired, hooks may be
throughout all seasons of the year.
provided for removably attaching the ducts l8 to
Considering the drawings, similar designations the curtains, or the ducts may be permanently
referring to similar parts, numeral 1 represents affixed to portions of the curtain where the 70
a sleeping car or the like having a number of shifting of the outlet 23 to different positions is
enclosed areas, such as compartments or upper
and lower sections made up into berths and sub
75 stantially enclosed by curtains. In Fig. 1, duct
of no moment. The outlet 23 is so arranged
with respect to the curtain that the curtain com
pletely encloses the opening or encompasses the
duct so that complete-privacy is assured not only
with respect to the aisle area but also from the
, ‘upper berth.
The aislé and upper berth areas are suitably
in. served by main supply ducts such as 8 or ta.
through outlet H. In Fig. l, the outlet H is
shown connected with duct 8 through branch 30.
The outlet, in the case of duct to, could be di
rectly connected to the main source of condi
10 tioned’air supply.
both sections. The outlets are preferably indi
vidually adjustable, so that each occupant may
meter the quantity of air discharged into each
section. The ends of duct 43 may be designed
to carry lights t5, so that the same structural
member will be utilized for supporting both air
conditioning and illuminating means. This
method of air distribution not only preserves the
appearance of the car interior, but also does not
encroach upon and hence, does not shorten the 10
As shown in Fig. 4, outlet W is provided with - useful length of the berths.
In Fig. 8, duct d6 comprises the interior of par
a perforated portion 3| through which air may
tition t‘l between adjacent berth sections. Ceil
7 be diffused downwardly into the car and also has
side outlets 32. The air enters through inlet 32a ing partition d8 separates the duct section of the
and is then di?used downwardly through 3! and partition from that part which accommodates the
laterally through outlets 32. Rotating drum 33 slide section 59 which is used during sleeping
moves within outer stationary drum til. periods to complete the separation of one area
" Mounted on distributor plates 35 is one arm 36
hinged to drum $3 at 31! and another arm 33
20 protruding through outlet 32 and hinged ‘to the
drum 33 at 39.
The two arms are linked to
‘from the other; The duct as .in the case of duct
élii, is supplied with conditioned air from duct 8
which is discharged within the areas‘through 20
outlets tit, serving each area and suitably posi
gether by arm 4W through pivots iii and 632. By , "tioned at a level below that occupied by parti
moving drum '33 with respect to drum M, by tion it when the upper berth is made up. While
means of arms 38, the size of opening 372 may be the interior of the partition is shown as a duct, an
regulated as well as the direction of discharge independent duct structure may be enclosed with
in the partition in those instances where it is
of the air through outlets 32.
When the‘ car is used during non-sleeping pe-v impractical to have section M serve as an air
tight passageway.
riods, the outlets M will distribute the air di
In Fig. 9, the supply duct till, serves as an
rectly into the car area, which then comprises
However, enclosure for the present conventional steam 30'
30 substantially one single enclosure.
when the berths are made up, the air from outlet coils bib. extending along the sides of the car at
ill will be unable to serve the lower berths, due the ?oor level. Under summer operating condi
to the curtained areas.
Then, the removable
tions, air from any desired conditioning and air
collapsible ducts will meet the methods of air handling apparatus, will be sent through duct M
conditioning the enclosed areas, by effective dis , and be discharged into the car through branch 35
tribution forming no part of the distributing sys 5' supply ducts 43 which may be of the type and
construction illustrated in Figs. 6 and 7. Or, if
tem during daytime use.
Many sleeping cars as now designed, are pro-I preferred, the air may be suitably supplied to and
vvided with partitions permanentlyf'rln place be distributed from, passages such as M, in partitions
illustrated in Fig. 8. The various branch supply
40 tween sections of the car, to afford greater privacy
to the occupants of each section during the day, ducts may terminate at different levels, and be
their function during sleeping’ periods‘ being
identical with that of the customary removable
partitions. While desirable for such purposes,
45 these permanent partitions impede the free cir
culation of air throughout the car, and give rise to
problems of air distribution within said areas and
between said areas and the rest of the car.
while in the conventional open type car, the prob
50 lem of air distribution within restricted areas
arises during periods when the berths are made
up, in cars of the partitioned or sectionalized type,
the problem of distribution arises during non
sleeping' periods, too.
Figs. 6, 7 and 8 illustrate methods of air dis
tribution within a railroad car particularly ap
plicable but not limited to sectional type sleeping
cars. As illustrated, the distributing ducts which
suitably equipped with outlets 52 corresponding
to outlets Mi of Figs. 6-8. Under winter operating
conditionaconditioned air may similarly be dis
tributed through duct 50) and distributing con
duits 52,7the coils ‘being utilized to heat the air.
If it is desired to eliminate the use of condition
ing and air handling ‘apparatus in winter, slide
53 may be set in open position, so that air will
circulate by convection from the car, in contact 50
with the coils, and back into the car through out
lets 52. Or, if slide 54 is opened in addition to
slide 53, a natural circulation in contact with the
coils will be carried on through the two openings
in the same way as heating now'takes place with 55
the coils exposed or surrounded by a grill.
While specific embodiments .of the duct, nozzle,
and distributingv means have been illustrated
supply air to the restricted areas are permanently , herein, no limitation on the manner of carrying
60 in place, forming part of the car interior and
capable of functioning ‘during sleeping and non
sleeping periods.
out the invention is implied thereby, applicant 60
reserving to himself such alternatives as may
be utilized in providing structures of the char
Duct 43, of sheet metal or other suitable ma- . acter and for the purposes as set forth herein.
terial, is in Figs. 6 and '7 attached to and may be
The duct suitably
connects with supply duct’B and extends to a point
65 ‘part of frame member 53a.
Similarly, while supply duct 8 is shown outside
the car between the roof and monitor sections, ap 65
plicant reserves the right to provide a central
just below partition I! which separates the upper
supply duct,wlthin the car or, as shown, about
and lower berth areas. The conditioned air is dis
charged to' the lower berth area through outlet 44
which may be of the general type described in
the steam coils at the ?oor level of the car, or, if
desirable, suitably to accommodate such a duct
copending application‘ Serial No. 624,956, ?led
July 27, 1932, or may
under the car.
‘I claim:
of any other suitable
1. In combination with a sleeping car, a. supply
design.v As illustrated in Fig. 7, the duct is posi
tioned between two adjacent sections, ‘so that
duct, an outlet from the supply duct leading to
75 outlets 44 served by the one duct 43 may serve
the interior of the car, a removable distributing
duct having means at one end for ?tting within 75
the outlet, the distributing duct being made of
?exible material capable of being collapsed dur
ing non-sleeping periods, stiffening members for
opening the distributing duct into non-collapsible
position during sleeping periods, the distributing
duct being removable from the outlet during non
sleeping periods and connected to the outlet dur
ing sleeping periods, the distributing duct being
arranged to ?t adjacent a curtain of a berth area,
10 the discharge end of the distributing duct having
means in connection therewith for controlling
the volume of air entering the berth area.
2. In a sleeping car, a berth area, a curtain for
separating the area from the remainder of the
15 car, a duct for supplying air to said area, the duct
being integral with the curtain.
3. In a railroad car, a supply duct, a ?rst berth
area, a second berth area, a partition between the
areas, a slide adapted to ?t within one part of the
prising a plurality of arms pivotally connected to
said rotatable member, the air from said ports
being discharged substantially in a horizontal di
rection, and means for discharging air from the
outlet ?xture downwardly through a discharge
means independent of the ports.
5. In an air distribution system, an outlet ?x
ture comprising a plurality of members, one of
which is rotatable, a plurality of ports for dis
charging air from the outlet ?xture, said mem 10
bers being formed and arranged in such manner
that the rotation of said rotatable member varies
the size of said ports, and means for variably con
trolling the direction of discharge of air from
said ports, said means including a ?rst arm piv 15
otally mounted on said rotatable member, a sec—
ond arm pivotally mounted on said rotatable
member, and a bar pivotally connected to each
of said arms.
20 partition and be withdrawn therefrom, a passage
way for air in another part of the partition, means
for supplying air from the supply duct to said
passageway in the partition, and means for dis
charging air from the passageway into a berth
25 area.
4. In an air distribution system of the charac
ter described, an outlet ?xture including a plu
rality of members, one of which is rotatable, a
6. In an air distribution system of the charac 20
ter described, an outlet ?xture including a plu
rality of members, one of which is rotatable, a
plurality of ports for discharging air from the out
let ?xture, the size of said ports being varied re
sponsive to the rotation of said rotatable mem 25
ber, and means variably controlling the direction
of discharge of air from said ports, said means
plurality of ports vfor discharging air from the
nected to said rotatable member, air from said
ports being discharged substantially in a horizon 30
30 outlet ?xture, the size of said ports being varied
responsive to the rotation of said rotatable mem
ber, means variably controlling the direction of
discharge of air from said ports, said means com
comprising a plurality of ' arms pivotally con
tal direction.
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